New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk / Northern Central / Pennsylvania / Philadelphia & Columbia / Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago / Vandalia Line 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1/D (Locobase 11591)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 15, p. 36. Works numbers were 9901-9902 in March 1889.

The NYP & N was a Delmarva road that connected the Pennsylvania's end point at Delmar in the center of the peninsula with Norfolk. It was created by merging 9-mile Worcester & Newton with the Eastern Shore which linked Delmar to Salisbury and thence southwest to Annensic, later dubbed Crisfield, on Chesapeake Bay. The last and longest element was the 65-mile section built in the 1880s between Pocomoke, Md and the ferry at Cape Charles at the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula.

These small Eight-wheelers eventually found their way onto the Pennsylvania's roster, but not for long. 12 left by 1906 and 1 was retired by 1913.


Class 1504 (Locobase 2834)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Calculated tube heating surface was 1,684 sq ft. Later data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 14-15 gave tube heating surface as 1,672.2 sq ft.

One of three engines assessed at the end of the 19th century. The other two were the 1510, a Baldwin compound (Locobase 2835) , and 1320, a Webb compound. The New Yorker was a straightforward, orthodox simple-expansion locomotive that offered a good- sized boiler as well as a look at building techniques from a manufacturer other than Altoona or the PRR's natural bedmate, Baldwin.

This one was retired in 1911.


Class 1510/D (Locobase 2835)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 18, p. 11. Works number was 12824 in July 1892..

One of three engines assessed at the end of the 19th century. This was a Vauclain compound. The other two were the 1504, a Schenectady-built simple-expansion (Locobase 2834), and 1320, a Webb compound.

Baldwin delivered the 1510 with the 22" LP cylinders shown in this spec, which generated an LP/HP ratio of 2.86, in keeping with many other Vauclain compounds. Later diagrams show the class with 24" LP cylinders, which raised that ratio to 3.41. Very few compounds ever tried to make exhausted HP steam do so much work per square inch.

In 1903, the Pennsy converted the 1510 to a two-cylinder simple-expansion locomotive. In 1909, the railroad replaced its tall express drivers with 68" wheels. The engine was scrapped in 1911.


Class A/D1 (Locobase 1132)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Data confirmed and supplemented from Park Benjamin (Ed), Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics (New York: D Appleton & Company, 1884), p. 348.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. His goal was to standardize to allow greater interchangeability of parts. Duty was light passenger service.


Class AAn/D7 (Locobase 1145)

Based on Cassatt's A class, but fitted with firebox suitable for buring coal. Very similar to K class, but with a slightly greater tube length.

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net .


Class AAn/D7A (Locobase 2825)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Differs from D7 in having smaller drivers, more even weight distribution even as it weighed 1 1/2 tons more. Its firebox rode above the drivers' axles, which allowed the grate to be 41 3/4 (1,060 mm) wide.


Class B/D2 (Locobase 1133)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Compared to As, Bs had larger pistons, smaller drivers, greater TE. Duty was as passenger-service helpers in the mountains.


Class Ba/D2a (Locobase 1143)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Passenger-service locomotive. Nine of these were later converted to D2s with 62" drivers.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class C (Locobase 9945)

Data from C H Caruthers, "Early Baldwin Locomotives on the Pennsylvania Railroad", Locomotive Engineering, Vol XI, No 2 (February 1898), p. 110. Works 387, 389-390 in August 1850; 392, 394 in September 1850; 400 in October; 406 in November; 423 in April 1851; 431 in June; 459 in December; 462 in February 1852; 468 and 470 in March.

These engines were named when they first came into service: Venango, Centre, Clinton, Columbia, Elk, Erie, Bradford, Clearfield, Crawford, Fayette, Somerset, Greene, Lycoming, and Union.

As Caruthers describes the engines, he notes the big Bury firebox , safety valves on the dome and whistle, big cabbage stack, closely spaced truck, raked cylinder pitch (1 3/4" in 10").

The last of these was retired in 1870, although their obviously obsolescent design was recognized as early as 1857.


Class C/D3 (Locobase 1134)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Duty was passenger and fast freight service. The tenders for this class were fitted with water scoop for refilling their tanks while moving over sections that had water troughs between the rails.


Class C/D4 (Locobase 2820)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net .

Class C/D4A (Locobase 2821)

These were 15 D4s that were converted to the 68" driver configuration.

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net .


