Beech Creek, Clearfield & Western / Big Four / Boston & Albany / Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw / Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland / Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis / Fall Brook Coal Company / Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville / Hudson River / Lake Shore & Michigan Southern / New York Central / New York Central & Hudson River / New York, West Shore & Buffalo / Northern Adirondack / Pittsburgh & Lake Erie / St Lawrence & Adirondack / Toledo & Ohio Central / Wallkill Valley 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1/C-19 (Locobase 15992)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp121.gif . Works numbers were 2307-2308 in 1887.

Relatively large boiler for the grate area in these freight engines,which operated on the WV between Montgomery and Livingston. Neither of these engines stayed on the New York Central very long. The 700 went to the South Carolina & Georgia in 1901.


Class 11 / Q-6 (Locobase 11637)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines, 1888, as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 15, p. 142. Works numbers were 10163-10164 in August 1889.

Originally chartered as the Fort Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati, this railroad connected Muncie, Ind to Fort Wayne. In 1901, it was taken over by the Lake Erie & Western, which later rolled into the New York Central system.


Class 13 (Locobase 11106)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 6-7. Works number was 4394 in 1895.


Class 205/C-36a (Locobase 5713)

Data from "Eight-Wheeled Passenger Locomotives for the Boston & Albany Railroad", American Engineer & Railroad Journal (AERJ), Vol LVIII, No 11 (November 1894), p. 493; and NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 4220 and 4219 in September 1894.

Designed to pull six "Wagner" cars (vestibuled and heavy) over the Berkshires without helpers, The schedule demanded a running time of 183 minutes over 103 miles (33.7 mph average) over a profile that included 8 miles of 1.5% ascent eastbound and a steeper grade for 12 miles westbound.

The design was also limited by a maximum weight on drivers of 74,000 lb and lighter-weight components including a hollow crank pin were designed to meet that requirement. The AERJ also noted that the lower weights would also reduce hammer-blow. AERJ's surmise that the total heating surface was about as large as feasible for an Eight-wheeler was correct for the time and only a series of French designs ever had larger boilers at such adhesion weights.

Renumbered by the New York Central in 1900. In that same period, these engines saw their tubes lengthened by six inches (152 mm), which increased the tube heating surface area to 1,794 sq ft (166.65 sq m). This extension combined with the addition of 15 sq ft of arch tubes, which increased firebox heating surface area to 156 sq ft, to increase evaporative heating surface area to 1,950 sq ft (181.15 sq m).

The 1159 was rebuilt by the Boston & Albany in 1913 and redesignated C-36c.

The 228 went to the scrapyard in March 1919 while the refurbished 229 lasted another seven years before meeting the ferro-knacker in April 1926.


Class 208/C-37 (Locobase 11109)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 10-11. Works numbers were 4410-4413 in 1896.

Virtually identical to the Fitchburg locomotive from the same catalogue and shown in Locobase 11108, this design had somewhat smaller drivers and a 1"smaller cylinder diameter. Adhesion weight also came in slightly lower.


Class 216 (Locobase 15824)

Data from diagram from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966) supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

This predecessor to the Big Four was formed in 1866 from several earlier roads--Cincinnati, Dayton & Eastern; Sandusky & Cincinnati; and Sandusky City & Indiana. In 1876, the line consisted of the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad opened in December 1854 (Sandusky to Tiffin, Ohio (34.1 miles/54.9 km)) and the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad (Tiffin to Dayton, Ohio (120.3 miles/193.7 km)) opened in January 1851.

In 1890, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Big Four) leased the CS&C; but the railroad retained its separate identity.


Class 232 (Locobase 10075)

Data from "Report of the Committee on the Best Form of Construction of Locomotives for Fast Passenger Trains", Report of the Proceedings of the ... Annual Convention of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association (American Railway Master Mechanics' Association, 1881), p. 69.

Mr. A B Underhill, the B & A's Superintendent of Motive Power, commented on he found necessary for express trains. As reported, he said "... the average speed of express trains on their road is 40 miles per hour, each train having from 6 to 8 coaches, about one-third of which are drawing-room cars. Average weight of drawing-room car, 68,000 pounds; weight of coach, 46,000 pounds, carrying 70 passengers each. [Underhill]has had no experience with single driver locomotives, and judging from what he has learned of the performance of that class of engines, is not very favorably impressed."

Locobase deduces from an 1884 (with 1887 revisions) roster supplied to Allen Stanley in 2011 by Seth Bransom from the collection of Al Weber that the locomotives to which Underhill referred was a group of home-built Eight-wheelers. All have the same power dimensions and are listed as 34 tonners, which fits closely with the given engine weight.

All were named as shown in the following list:

Year Number Name 1887 Shed

1873 232 Stickney Springfield

1873 233 Denny Springfield

1874 239 Colt Albany

1874 240 Campbell Albany

1874 241 Sargent Albany

1874 242 Crocker Springfield

1875 243 Gillette Albany

1875 244 Kimball Springfield

1876 44 Tobey Albany

1877 32 Barnes Springfield

Most of the class was off the roster before 1893.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class 37 (Locobase 15823)

Data from Taunton builder's list compiled by Robert Lehmuth and diagram from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966), both supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

This predecessor to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Big Four) was formed in 1866 from several earlier roads--Cincinnati, Dayton & Eastern; Sandusky & Cincinnati; and Sandusky City & Indiana. In 1876, the line consisted of the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad opened in December 1854 (Sandusky to Tiffin, Ohio (34.1 miles/54.9 km)) and the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad (Tiffin to Dayton, Ohio (120.3 miles/193.7 km)) opened in January 1851.

After the Big Four leased the CS&C in 1890, it rebuilt the 37 in 1898 and placed in class C-64. 38 fell into a variegated group of older 4-4-0s classified as Cx and was renumbered 7006.


Class 6 (Locobase 12990)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 29, p. 137. Works number was 28735 in August 1906.

Admittedly small for a standard-gauge Eight-wheeler of the 19nought decade, the 6 had even a shorter career than might have been expected on this Michigan short line. It was scrapped in September 1924.


Class A / C-15 (Locobase 5236)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp96.gif (visited December 2002). Built before many of the other 4-4-0 classes, this anthracite-burning quintet had an unusually shallow firebox with a wide grate. Also, these engines had very small boilers for their cylinder volume.

C-15As (3 of the 5) had 70" drivers.

Many more of this basic design were built with the narrow, deep firebox. See Locobase 5240.


Class A / C-4 (Locobase 5226)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp91.gif (visited December 2002). One of the oldest classes to appear on that roster, these engines sit firmly in the post-Civil War era of locomotive design. Some were built by Schenectady, others by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany.


Class A-1 / C-5/C-5A (Locobase 5227)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp91.gif (visited December 2002). A successor to the C-4, these continued the line of narrow-grate Americans. Differences included cylinders an inch larger in diameter (18"), more firetubes, but a smaller grate (except for 960, which had a wider grate that amounted to 20 sq ft in area.). Some were built by Schenectady, others by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany.

The single C-5A was identical except for its 73" drivers.


Class A-1x / C-6 (Locobase 5228)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp95.gif (visited December 2002). Continuing the line of 70"-drivered Americans, this class reproduced the C-5 dimensions with these differences: a shallower firebox, but larger boiler diameter. I'm guessing they were going for more steam-making room

Some were built by Schenectady, others by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany. Several had "Rome" as a builder, but I'm not sure if that was Rome shops or the Rome Locomotive Works.


Class A-2 / C-7 (Locobase 5229)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp97.gif (visited December 2002). A smaller American than the 70" mainliners, I suspect these were branch-line engines.

Built by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany.


Class Adirondack (Locobase 13517)

Data from "Trial of Engines on Boston & Albany RR", Locomotive Engineers Journal, Volume IX, No 10 (October 1875), p. 541..

Locobase 13516 describes the trials run between this locomotive and the Mogul named Brown. Most of the trials were run between the Adirondack, which had the same driver diameters and power dimensions, and the Brown. Both of the Eight-wheelers were designed by the B & A's Master Mechanic Wilson Eddy, a well-known locomotive builder of his day. (See Locobase 13519 for a discussion of Eddy's design philosophy, much of which is evident in our description of both Eddy engines here and in Locobase 13517.)

Both of the Eight-wheelers had straight boilers "...without dome, with perforated pipe, throttle valve in smoke box." The author considered that the "distinctive difference" lay in shorter ports that measured only 10 in long and 1 1/4 in wide. The author also points out that "...the Springfield [i.e., those produced by Eddy in the B & A's Springfield shops] boiler is known to be a free and liberal steamer with ample steam room. The furnace [i.e. firebox] is wider and shorter", according to the report, which gives the dimensions as 65 3/4" long for the Mogul vs 54" for the Eight-wheelers and 35" wide in the Mogul vs 41 1/2" wide in the Eight-wheeler.

The squarer firebox "...brings all parts of it withing reach of the fireman, so that he can put the coal where he wants to, without throwing it."

But there was more. The perforated steam pipe (vs the prominent steam dome) "..which takes steam from and directly over the point where it is made, is supposed to have considerable effect upon the dryness of the steam used." Furthermore, bringing the steam forward to the throttle in the firebox, which was "as close as possible to the cylinders" allowed the steam "to accumulate in the pipes and chest to a higher pressure during the interval when both valves are closed."

This convergence of practices in steam-circuit design was "...believed to act favorably on the economic expansion of the steam."

It's not clear if the Catskill (road 223), which was built with the same basic dimensions as the Adirondack, had all of the features mentioned in this entry.


Class B // C-17/C-17A (Locobase 5240)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp117.gif (visited December 2002). See also Matthias Nace Forney, Locomotives and locomotive building: being a brief sketch of the growth of Rogers Locomotive Works, pp. 80-92 and American Machinist, Volume 6, No 49 (1 December 1883), pp 1-2. Rogers works numbers were 3150-3158 in December 1882.

Built to the same dimensions as the anthracite-burning shallow-firebox C-15s (Locobase 5236), this much larger aggregation had the more typical narrow firebox. The American Machinist's report commented on the luxury afforded to the recently deceased Howard Fry, the railroad's chief of motive power:

"It is seldom that the mechanical head of a railroad company enjoys the privilege of having his motive power prepared ahead for heavy traffic. Where railroads increase by annual sections, and the travel augments in like proportion, the locomotives are apt to grow in size just a little behind the business, the consequence being that the trains are habitually too heavy or too fast for the engines that pull them."

What Fry accomplished by thinking ahead unfolds in the next few sentences:

"These engines start out at nearly the maximum weight, which locomotive designers have thus far found practicable for high-speed locomotives. The engines are calculated to take a train of twelve of our heaviest coaches over a level track at a speed of forty-five miles an hour.

"When a demand for higher speed arises, the weight of trains will have to be reduced, and

when they are made light enough the engine can maintain a speed of sixty-five or seventy

miles an hour."

As and Bs were used in July 1885 to set what Chief Train Dispatcher W H Wheatly proclaimed was "...the fastest run ever made in the United States and Canada, and I doubt if it ever has beeen equalled in the world." Wheatly was boasting of a 202-mile run from Buffalo to Frankfort that was made in a running time of 205 miles. The entire 426.6 miles was covered in a little over 9 hours including stops.

When they were renumbered in 1899, the class was divided between 30C-17s, with 69" drivers (62" centers) and the 37 C-17As, which had the alternate 70" wheels (63" centers). (Three of the 70 were sold to the Norfolk Southern Railway before the 1899 renumbering.)


Class B-1 / C-10 (Locobase 5232)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp101.gif (visited December 2002).

Notice the spread between driving axles as the designers increased the boiler size. Firebox was slightly larger than earlier Americans, but not by much. The Rome works built 4 of the locomotives still in service in 1902, Schenectady the other 12 in the series.


Class B/C-38 (Locobase 14264)

Data from "Eight-Wheel Passenger Locomotive," American Engineer and Railroad Journal Vol , 74, No 4 (April 1900), p.120; and NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 5387-5392 in January 1900.

At a time when most express passenger locomotives with such large boilers were being delivered as Atlantics (4-4-2), this sextet of Eight-wheelers emerged from Schenectady. The AERJ reported that the 289 was intended to pull heavy expresses between Springfield and Boston. Given the constraints of fitting the firebox between the drivers (a limitation the 4-4-2 addressed by moving the drivers ahead of the firebox), the builder pitched the boiler quite high and achieved a depth at the front of nearly 80 inches.

All but 249 were rebuilt by the B&A in 1919 (four) and 1920 (252). 249 was scrapped in December 1926. The others lasted a few years more before being dismantled in May (253) and August (251) 1929, July 1930 (252), May 1931 (250), and September 1934 (254).


Class Buck Mountain/C-X (Locobase 14563)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 345. Works number was 1308 in 1884.


Class C-16/C-16A (Locobase 5237)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp113.gif (visited December 2002). As the NY&HRR moved toward the 20th Century, traffic demands sparked a growth in locomotive size. This class, while not possessing particularly big boilers, saw increases both in grate area and in adhesion weight. The 4 C-16As were identical except for their 70" drivers.

The 1902 guide shows only 7 locomotives, most with building dates that reflect a rebuilding program in the mid-1890s.


Class C-16B/C-16C (Locobase 5238)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp115.gif (visited December 2002). These may be the soft-coal burning equivalents of the C-16s; the former's fireboxes were much deeper and narrower. The 7 C-16Cs were identical except for their 70" drivers.

The 1902 guide shows only 7 locomotives, most with building dates that reflect a rebuilding program in the mid-1890s.


Class C-18/C-18A (Locobase 5239)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp119.gif (visited December 2002).

Similar to the earlier C-17s, but built a few years later with smaller drivers and slightly smaller boiler. The four C-18As had 64" drivers (57" centers).


Class C-19 (Locobase 5242)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp121.gif (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 2148-2152 in 1886 and 2307-2308 in 1887.

Relatively large boiler for the grate area in these freight engines.


Class C-2 (Locobase 2157)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899); built for the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway. Works numbers were 2772-2774 in June 1897

Boiler was improved Belpaire type, firebox had 13.26 sq ft of arch pipes. Slightly different data from the 1902 New York Central guide to locomotives reproduced at http://www.rr-fallenflags/nyc/nyc-lbp208b.gif (visited December 2002). The StL&A engines 6, 10-12 are noted and this design certainly fits the particulars quite closely. Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004 suggests that only 5, 6, and 7 came from Brooks.

Staufer (New York Central's Early Power, 1967) says that #5 had a busy career, going to the Central Vermont as #249, then to the Rutland as #190, and finally coming under the NYC banner as #1000. After its NYC career, the former 5 went back to the Rutland as 80 and finished its career renumbered 61.

6 stayed with the St L & A until 1916, according to Rumary-Lambert, becoming NYC 1002 in that year.

Number 7 went to the Rutland as their 250, was renumbered 191, then was sold to the NYC as 1001. Then back to the Rutland as 81, closing out its career as 66.


Class C-2/C-36 (Locobase 15825)

Data from NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 4242-4245 in January 1895, 4271-4278 in March, 4279-4280 in April.

Locobase 5713 shows the first two of this class and describes the challenging Berkshire mountains profile over which they were intended to pull six heavy Wagner cars. Satisfied with the work of the first two, the B&A took delivery of 14 more a few months later. These had slightly longer tubes and a larger firebox

The New York Central assigned the C-36 class ID to these engines in 1900 and renumbered 1145-1148, 1154-1158, 1160-1164. Thicker driver tires increased outside diameter to 70" (1,778 mm).

In 1912, when the B&A regained its independent status, the class took new numbers again: 224-227, 230-239.


Class C-20 (Locobase 5241)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp120.gif (visited December 2002).

Similar to the C-18s, but with much smaller drivers (i.e., more emphatically freight engines), a slightly longer set of firetubes and larger grate.


Class C-21 (Locobase 5243)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp120.gif (visited December 2002).