Class CAn/D4 (Locobase 1140)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Duty was passenger and fast freight service, had long firebox suitable for burning anthracite coal.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class CAn/D4A (Locobase 2822)

This anthracite burner is identical to the other D4A except for a slightly larger firebox.

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class D16b (Locobase 13320)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . The Pennsy didn't back away from long production runs once they were satisified with a design. After the Class L/D16 entered production in 1895 (Locobase 1144), its impact on PRR passenger trains led to a subclass of 80"-driver express locomotives (Locobase 2833). But the biggest subclass was this slightly modified D16.


Class D16c/D16d (Locobase 13321)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney's summary in Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942).

As with all Pennsy locomotives of this vintage or later, this design used a Belpaire firebox. It's not clear why there were two different subclasses. The chief difference from the D16a (Locobase 2833) was slightly higher weights.

Those that were not later converted to D16 by being fitted with 68" drivers or left alone were upgraded with superheaters and other details very similar to the D16sb (Locobase 103).


Class D16sb (Locobase 103)

Modernized from 1914 on with the 20.5-in diameter pistons and boilers limited to 175 psi, but superheated. According to Edson (Keystone Steam & Electric, 1974), the conversion created an "...excellent engine for suburban service and local trains." Used on many Pennsy branch lines; some later sent over to the Long Island RR.


Class D26 (Locobase 11107)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 8-9.

Schenectady's catalogue of recent American-type engines includes this quartet, whose dimensions match those of the St Lawrence & Adirondack engine shown in Locobase 11106. The chief difference is the driving wheel diameter, which is 6" greater in these main-line express that hauled "...heavy fast trains ...between Indianapolis and St Louis."


Class D26a (Locobase 9507)

Data from "Vandalia Express Engines" Railway and Locomotive Engineering, May 1899, page 225.

Tall express Eight-wheeler quartet that went into service pulling the fast expresses that linked Indianapolis and St Louis "...and they are gaining," said the R&LE's correspondent, "a high reputation for the efficient way in which they do the required work ...we understand that they went into service with exceptionally small trouble from the annoyances common to the breaking-in process."


Class G/D5 (Locobase 1138)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Data confirmed and supplemented from Park Benjamin (Ed), Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics (New York: D Appleton & Company, 1884), p. 342-345

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Duty was passenger branch-line service, which is shown by the low axle loading and tractive effort.


Class K/D6 (Locobase 1142)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. High-drivered design for express passenger service. Note that while the grate was larger than that of the earlier B & C classes in order to burn anthracite coal, the K-class designer chose to use more, smaller boiler tubes. One can also see closer spacing between the drivers, resulting in a shorter wheelbase even though the individual drivers are much taller. This came from placing the firebox above the engine's frame rails rather than between them; the location was one of the first such constructions in a locomotive.

http://www.mth-railking.com/search.asp?item=20-3156-1&page=cat (visited 11 Nov 2004), the MTH models site, confirms Locobase's analysis with the comment that the K represented "an elegant and successful step in the evolution of Pennsy motive power". Ks also featured a two-bar alligator crosshead, powered reversing gear, and sandboxes on the running board rather than sand in a top-mounted dome.

A dissent from this positive assessment is found closer to the time of their use in Railroad & Engineering Journal, Volume LXVI, No 11 (November 1892), p. 487.. The author comments that although they had tall drivers, "...owing to insufficient boiler capacity were not successful in the service for which they were intended - that is, heavy and fast passenger traffic."


Class K/D6A (Locobase 2823)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . These 7 were converted from D6 engines with smaller drivers, which raised tractive effort. The factor of adhesion suggests, however, that this design still had some room for growth.


Class L/D16 (Locobase 1144)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney's summary in Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942) and J Parker Lamb, Perfecting the American Steam Locomotive (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003), pp. 25, 27.

426 D-16 engines built in 5 sub-classes. D-16 had 68" drivers; D-16a had 80" drivers. All had the characteristic (for the Pennsy) Belpaire firebox. According to J Parker Lamb, "An unlikely trio of international technical talent" were primarily responsible for designing this large, powerful passenger engine. Theye were the French-born general superintendent of motive power Frank D. Casanave, chief mechanical engineer Axel S. Vogt from Sweden, and American-born chief of motive power Theodore N. Ely. Lamb describes the division of labor: "Casanave supervised the design, whose details were refined by Vogt, while Ely ...used his artistic talents to provide the external contours, and to design the paint scheme and striping of the finished product."