A stray one-class engine by a less-well-known builder.


Class C-22 (Locobase 5244)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp123.gif (visited December 2002).

Typical of the late 19th-Century locomotives built for the NY&HRR. The dome is moving forward along the boiler, which is sharply coned to the 1st course.


Class C-23 (Locobase 5245)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp125.gif (visited December 2002). As the American design reaches its design peak, the dome now sits over the front driving axle, the smokebox is extended, but the grate is still relatively narrow.


Class C-24 (Locobase 5246)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp127.gif (visited December 2002).

Unusual for NY&HRR Americans was the relatively close spacing of the driving axles. This put the firebox over the rear axle, raising the profile considerably.


Class C-26 (Locobase 5247)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp120.gif (visited December 2002). Early '80s low-pressure design for the Pennsylvania coal road that was leased to the NYC & HR in 1890 and taken over in 1899..


Class C-26A (Locobase 5248)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp128.gif (visited December 2002). Apparently based on the earlier design that was later designated C-26, this engine had the same grate but more firetubes.


Class C-51A (Locobase 2848)

Data from "Two Locomotives for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway--Express Locomotives", The Railway Engineer, Vol 10, No 6 (June 1889), pp. 171- 176. Works numbers were 1412-1413 in August 1888.

Designed by GW Stevens, Chief of motive power at the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern. These rangy engines still had the dome just ahead of the cab. The RE report gives many details of the profile and service these locomotives were expected to handle: "...the fast mail trains on the Buffalo and Erie divisions of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern. The heaviest grades are situated on these divisions, which are also most exposed to strong winds from the lake. The line, however, is fairly straight and level. The ruling grades are 53 to 46 ft. per mile, and the average grade for the whole line or sum of the rises and falls is 5.2 ft. per mile. This latter figure is below the average of other lines, showing that the length of the grades bears a small proportion to the total length of the road. Only 12 per cent. of the length of the main line is curved, and the average curvature per mile is 7.8 degrees. This is also considerably below the average, the curvature per mile on the New York Central (Albany to Buffalo) being nearly double that amount (15.1 deg.), while on the middle and western divisions of the Pennsylvania it is 46.8 and 72.5 degrees per mile respectively, while on the Lehigh Valley the amount of curvature rises to 100 degrees per mile.".

A rebuild in 1907-1908 replaced the boiler with a dome that sat over the front driving axle.


Class C-52B (Locobase 9726)

Data from the NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.


Class C-63A to C-63G (Locobase 9719)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The diagram for this class shows a typical deep-firebox American from the late 19th Century. Its steam dome stood over the firebox and behind a sharply tapering boiler course that had a second dome (for sand?) at the front. The slender first course gave a lean look to the design.

The table of engine numbers shows that most of the class were built by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis at various shops over a 6-year period. Locobase notes that the other locomotives in the class were rebuilds of earlier engines. The data in the specs relates to the C-63B; others had an arch tube that added 10 sq ft to the firebox. Some were pressed to 160 psi.


Class C-64, C-64A (Locobase 9720)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

There were two subclasses for this boiler. Two C-64s delivered in 1902 had 69" drivers and weighed about 3 tons more; they and 4 of the C-64As (7077-7081) were built by the Pittsburgh & Erie Railway. The other 4 were built by Rhode Island Locomotive Works.


Class C-69, C-69A (Locobase 9721)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

At least two C-69 series (which included 1 each of the C-69A (67" drivers), C-70, and C-71 classes) received one arch tube that added 10 sq ft to the firebox heating surface.


Class C-71/C-72 (Locobase 9722)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The latter two engines - C-72 - had a driver wheelbase of 9 feet.


Class C-73 (Locobase 9723)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.


Class C-74 (Locobase 9711)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers was 4169-4172 in July 1893 and 4335 in August 1895.

Delivered in the same year as the C-75s shown in Locobase 9710, these engines had the more traditional deep, narrow fireboxes. Such furnaces had smaller grates but more overall direct heating surface. The C-75s were more like the locomotives that would soon replace these Eight-wheelers.


Class C-75, C-75a (Locobase 9710)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 4173-4178 in August 1893, 4296-4300 in May 1895, 4301 in June.

These were delivered by the same builder in the same years as the C-74s, but they had longer, shallower, and somewhat wider fireboxes. As a consequence, the C-75s had substantially more grate area because the grate now rode above the driving axles. Overall direct heating surface did not change very much.

Once the class was absorbed by the New York Central, they were reclassified. The earlier engines with the higher Big Four road numbers were redesignated C-75 and renumbered 7118-7123; the others were classed C-75a. By the middle of 1907, the 7119-7123 and the 7125-7129 were sold to the Lake Erie & Western, where they were renumbered 4150-4159. After the LE&W was bought out by the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the 4150-4151 survived the merger and were renumbered 302-303.


Class C-77 (Locobase 3146)

Data from P J Conlon, "Locomotive Lore - Chapter XIV", Machinists Monthly Journal, Volume XIII, No. 10 (October 1901), pp. 743-744. Additional data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

In his 1901 review, Conlon celebrates the 201 as "Perhaps the most successful eight-wheel passenger engine of the present day" and observes that the boiler's heating surface is "greater than has ever before been attained in an eight-wheeled locomotive." Indeed, the pair would ultimately have the largest boiler by a few square feet of any Big Four 4-4-0. Two later batches (Locobases 9724-9725/C-78, C-79) would have similar-sized boilers.

Conlon reported that the engine was designed to haul a 360-ton, 10-car train the 80 miles between Cleveland and Galion in 70 minutes. An elevation difference of 595 feet meant that the 201 had exert a "steady pull" all the way to Galion.

Locobase observes that the intended service explains the relatively small driver diameter for an express engine.

Official name for the railroad was the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, & St. Louis.


Class C-78 (Locobase 9724)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Locobase 3146 presents the comments of a Mr P J Conlon on the high worthiness of the C-77 4-4-0, which arrived on the Big Four in 1895. This pair was delivered two years later and was virtually identical except for the reduction by 6 in the count of small tubes in the boiler.


Class C-79 (Locobase 3272)

Data from Railroad Gazette (15 July 1898).

Locobase 3146's description of the C-77 characterized it as the largest 4-4-0 in service in 1901. Certainly that was true on the Big Four and its qualities were sterling enough to encourage a repeat in 1897 (C-78/Locobase 9724) and 1898 (this class).

While the C-78s had 6 fewer tubes, the C-79s were identical except for the significant change in driver diameter in favor of much taller wheels. They also had a longer stroke, which may have been adopted to compensate for the taller drivers, for the tractive effort was about the same. The boiler also may have had a a shallower firebox that had 160 sq ft of heating surface area and a total evaporative heating surface area of 2,157 sq ft.

The 15 July 1898 Railroad Gazette that reports the 1898 buy notes that the four locomotives are to be used to haul the Knickerbocker Special between Cleveland and St. Louis. This train consisted of 1 or 2 day coaches, a "buffet" car, and 3 sleeping cars for a total trailing weight of 250-300 tons. Booked average speed for the run was 40 mph.

The illustration shows a typically upright end-of-century 8-wheeler with conical safety-valve cover, rounded steam dome over the first axle, second dome forward of the boiler taper and just behind a capped stack.

Between that delivery date and the preparation of the diagram in the 1914 diagram book, all 4 engines received arch tubes, installation of which increased heating surface area by 10 sq ft.


Class C-79 (Locobase 9725)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.


Class C-8 (Locobase 5230)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp96.gif (visited December 2002). Slightly larger than the branch-line C-7s, but intended for the same duty, one suspect.

Of the 3 remaining in 1902, all were built by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo.


Class C-9/C-9A/C-9B/C-9C (Locobase 5231)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp99.gif (visited December 2002).

A large class, perhaps the largest of all 4-4-0 classes built for the NY&HRR. In fact, the C-9 designation appears to have covered a variety of very similar designs that differed in the number of firetubes or cylinder diameter or tube diameter.

In the 1902 guide the following subtypes are identified:

Lowest

engine

number # in subtype remarks

407 1 16 x 24" cylinders;169 2" tubes,

11.17' long; 48" boiler.

476 5 180 2" tubes; weight 85,800 lb

482 12 198 2" tubes; 11.67' long;

weight 85,800 lb

498 5 138 2 1/4" tubes, 11.33' long;

weight 76,000 lb

The C-9A series had mostly 47 1/2" diameter boilers and 160 2" tubes. Two of the 6 had slightly larger fireboxes. C-9B was one engine built in 1878 with a 15.8-sq ft grate area. C-9C was an 1880 engine with only 134 2" tubes, 15.3-sq ft grate, and 46" diameter boiler. 448 tipped the scales at 69,000 lb.


Class C-95A (Locobase 5222)

Data from http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/toe-p65.gif (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 1715-1719 in August 1890.

Identical to Toledo & Ohio Central locomotives purchased in the same years.. The Richardson balanced slide valves had 6 1/4" of travel.


Class C-95a (Locobase 5207)

Data from http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/toe-p29.gif (visited December 2002).

Classic late 19th-Century American with narrow grate, dome just ahead of the cab, slender front boiler course. The Richardson balanced slide valves had 6 1/4" of travel.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. 5 in the class (works #1715-1719), all of which were renumbered 468-472 When the NYC took control, all wer renumbered again 9550-955. Of these, 9551-9553 were later renumbered 9719-9721.


Class C-97a (Locobase 5210)

Data from http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/toe-p33.gif (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 29505-29507 in 1904.

This first trio from Brooks was the only subclass of the T&OC's C-97 group to be superheated. See 5211 for the result.


Class C-97a - superheated (Locobase 5211)

Data from http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/toe-p33.gif (visited December 2002).

Superheating the C-97a may have been an attempt to sample the benefits at relatively low cost. In such a small boiler, the gain can't have been very great. Moreover, if the 1917 diagram is accurate, few of the other usual changes -- piston valves, Walschaerts gear, dropping the boiler pressure -- were made.


Class C-97b (Locobase 5208)

Data from http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/toe-p35.gif (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 38652-38655 in 1905.

Somewhat after the fact, these Americans obviously filled branch-line needs. These had Richardson balanced slide valves with 6 1/4" of travel.


Class C-97c (Locobase 5209)

Data from http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/toe-p37.gif (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 41157-41158 in 1906.

Identical to the year-earlier C-97b with a few more fire tubes and Walschaerts valve gear moving Richardson balanced slide valves through 5 1/2" of travel. (Could the shorter travel represent a change to the radial valve gear from the Stephenson link motion?).

9567 was one of five C-97 class Eight-wheelers sold to the Chicago, Indiana & Western in 1924. It took the number 164.


Class C-X (Locobase 14547)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 327.

In the 1905 guide, the New York Central assigned the same class ID to several locomotives of different, but relatively ancient, origins. Each variant was different enough that Locobase breaks them out into a series of entries (14544-14546).

Locobase credits the New York Central & Hudson River based on the 1905 description of its origins. He can't say for sure, however, if the 1062's description of having been built in Syracuse in 1872 refers to the original engine or to a rebuilt locomotive of a later time that was based on an 1872 engine.


Class C-X (Locobase 14548)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 327. Works number 2765 in 1889.

In the 1905 guide, the New York Central assigned the same class ID to several locomotives of different, but relatively ancient, origins. Each variant was different enough that Locobase breaks them out into a series of entries (14544-14549).


Class C-X (Locobase 14564)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 346. See also a history of the NY&O at http://www.canada-rail.com/ontario/railways/NYO.html . Works numbers were 1431 in September 1881 and 1648 in September 1882..

These two engines were delivered a year apart in 1881-1882. The later engine (which was later given a lower road number) had 64" (1626 mm) drivers, the 787 had 63" (1600 mm) drivers.

In 1892, the NYC sold the pair to the New York & Ottawa. The NY&O was built as a connecting road from Tupper Lake in upper New York State to Cornwall, NY, where it linked with the Ottawa & New York, which ran from Canada's capital city to Cornwall on to Saratoga Springs. At its completion in 1900, the NY&O had already entered receivership and was sold to the New York Central.

Transferred back to the NYC in 1905, the pair very quickly retired.


Class Champlain (Locobase 2548)

Mentioned by White (1962) as having performed reasonably well for the HRR in its short term of service. In the summer of 1850, the Champlain pulled a 120-ton, 11-car passenger train at an average speed of 44 mph. Although it cost the railroad only 2 1/2 cents per mile for repairs over its 45,111 miles of distance (December 1849 - March 1851), the engine was returned to its builder in 1852. It was rebuilt and sold to the New York and Harlem River as the Seneca.


Class Chicago (Locobase 12428)

Data from "Improved Type of Inspection Locomotive," The Railway Times, Volume 88 (9 September 1905), p. 308.

Unlike most inspection engines, the Chicago was built from scratch for the task. Its house extended from stack to footplate and was divided by a partition in front of the cab. The front room measured 12 feet long and had benches along the sides and two raised seats along the back. Especially thick boiler lagging protecting the occupants from the worst of the boiler's heat.


Class Columbia (Locobase 2550)

Designed by Walter McQueen, this was one of the first engines in the US to sport drivers of such height. White (1962) comments that they are "at once the most impressive and frightening feature of the Columbia." He observes that they were made of cast iron in the "old-fashioned T pattern. Although quite successful for the usual 60" wheel, it was hardly proper for the larger wheel meant for hard use in express service." He acknowledges that no record of a disaster from the collapse of these large drivers has come to light, but smaller wheels and a spread leading truck seem likely to have been adopted soon after service entry.

Like the earlier and smaller Croton, the Columbia had a Radley and Hunter spark-arresting stack, which was more elongated than the typical diamond stack.


Class Croton (Locobase 2549)

Designed by Walter McQueen for light local service between New York and Poughkeepsie, which this engine performed ably enough for at least 26 years.

Mentioned by White (1962), who gives the other five engines in the class as Spuyten Duyvil, Kinderhook, Matteawan, Sing Sing, and Peeksill. The engine was distinguished by its Radley and Hunter spark-arresting stack, which was more elongated than the typical diamond stack.

See also Railroad Gazette 15 February 1901.


Class D-4/C-103 (Locobase 7069)

Data from P&LE-PMcK&Y 3 1-26 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 2272

2273 in May 1901, 2274 in June, and 2340-2341 in October.

Relatively high-drivered Americans for this western Pennsylvania industrial road. Compared to the parent railroad's contemporaneous C class, these were about the same size but had a smaller grate and larger firebox as well as taller drivers. The high wheels reflect the design's use in express service.

The 9257 was sold in 1913 to the Middletown & Unionville as their #1. The 9253-9254 were withdrawn in 1925 with the 9255-9256 leaving by 1927.


Class D-8, C-4g /C-104, C-105 (Locobase 7068)

Data from P&LE 1-1908 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 30896-30899 in July 1905, 30900 in August 1905, and 39453-39457 in April 1906.

Slightly larger than their C-103 predecessors, these were medium-traffic passenger engines for this western Pennsylvania subsidiary of the New York Central. Compared to their contemporaries in the system, they had bigger boilers and slightly more firebox area.

The C-105 class had cylinders fitted with Alfree-Hubbell valves, an unusual design described in much more detail in Locobase 5344. Their cylinders would later be bored out to 19 1/2" (495 mm).

9258-9259 were sold to the Monongahela in June 1911 as their 152-153 (renumbered 303-304 in 1918). The 303 went to the Scotts Run not long after it was renumbered. The 304 remained with the Monongahela for decades. The P&LE sold the 9261 to the Montour as their #2 in July 1917; the MRR scrapped the 2 in 1928.


Class F / C-11 (Locobase 5233)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp103.gif (visited December 2002). These are higher-drivered C-10s with more boiler tubes, a deeper firebox (which accounts for all the increase in firebox heating area), and a higher boiler pressure.