They began with 18.5 x 26 cylinders, 185-psi boilers, yielding a 22,250 lb tractive effort; because of Vogt's "careful attention to details", the first of the class weighed in at a value only 68 pounds away from the estimate.

A mark of their reliability was the performance of one engine (816) which went 3 years and 4 months without being shopped for repairs and traveled 300,000 miles.


Class L/D16a (Locobase 2833)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney's summary in Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942).

As with all Pennsy locomotives of this vintage or later, this design used a Belpaire firebox. Its chief difference from the original D16 was the mounting of 80" drivers.

Later converted to D16 with 68" drivers.


Class N/D8 (Locobase 1147)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Replaced C class. Had a larger boiler. Duty was passenger and fast freight service.


Class O/D10 (Locobase 2827)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Responded to the O class's low factor of adhesion by increasing the weight on the drivers. D10A had only 600 lb more total weight in working order. Among the first Pennsylvania engines to have a Belpaire boiler.


Class O/D10a (Locobase 3488)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . D10A had only 600 lb more total weight in working order, but had the taller drivers. Among the first Pennsylvania engines to have a Belpaire boiler.


Class O/D8A (Locobase 1148)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Similar to N, but with slightly larger cylinders. Duty was passenger and fast freight service.


Class O/D9 & D9A (Locobase 2826)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Had the earlier O class cylinders, but saw a big jump in boiler pressure with commensurate jump in tractive effort. Also included a Belpaire firebox. Now, however, the factor of adhesion had dropped to the point of slipperiness. D9A had slightly more weight on the drivers.


Class O/D9a (Locobase 3487)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . D9A put slightly more weight on taller drivers than did the D9s, but also had the Belpaire firebox.


Class P/D11 (Locobase 1149)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

Similar to O, but with slightly larger cylinders and higher boiler pressure and "toboggan-type" fireboxes with grates that sloped toward the front. Their service area included the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore and the Baltimore & Potomac pulling 20-car fast freight trains.


Class P/D11a (Locobase 4152)

See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

Like the D11s (Locobase 1149), which ran on 62" drivers, the D11as had radial-stay "toboggan-type" fireboxes with grates that sloped toward the front. Their 18 1/2" cylinder diameter was an unusual diameter in North American practice.

Chaney reported that a D11a ran two round trips daily between Philadelphia and Washington for one month in 1887 and accumulated 17,000 miles (27,370 km).


Class P/D12 (Locobase 2828)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

These two engines were part of the landmark P class variant that introduced the Belpaire boiler, later to become a standard part of Pennsy practice. They were assigned to the Northern Central Railway.


Class P/D12a (Locobase 2829)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11. Produced in 1889-1891.

This large class first used a Belpaire firebox on one of the few US railroads that would adopt the square-shouldered furnace in significant numbers. In this first version, the firebox had 90-degree corners. According to Chaney, "..this design developed a weakness at this point and the design was later modified."


Class P/D13 (Locobase 2830)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11

This pair used the same boiler design as the much more numerous D13a, D13c classes shown in Locobase 3489, but rolled on smaller drivers that were better suited to the NCR's requirements.


Class P/D13a, D13c (Locobase 3489)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

Still newer P class, now with more, but smaller tubes and more weight on the drivers. It introduced a new, stronger boiler mated with a flush joint to the Belpaire firebox. The D13a, with their taller drivers, were far more numerous than the duet of D13s (Locobase 2830). D13cs were virtually identical, the new designation representing a modest change in the boiler design introduced in 1893.


Class P/D14 (Locobase 2831)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11

Now the P class stepped up in both boiler pressure and driver diameter for the higher speeds and train tonnages that marked the end of the 19th century. Belpaire firebox.

Later converted to D14c engines with 68" drivers.


Class P/D14a (Locobase 2832)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11; and "Boiler for Class P Locomotive, Pennsylvania Railroad,"American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume LXIX, Number 7 (July 1895), pp. 310-312.

Still taller drivers than on the D14 and 1/2" larger cylinders. Axel Vogt redesigned the crosshead, replacing the 2-bar Alligator type with a 3-bar crosshead.

Like most Pennsylvania engines, this class used the Belpaire firebox. The AERJ report explained that Belpaire boilers had caused "considerable trouble" by leaking at the joint between the barrel and the outer shell of the firebox. "This difficulty has been entirely overcome in the case of these boilers," the report continued, "by flanging the connecting sheet in line, thus making the boiler straight top. The strains of expansion and contraction are in this way brought fair against the riveting, and all working due to buckling is avoided."