Rome and Schenectady shared the production of the first 10 in March 1889. 1004-1007 (built by Rome in 1890) originally were included in the C-6 class, but as their only difference from the C-11s was a lower boiler pressure (145 psi), they were moved to the C-11s.


Class F/C-19 (Locobase 15993)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp121.gif (first seen in December 2002). Works numbers were 2148-2152 in August 1886.

Relatively large boiler for the grate area in these freight engines.


Class G // C-12/C-12A (Locobase 5234)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp105.gif (visited December 2002). Also from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 30-31

Locobase had thought these might be freight-oriented Americans because of the emphasis on tractive power shown in the higher boiler pressure and short-stroke cylinders. But the 1897 Schenectady Catalogue said this class operated the "...suburban trains ...out of New York City."

The C-12s had a large and relatively shallow firebox. C-12A was one locomotive (1049) that had 18" x 22" cylinders.


Class H / C-13 (Locobase 5235)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp107.gif (visited December 2002). Very similar to the C-8s of the same vintage, but with slightly more distance between the tube sheets and a larger grate. (Curiously, the grate was much shallower, hence the lower total firebox heating surface.)


Class I / C (Locobase 5225)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp85.gif (visited December 2002).

Although delivered originally in 1890, this class was rebuilt with extended wagon top boilers in 1901-1904. Given the date of the guide, it's likely that the data refer to that latter version.


Class I-1 / CB (Locobase 3937)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp87.gif (visited December 2002).

A Railroad Gazette article of 26 October 1900 traced the evolution of the American-type locomotive used on the Empire State Express. RG comments about all three classes: "The engines are not intended to world beaters, but to perform the special work to which they are assigned in pulling the Empire State ExPress and to do it readily with always a safe steam reserve."

These were soon redesignated as CB. The first five were delivered in 1896, the other 6 in 1898. One of the latter was credited in the guide to the West Albany shops.


Class I-2 // CC / CD (Locobase 3938)

A Railroad Gazette article of 26 October 1900 traced the evolution of the American-type locomotive used on the Empire State Express. The I-2 is simply the I-1 with smaller drivers. These were soon redesignated as CC (Schenectady engines) and 2 CD (from the shops). The first five were delivered in 1896, the others in 1898.

RG comments about all three classes: "The engines are not intended to world beaters, but to perform the special work to which they are assigned in pulling the Empire State Express and to do it readily with always a safe steam reserve." Designed by the Central's prolific and well-known Superintendent of Motive Power William Buchanan.

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp86.gif (visited December 2002).


Class I-3/C-3 (Locobase 3939)

Data from Railroad Gazette (26 October 1900) and NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Built at the New York Central's Depew shops in August 1900 and January 1901.

The RG report traced the evolution of the American-type locomotive used on the Empire State Express. RG comments about all three classes: "The engines are not intended to world beaters, but to perform the special work to which they are assigned in pulling the Empire State Exress and to do it readily with always a safe steam reserve."

It notes that the I-3s were substantially different from the earlier classes in the boiler is considerably larger and has a straighter top line. It was a radial stay boiler instead of the earlier crown bar type. There's plenty of steam available as a result.

Most data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp89.gif (visited December 2002). This is the source of the 12' 1" tube sheet distance used in the specs, rather than RG's 11' 6".


Class Inspection Engine C-100 (Locobase 14450)

Data from P&LE 1 - 1908 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

This inspection engine was originally delivered by Pittsburgh Locomotive Works in March 1893 as the first of three Eight-wheelers (works numbers 1412-1414; road 96-98)). The other two were sold off by 1905 with 97 going to the Annapolis, Washington & Baltimore as their #10 and 98 to Chesapeake Beach Railroad as their #6.

The 96 was simply converted into an inspection vehicle by adding a long cab to the existing boiler and frame. It seems likely therefore that the data above also serve for the other two locomotives.

The engineer and fireman operated the engine at the back of the cab while the inspection team boarded via a winding stair at the front that admitted the boarder through doors located just behind the stack and cylinders.. Locobase's view is only from the right-hand side, so he can't say for sure if another such stair was on the left side. Other locomotives with similar arrangements had boarding stairs on each side and the boiler would have blocked crosswise movement.


Class N / C-14 (Locobase 1116)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/ncy-lbp86.gif (visited December 2002). Similar data found in Hollingsworth (1982) and Scientific American. See also Robert Tufnell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Railway Locomotives (London: Quarto Publishing Ltd, 1986).

Tufnell gives cylinder dimensions of 18 1/2 x 26, heating surface of 1,895 sq ft (176 sq m) and a grate area of 32.3 sq ft.

Given either set of specifications, with one exception the numbers are just average and don't suggest a locomotive that could hit 112 mph as was claimed in 1893.

Perhaps the source of 999's magical run was in the firebox area, which hit an impressive 12% of total evaporative heating surface and thus may have steamed more freely than its contemporaries. At a 2 ft (610 mm) stroke and the 1,750 fpm (55.4 metres/min) piston speed this locomotive would have attained at 112 mph (180 km/h), however, each piston reversed direction more than 7 times every second. It's far more likely that the observers were mistaken and that 999 didn't come close to such a speed.

Driver diameter was later reduced to 78", then to 70".


Class Pony (Locobase 5386)

Data from table in the June 1907 AERJ. See also "Some Interesting Types of Locomotive Development," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXX, #9 (September 1906), pp. 298-300.

This intriguingly named locomotive had some odd features for an American American -- not least the four small HP cylinders. Pony was built as an inspection engine and its most physically striking feature was the long gallery that extended forward from the cab along the boiler nearly to the smokebox. Spiral staircases leading up from either side of the pilot gave access to this well-heated space.

The cylinders were arranged en banc (sometimes called "in battery"), that is, side by side. Each outside cylinder and its nearest inside mate used a common piston valve


Class Q (Locobase 2150)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899). See also "Fast Passenger Engine, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway," Railway Review, Volume 33 (3 June 1893), pp. 343

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works number was 2256-2260 in March 1893.

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern was a subsidiary of the New York Central. Under the catalogue listing, Brooks claims that during the 1893 Chicago Exposition, this engine pulled the "Exposition Flyer" from New York to Chicago. The catalogue adds "Near Elkhart, Ind, this engine attained a speed of 10.2 miles in less than six minutes, or at the rate of over 102 miles per hour."

In H H Vaughan's 1903 paper on the "Value of Heating Surface" (published in the 1903-1904 Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club (pp 245-246), the Q appears with slightly different heating surface areas: 1,234 sq ft for the tubes, 155 sq ft in the firebox for a total value of 1,389 sq ft.. Vaughan, head of motive power at the Canadian Pacific, also characterizes the class as "very delicate steamers".

Railway Review's report noted the "most striking peculiarity" of the engine's design was the Belpaire firebox mated to a wagon-top boiler. The Review said that the engine was first designed with a crown-bar boiler, "but it was feared that this construction would not give a sufficient heating surface to enable the engine to supply steam for drawing the train at the high speed desired. It was found that the heating surface could be materially increased without increasing the weight of the engine by using the Belpaire firebox."

The journal also celebrated its own foresight in recommending "long valve travel and wide lap" when reporting that the Allen-Richardson slide valves had 6 1/2" (165 mm) travel and outside lap of 1" (25.4 mm) and inside lap of 3/32" (2.4 mm).

Road #94 went to the Houston East & West Texas Railway as their #8 and #598 became that road's #9. The online Handbook of Texas -- http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/HH/eqh14.html -- has some choice information about this small railway. Its nickname was the Rabbit and the intials HEWT were said to stand for Hell Either Way Taken. At its greatest length, the HE & WT ran 191 miles (308 km) from Houston to the Sabine River with a further 40 miles (64 km) on the Shreveport & Houston (an affiliated road) to Shreveport.

Even later, 598/9 became Texas & New Orleans #200 when that line took over the HE & WT in 1934. The other 3 were included in the New York Central's roster as 4107-4109.


Class Q-4 (Locobase 8570)

Data from In H H Vaughan's 1903 paper on the "Value of Heating Surface" (published in the 1903-1904 Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club (pp 245-246). Schenectady works numbers were 1361, 1364-1365, 1367, 1369 in May 1881; 1376-1378, 1380-1381, 1385, 1388-1390 in June; 1393-1394, 1397-1399 in July. Grant supplied road numbers 522-536 in the same year.

Vaughan gives a passing salute to this class "...a good eight-wheeled freight engine, the class that is seldom heard from." The data suggest a design from the early 1880s, a Locobase guess that is borne out by roster compilations.


Class R (Locobase 8569)

Data from In H H Vaughan's 1903 paper on the "Value of Heating Surface" (published in the 1903-1904 Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club (pp 245-246). Works numbers were 1441-1442, 1456, 1459, 1461, 1473-1481, 1483

Vaughan comments on the design, which was only adequate: "...an 18-inch passenger engine, a fair engine but not remarkably good." He is speaking in particular of the locomotive's steaming qualities.


Class Santa Clara/C-X (Locobase 14565)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 346. Works numbers were 1373 (#3), 1378 (#6) in 1884 and 1578 (#5) in 1885.

This trio of Rhody Eight-wheelers (Buck Mountain, Tupper Lake, and Bay Head) was delivered in 1884-1885. The 1885 locomotive-- later numbered 789--put another ton on the driver, which raised its adhesion and overall weights to 66,000 lb (29,937 kg) and 109,000 lb (49,442 kg) , respectively.

The NA was reorganized in 1895 as the Northern New York and again in 1897 as the New York & Ottawa. The New York Central took control of the once-again bankrupt company in 1900.


Class Superior (Locobase 2551)

Stuffing this many tubes into so small a boiler (46" in diameter) was a common weakness of Breese-Kneeland engines (of which these were the first), says John White (1968). The practice led to "too small a space between the tubes [which] weakened the tube sheets and produced a dangerous boiler." The engine was built on a slab frame and rode on wrought-iron wheels with unusually slender spokes.

Despite the boiler design, the Superior and her sister, the Baltic, were relatively advanced, according to White, especially in their adoption of the Stephenson link motion. They were, he says, "heavy and powerful machines for the time. Their excellent performance won an enviable reputation for their builder."


Class Virginia (Locobase 13518)

Data from "Trial of Engines on Boston & Albany RR", Locomotive Engineers Journal, Volume IX, No 10 (October 1875), p. 541.

Locobase 13516 describes the trials run between this locomotive and the Mogul named Brown in which the Virginia proved more economical (as did its older sister, Adirondack). Both of the Eight-wheelers were designed by the B & A's Master Mechanic Wilson Eddy, a well-known locomotive builder of his day. (See Locobase 13519 for a discussion of Eddy's design philosophy, much of which is evident in our description of both Eddy engines here and in Locobase 13517.)

Both of the Eight-wheelers had straight boilers "...without dome, with perforated pipe, throttle valve in smoke box." The author considered that the "distinctive difference" lay in shorter ports that measured only 10 in long and 1 1/4 in wide. shorter ports that measured only 10 in long and 1 1/4 in wide.

See Locobase 13517 for further discussion of these two engines.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1/C-1911 / Q-613205/C-36a208/C-37
Locobase ID15,992 11,637 11,106 5713 11,109
RailroadWallkill Valley (NYC)Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville (NYC)St Lawrence & Adirondack (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class22124
Road Numbers1-2/700-70111-1213/2185205, 230/1153, 1159/228-229208, 210-212/1149-1152/240-243
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built22124
BuilderSchenectadyBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoSchenectadyAlco-SchenectadySchenectady
Year18871889189518941896
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)8 8.83 8.50 8.50 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.4622.7523.9222.9223.42
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.39 0.36 0.37 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)43.2850.5445.9247.25
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)52,50056,00084,50074,00074,500
Engine Weight (lbs)82,70085,000131,000114,700119,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)56,800
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)139,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)27003000450040004000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons) 4.508
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4447706262
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6462676969
Boiler Pressure (psi)140130190180190
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)16" x 24"17" x 24"20" x 24"19" x 24"19" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)11,42412,36223,14019,21120,279
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.60 4.53 3.65 3.85 3.67
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)119126171.70141.40155
Grate Area (sq ft)16.301830.8025.2926.96
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12731277216818452067
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12731277216818452067
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume227.93202.54248.43234.26262.45
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation22822340585245525122
Same as above plus superheater percentage22822340585245525122
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,66016,38032,62325,45229,450
Power L149954063735867077885
Power MT419.51319.91383.94399.63466.67

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class216232376A / C-15
Locobase ID15,824 10,075 15,823 12,990 5236
RailroadCincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland (NYC)Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw (NYC)New York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class510215
Road Numbers216-220232-233, 239-244, 44, 3237-38/201-202/70066570-571, 558, 577-578
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built51021
BuilderCS&CB&ATauntonBurnham, Williams & CoRogers
Year18691873188119061883
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.75 7.75 8.50 8.50 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.162322.78
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.33 0.37 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)44.9236.3345.5847.38
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)46,20044,25050,00064,00064,000
Engine Weight (lbs)73,00069,40080,00095,00095,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)66,10063,65470,00080,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)139,100143,654165,000175,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)3000288035004500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)667
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)3937425353
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6266626269
Boiler Pressure (psi)140150140160140
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)16" x 24"18" x 22"16" x 24"17.5" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)11,79313,77011,79316,12313,411
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.92 3.21 4.24 3.97 4.77
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)121136128
Grate Area (sq ft)17.6216.5017.6216.9034
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)114313791212
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)114313791212
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume176.40206.40171.46
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation24672475246727044760
Same as above plus superheater percentage24672475246727044760
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area18,15021,76017,920
Power L1445150954218
Power MT443.51351.02290.60

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassA / C-4A-1 / C-5/C-5AA-1x / C-6A-2 / C-7Adirondack
Locobase ID5226 5227 5228 5229 13,517
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class10171971
Road Numbers1070960961-964, 966-974, 978-9821129-1136224
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built71
BuilderseveralseveralseveralshopsB&A
Year18821886188818851873
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.50 8.50 8.508
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.9622.9622.9621.79
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)43.2745.0245.0242.37
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)55,00057,30065,50049,70043,000
Engine Weight (lbs)88,00090,30098,50078,10067,150
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)62,60070,40070,70056,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)150,600160,700169,200134,100
Tender Water Capacity (gals)2800280030002500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)6665
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4648554136
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7070706454
Boiler Pressure (psi)145145145145130
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"17" x 20"18" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)12,21213,69113,69111,13117,238
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.50 4.19 4.78 4.47 2.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)153160144.50143
Grate Area (sq ft)1817.5017.8016.3015.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1353161515981260
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1353161515981260
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume214.59228.48226.07239.81
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation26102538258123642015
Same as above plus superheater percentage26102538258123642015
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area22,18523,20020,95320,735
Power L15683578055535814
Power MT455.59444.77373.81515.80

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassB // C-17/C-17AB-1 / C-10B/C-38Buck Mountain/C-XC-16/C-16A
Locobase ID5240 5232 14,264 14,563 5237
RailroadNew York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)Northern Adirondack (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class7020617
Road Numbers586-654680-699285-290/1139-1144/249-2544/785555+
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built702061
BuilderRogersseveralSchenectadyRhode IslandRogers
Year18821888189918841890
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.509 8.508 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.4523.4624.7122.3322.81
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.38 0.34 0.36 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)46.6246.594447.40
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)62,50063,30088,50052,00073,800
Engine Weight (lbs)94,50096,000136,40095,000108,300
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)64,00074,800106,20063,00064,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)158,500170,800242,600158,000172,300
Tender Water Capacity (gals)30003000520022003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)58875
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5253744362
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6964756269
Boiler Pressure (psi)140145190150150
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"18" x 24"20" x 26"16" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)13,41114,97522,39512,63514,369
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.66 4.23 3.95 4.12 5.14
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)128123.30178.74111155
Grate Area (sq ft)1719.5030.331832
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1212156325219951504
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1212156325219951504
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume171.46221.12266.66178.15212.77
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation23802828576327004800
Same as above plus superheater percentage23802828576327004800
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area17,92017,87933,96116,65023,250
Power L142184769857843025562
Power MT297.57332.19427.37364.78332.31