As a result of replacing the 18" (457 mm) diameter stack with a tapered, 13 1/2" (343 mm) version, the engines now had exhausts that "sounded like the bark of a rifle," according to Charles Chaney.

NB: The evaporative heating surface area in the AERJ report was given as 1,551.84 sq ft because of a firebox heating surface calculation of 116.64 sq ft. Arch tubes added later probably accounted for the difference between that figure and the 148 sq ft shown in the diagram.

Later converted to D14b with 68" drivers.


Class T/D15 (Locobase 1152)

Some data from "Compound Express Engine, Pennsylvania Railroad" The Locomotive & Railway Carriage & Wagon Review, Vol III (September 1898), p. 139

One of the Pennsy's rare excursions into compounding. Two-cylinder Lindner cross-compound for express passenger service designed by the Chief of Motive Power at the Altoona Shops Theodore N Ely.

Belpaire firebox was of typical Pennsy form, but the dome, the low running board with raised cups for the crankpins gave it a European look.

The author of the Locomotive article noted that the locomotive was a spirited performer, often making up time on the schedule while pulling 12 heavy Pullman cars. "With all this, however, in its favour" he is bound to report, "we doubt if 1515 has ever been really liked by the American drivers. There's something strange about it, with its boxed up wheels, rocking shaft, less valve year, &c, that the men have never taken to, the drivers of the States being very much attached to their American type of engine and its easily accessible parts."


Class unknown (Locobase 9519)

Data from the Twelfth Annual Report of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association, May 13th-May15th, 1879, page 83-84. NB: Boiler pressure is an estimate and the heating surface of the tubes is measured from the inside. Locobase believes this engine is one of the quartet produced by Baldwin in January 1867, works #1573-1574, 1577-1578.

James M. Boone of the P, Ft W & C described the boiler for which he gave the specifications as "a good steamer; will make steam freely with nut coal; does the best work with about 4" of coal on the grate."


Class unknown (Locobase 11176)

Data from "Fuel for Railroads", William Jenney (ed.), The Mining Magazine and Journal, Vol Six, (January 1856) p. 64-66. See also Locobase 5570 for other early comments on the preference for coal as fuel.

According to the Mining Magazine, as of early 1856 "This is a subject of growing importance, and every investigation of it tends to show the value and importance of coal as an article of fuel." His discussion of the substitution of coal for wood included communications from several locomotive superintendents describing various tests by different railroads in 1855.

The P&C's J B Baker ran several trips measuring 82 miles (132 km) each and "elevation overcome" of 1,045 ft using equal parts of Hollidaysburg and Pittsburgh coal, Pittsburgh coal alone, and Broad Top coal. Broad Top burned the most economically with 6,432 lb (2,918 kg) consumed to evaporate 4,877 gallons (18,459 litres) - this on a grate originally designed for wood burning. The reader will also be able to perform the back-of-the-envelope calculation that over an 82-mile trip pulling 50 cars in a train of 369 short tons total, and given the tender capacity of the day, the crew would have had to stop for water at least three times. No wonder the average speed was 10.9 mph (17.5 km/h).

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1/D15041510/DA/D1AAn/D7
Locobase ID11591 2834 2835 1132 1145
RailroadNew York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class2111358
Road Numbers1, 1215041510
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2111358
BuilderBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoSchenectadyBurnham, Williams & CoAltoonaAltoona
Year18891892189218671882
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 8.50'8' 7.50'8' 7.75'
Engine Wheelbase23.17'23.42'22.29'19.60'22.68'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.34 0.34 0.41 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)47.98'47.85'44.51'48.50'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)30670 lbs41000 lbs41800 lbs24480 lbs33100 lbs
Weight on Drivers60730 lbs81500 lbs83900 lbs42370 lbs64000 lbs
Engine Weight93570 lbs126700 lbs122400 lbs71900 lbs93350 lbs
Tender Light Weight88000 lbs88000 lbs54000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight214700 lbs210400 lbs125900 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2400 gals3500 gals3600 gals2400 gals2400 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)8 tons7.5 tons4 tons6 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)51 lb/yard68 lb/yard70 lb/yard35 lb/yard53 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter62"78"78"68"68"
Boiler Pressure130 psi180 psi180 psi125 psi140 psi
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 24"18" x 24"13" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)22" x 24" (2)
Tractive Effort13859 lbs15253 lbs11794 lbs10838 lbs12138 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.38 5.34 7.11 3.91 5.27
Heating Ability
Firebox Area144.30 sq. ft166 sq. ft131.72 sq. ft155 sq. ft
Grate Area17.60 sq. ft26.20 sq. ft38.50 sq. ft16.10 sq. ft34.80 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1817 sq. ft1696 sq. ft1049 sq. ft1289 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface01817 sq. ft1696 sq. ft1049 sq. ft1289 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume257.05459.99166.38204.44
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation22884716693020134872
Same as above plus superheater percentage22884716693020134872
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area025974298801646521700
Power L108404559838375194
Power MT0454.67294.19399.30357.84