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-16B/C-16CC-18/C-18AC-19C-2C-2/C-36
Locobase ID5238 5239 5242 2157 15,825
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)St Lawrence & Adirondack (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class11206314
Road Numbers556660-679655-659, 7015-7206-207, 209, 215-218, 230-239
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built206314
BuilderRogersRogersSchenectadyBrooksAlco-Schenectady
Year18881885188618971895
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.50 8.508 8.50 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.8122.8122.4623.5922.92
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)46.8646.5343.2849.3346.12
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)74,30060,00052,50080,00076,000
Engine Weight (lbs)109,10092,00082,700122,300120,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)64,00072,40056,80089,00088,500
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)173,100164,400139,500211,300208,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)30003000270042004000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)55 4.50 8.508
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6250446763
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6963646469
Boiler Pressure (psi)150140140200180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"17" x 24"16" x 24"18" x 26"19" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)14,36913,10111,42422,37619,211
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.17 4.58 4.60 3.58 3.96
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)150128119167.46156
Grate Area (sq ft)17.251716.3030.4025.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)15051200127318141950
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)15051200127318141950
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume212.91190.33227.93236.89247.59
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation25882380228260804536
Same as above plus superheater percentage25882380228260804536
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area22,50017,92016,66033,49228,080
Power L155034290499573867175
Power MT326.57315.26419.51407.08416.27

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-20C-21C-22C-23C-24
Locobase ID5241 5243 5244 5245 5246
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Fall Brook Coal Company (NYC)Fall Brook Coal Company (NYC)Fall Brook Coal Company (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class41222
Road Numbers4061083709, 711710, 712706-707
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built222
BuilderSchenectadyNew York (Rome)SchenectadySchenectadySchenectady
Year18841886189418971893
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.50 8.50 8.50 7.17
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.4223.4221.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.33
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)47.5847.4247
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)57,70058,00075,00081,00072,800
Engine Weight (lbs)87,90090,000119,000124,000104,800
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)66,00070,00086,10086,10076,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)153,900160,000205,100210,100180,800
Tender Water Capacity (gals)2900420045003500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)5107 7.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4848636861
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)5764697069
Boiler Pressure (psi)140140155155155
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"18" x 24"19" x 24"20" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)14,48014,45916,54318,06914,848
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.98 4.01 4.53 4.48 4.90
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)118.20118131.50160129.60
Grate Area (sq ft)17.5017.202526.6028
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12161328190320831568
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12161328190320831568
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume192.86187.87241.63238.69221.83
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation24502408387541234340
Same as above plus superheater percentage24502408387541234340
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,54816,52020,38324,80020,088
Power L138124052579559745588
Power MT291.30308.04340.69325.20338.45

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-26C-26AC-51AC-52BC-63A to C-63G
Locobase ID5247 5248 2848 9726 9719
RailroadBeech Creek, Clearfield & Western (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class412125
Road Numbers702-704705220-221/4103-4104/4173-41744175
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built42125
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadyBrooksSchenectadyBig Four
Year18841889188818861889
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.50 8.5099 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.0822.9123.9223.8322.87
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.38 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)44.2545.6245.3844.18
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)37,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)52,00057,000740064,00060,000
Engine Weight (lbs)80,00085,000111,00094,00092,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)65,60065,60074,00083,00082,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)145,600150,600185,000177,000174,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)27002700350035004000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)668128
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)434865350
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6463696967
Boiler Pressure (psi)125125180180145
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"17" x 24"18" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)11,51511,69817,24215,38012,759
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.52 4.87 0.43 4.16 4.70
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)117117175154116
Grate Area (sq ft)17.3917.3918.7518.5017.90
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12491604164513061223
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12491604164513061223
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume198.10254.40232.72207.14193.97
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation21742174337533302596
Same as above plus superheater percentage21742174337533302596
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area14,62514,62531,50027,72016,820
Power L138784557738068164630
Power MT328.83352.514397.32469.58340.25

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-64, C-64AC-69, C-69AC-71/C-72C-73C-74
Locobase ID9720 9721 9722 9723 9711
RailroadBig Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class87415
Road Numbers7101-71077108-71117112551-552, 554-555, 550
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built87415
BuilderseveralSchenectadySchenectady
Year18951888189718971893
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)99 8.5099
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.0823.9323.92
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.39 0.38 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)45.0445.7545.96
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)60,80065,00069,00069,00068,600
Engine Weight (lbs)93,400100,000107,000107,000106,800
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)72,50072,50097,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)165,900172,500203,800
Tender Water Capacity (gals)40004000600040005000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)6610710
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5154585857
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6369696969
Boiler Pressure (psi)150160180175180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)14,03715,32717,24216,76317,242
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.33 4.24 4.00 4.12 3.98
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)146163144144144
Grate Area (sq ft)19.9018.6018.1018.1018.10
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)14201611160316471704
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)14201611160316471704
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume225.22227.91226.78233.00241.07
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation29852976325831683258
Same as above plus superheater percentage29852976325831683258
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,90026,08025,92025,20025,920
Power L153716315680367397099
Power MT389.51428.37434.73430.64456.29

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-75, C-75aC-77C-78C-79C-79
Locobase ID9710 3146 9724 3272 9725
RailroadBig Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class122244
Road Numbers194-199, 188-193/7124-7129 / 7140-71417142-7143201-204 / 7144-7147201-204 / 7144-7145
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built122244
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadySchenectadySchenectadySchenectady
Year18931895189718981898
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)8 8.50 8.50 8.50 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.7523.8723.8723.8723.87
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)46.1049.3149.0449.2949.50
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)79,70086,00084,00086,00086,000
Engine Weight (lbs)119,600129,000128,600130,000130,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)108,000108,000108,000108,000108,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)227,600237,000236,600238,000238,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)6000600060006000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)12121212
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6672707272
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6973737873
Boiler Pressure (psi)180180190180190
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18.5" x 24"20" x 24"20" x 24"20" x 26"20" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)18,21420,12121,23820,40021,238
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.38 4.27 3.96 4.22 4.05
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)138.10179170170160
Grate Area (sq ft)2830.7530.6030.6030.80
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)17262175213021672157
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)17262175213021672157
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume231.16249.24244.08229.22247.17
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation50405535581455085852
Same as above plus superheater percentage50405535581455085852
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area24,85832,22032,30030,60030,400
Power L166997704789474687833
Power MT370.61394.99414.36382.89401.60

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-8C-9/C-9A/C-9B/C-9CC-95AC-95aC-97a
Locobase ID5230 5231 5222 5207 5210
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class585453
Road Numbers1053-105753-57/468-472/9550-955453-57 / 468-472/ 9550-4458-460/95599-9561
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built453
BuildershopsSchenectadyBrooksBrooksAlco-Brooks
Year18881881189018901904
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)8 8.5099 8.75
Engine Wheelbase (ft)21.7922.9623.1223.1224
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)42.3743.6744.2944.2959.10
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)51,50052,20059,40059,40087,000
Engine Weight (lbs)82,00079,80091,00091,000135,700
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)59,00064,00086,00086,000108,100
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)141,000143,800177,000177,000243,800
Tender Water Capacity (gals)3000440044005000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)410.3010.3010
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4344505073
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6464666666
Boiler Pressure (psi)145140145145180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 20"17" x 20"17" x 24"17" x 24"18" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)12,47910,74712,95212,95219,528
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.13 4.86 4.59 4.59 4.46
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)149117.82131.52131.52166.54
Grate Area (sq ft)16.4017.5017.3817.3828.82
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)13071074130913091941
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)13071074130913091941
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume221.88204.41207.61207.61253.47
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation23782450252025205188
Same as above plus superheater percentage23782450252025205188
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,60516,49519,07019,07029,977
Power L153884727497549757172
Power MT461.30399.28369.29369.29363.48

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-97a - superheatedC-97bC-97cC-XC-X
Locobase ID5211 5208 5209 14,547 14,548
RailroadToledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)New York CentralNew York Central (NYC)/Rutland
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class34211
Road Numbers458-460/9559-9561461-464/9562-9565465-466/9566-956710621063
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built4211
BuilderNYCAlco-BrooksAlco-BrooksNYCSchenectady
Year19041905190618721889
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.509
Engine Wheelbase (ft)24242422.8324.33
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)59.1059.1059.0643.4247.25
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)89,00087,00092,50049,00064,700
Engine Weight (lbs)138,500135,200138,50081,60099,600
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)108,100107,200112,60052,00068,600
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)246,600242,400251,100133,600168,200
Tender Water Capacity (gals)50005000500026003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)10101067
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)7473774154
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6666667064
Boiler Pressure (psi)180180180140160
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 26"18" x 24"18" x 24"17" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)19,52818,02618,02611,79116,524
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.56 4.83 5.13 4.16 3.92
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)166.54167.71167.71116140
Grate Area (sq ft)28.8228.8228.8216.2119.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)13901619179312921586
Superheating Surface (sq ft)237
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)16271619179312921586
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume181.52229.04253.66204.92224.37
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation51885188518822693120
Same as above plus superheater percentage59665188518822693120
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area34,47430,18830,18816,24022,400
Power L111,2626884737148495519
Power MT557.94348.89351.36436.33376.11

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-XChamplainChicagoColumbiaCroton
Locobase ID14,564 2548 12,428 2550 2549
RailroadNew York Central & Hudson River (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class216
Road Numbers14, 156/395, 445/787, 786
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built216
BuilderSchenectadyTauntonAlco-SchenectadyLowell Machine ShopLowell Machine Shop
Year18811849190618521851
Valve GearStephensonV-hookStephensonCroton V-hookCroton V-hook
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)88 7.25 5.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)2322.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.35 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)4346.19
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)56,00066,500
Engine Weight (lbs)91,00047,00099,50036,00036,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)68,00083,200
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)159,000182,700
Tender Water Capacity (gals)2200150023001300
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)7
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4755
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6466628466
Boiler Pressure (psi)1401002008080
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"15" x 20"15" x 24"16.5" x 22"12.5" x 20"
Tractive Effort (lbs)12,897579514,80648493220
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.34 4.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)10479.4393.3763.39
Grate Area (sq ft)16.6011.3415.7212.8011.08
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)10089041045914612
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)10089041045914612
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume159.87220.99212.89167.87215.44
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation2324113431441024886
Same as above plus superheater percentage2324113431441024886
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area14,560794318,6745071
Power L13619349963652878
Power MT284.95422.03

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD-4/C-103D-8, C-4g /C-104, C-105F / C-11F/C-19G // C-12/C-12A
Locobase ID7069 7068 5233 15,993 5234
RailroadPittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class71014231
Road Numbers91-93, 89-90/9255-9257, 9253-92549258-9267983-992, 1004-1007124-125, 130, 135, 140/655-6591008-1038
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built71010231
BuilderPittsburghAlco-PittsburghseveralSchenectadySchenectady
Year19011906188918861892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.67 8.5098 8.42
Engine Wheelbase (ft)24.3323.5823.4622.4623.08
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.38 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)49.2854.2345.4643.2846.67
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)79,000102,30070,20052,50077,000
Engine Weight (lbs)130,000151,900104,20082,700110,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)112,000142,00070,70056,80081,400
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)242,000293,900174,900139,500191,400
Tender Water Capacity (gals)50008400300027003500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)12106 4.507
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6685594464
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7672706464
Boiler Pressure (psi)200200145140170
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)19" x 26"19" x 26"18" x 24"16" x 24"18.5" x 22"
Tractive Effort (lbs)20,99522,16113,69111,42417,000
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.76 4.62 5.13 4.60 4.53
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)148172.40182119145.20
Grate Area (sq ft)193019.2016.3032.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)18132307174612731713
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)18132307174612731713
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume212.49270.39247.01227.93250.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation38006000278422825542
Same as above plus superheater percentage38006000278422825542
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area29,60034,48026,39016,66024,684
Power L175808914635649956462
Power MT423.06384.20399.22419.51370.03

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassH / C-13I / CI-1 / CBI-2 // CC / CDI-3/C-3
Locobase ID5235 5225 3937 3938 3939
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class54011122
Road Numbers1106-1110873-892, 899-902, 909-923924-928, 934-938, 870929-933, 939-943, 945-946947-948
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built511122
BuilderseveralSchenectadySchenectadySchenectadyNYC-Depew
Year18901901189618961900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)9 8.50 8.50 8.50 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.4623.9323.9323.9323.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)44.6748.0148.8349.50
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)48,550
Weight on Drivers (lbs)55,00080,00090,00086,50094,400
Engine Weight (lbs)85,000120,000134,500131,000146,400
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)62,00080,00093,60089,350108,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)147,000200,000228,100220,350254,400
Tender Water Capacity (gals)30005000450045005000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)5107710
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4667757279
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6470787077
Boiler Pressure (psi)140180180190190
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"19" x 24"19" x 24"19" x 24"19" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)12,89718,93716,99519,98918,172
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.26 4.22 5.30 4.33 5.19
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)114.50137.70164.40164.40180.10
Grate Area (sq ft)19.5027.3030.7030.7030.70
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)13201822197419742404
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)13201822197419742404
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume209.36231.34250.64250.64305.24
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation27304914552658335833
Same as above plus superheater percentage27304914552658335833
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,03024,78629,59231,23634,219
Power L1448266948307786910,231
Power MT359.31368.94406.97401.11477.87

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassInspection Engine C-100N / C-14PonyQQ-4
Locobase ID14,450 1116 5386 2150 8570
RailroadPittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class111536
Road Numbers239993094, 160, 597-599501-536
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built11536
BuilderP&LEAlco-SchenectadyshopsBrooksseveral
Year19061893190618931881
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.67 8.5099
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.752425.1423.75
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.35 0.36 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)45.5857.8348.3945.67
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)42,00033,100
Weight on Drivers (lbs)67,80084,00085,10065,10048,000
Engine Weight (lbs)109,400124,000126,600104,60074,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)112,00080,000105,20070,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)221,400204,000231,800174,600
Tender Water Capacity (gals)3500350043003100
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)6 7.70107
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5770715440
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6886637262
Boiler Pressure (psi)155180180180135
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"19" x 24"12.5" x 20" (4)17" x 24"17" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)13,43915,41415,17914,73912,837
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.05 5.45 5.61 4.42 3.74
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)121232.92140140142
Grate Area (sq ft)17.2030.702118.4015.10
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)11501930146613981215
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)11501930146613981215
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume182.39245.05258.03221.73192.70
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation26665526378033122039
Same as above plus superheater percentage26665526378033122039
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area18,75541,92625,20025,20019,170
Power L1489010,137720571874259
Power MT318.01532.10373.31486.78391.23

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassRSanta Clara/C-XSuperiorVirginia
Locobase ID8569 14,565 2551 13,518
RailroadLake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Northern Adirondack (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class15321
Road Numbers173-176, 180, 184-187, 193-194788-79011
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built15321
BuilderSchenectadyRhode IslandBreese-KneelandB&A
Year1881188418541876
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.58 6.67
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.25
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)44
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)71,00064,00043,000
Engine Weight (lbs)107,000107,00058,00067,150
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)64,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)171,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)24002300
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)7
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)595336
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)68637860
Boiler Pressure (psi)180150110130
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"17" x 24"16" x 22"18" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)17,49614,037675115,514
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.06 4.56 2.77
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)154124
Grate Area (sq ft)27.301813.6815.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)142511141049
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)142511141049
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume201.60176.69204.90
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation4914270015052015
Same as above plus superheater percentage4914270015052015
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area27,72018,600
Power L163354332
Power MT393.42298.45

Reference


If you have any railroad data such as diagram books, rail station plans or anything else that you would be willing to share, please contact us.