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassAAn/D7AB/D2Ba/D2aCC/D3
Locobase ID2825 1133 1143 9945 1134
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class6120452367
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built6120452367
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoonaM W BaldwinAltoona
Year18831867188118491867
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonV-hookStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.75' 8.50' 8.50' 5.33' 8.50'
Engine Wheelbase22.68'22.47'22.47'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.38 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)48.50'44.52'44.61'44.97'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)32650 lbs28000 lbs28330 lbs26880 lbs
Weight on Drivers65180 lbs53200 lbs53754 lbs26200 lbs50950 lbs
Engine Weight96330 lbs80500 lbs82200 lbs45900 lbs79100 lbs
Tender Light Weight51400 lbs51400 lbs51400 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight131900 lbs133600 lbs130500 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2400 gals2400 gals2400 gals2400 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)6 tons4 tons4 tons tons4 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)54 lb/yard44 lb/yard45 lb/yard22 lb/yard42 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter62"62"68"54"62"
Boiler Pressure140 psi125 psi125 psi75 psi125 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)17" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"15" x 20"17" x 24"
Tractive Effort13313 lbs13326 lbs12150 lbs5313 lbs11886 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.90 3.99 4.42 4.93 4.29
Heating Ability
Firebox Area155 sq. ft115.11 sq. ft202 sq. ft115.11 sq. ft
Grate Area34.80 sq. ft17.60 sq. ft17.60 sq. ft17.60 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1289 sq. ft1057 sq. ft1172 sq. ft1057 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1289 sq. ft1057 sq. ft1172 sq. ft01057 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume204.44149.53165.80167.64
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation48722200220002200
Same as above plus superheater percentage48722200220002200
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area217001438925250014389
Power L147362983437303345
Power MT320.38247.23358.700289.48

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC/D4C/D4ACAn/D4CAn/D4AD16b
Locobase ID2820 2821 1140 2822 13320
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class37153737262
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built373737262
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoona
Year18731873187318731900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 8.50' 8.50' 8.50' 8.50' 7.75'
Engine Wheelbase22.47'22.47'22.47'22.47'22.79'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)46.84'46.84'46.84'46.84'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)29160 lbs28410 lbs29160 lbs30188 lbs50400 lbs
Weight on Drivers56200 lbs55520 lbs56200 lbs57456 lbs97100 lbs
Engine Weight81800 lbs82060 lbs81800 lbs83500 lbs138000 lbs
Tender Light Weight51400 lbs51400 lbs51400 lbs51400 lbs132000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight133200 lbs133460 lbs133200 lbs134900 lbs270000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2400 gals2400 gals2400 gals2400 gals5500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)6 tons6 tons6 tons6 tons12.5 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)47 lb/yard46 lb/yard47 lb/yard48 lb/yard81 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter62"68"62"68"68"
Boiler Pressure125 psi125 psi125 psi125 psi185 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)17" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"18.5" x 26"
Tractive Effort11886 lbs10838 lbs11886 lbs10838 lbs20578 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.73 5.12 4.73 5.30 4.72
Heating Ability
Firebox Area155.56 sq. ft155.56 sq. ft309 sq. ft161.50 sq. ft166.70 sq. ft
Grate Area28.54 sq. ft28.54 sq. ft24.30 sq. ft29.13 sq. ft33 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1158 sq. ft1158 sq. ft1314 sq. ft1158 sq. ft1900 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1158 sq. ft1158 sq. ft1314 sq. ft1158 sq. ft1900 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume183.66183.66208.41183.66234.89
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation35683568303836416105
Same as above plus superheater percentage35683568303836416105
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area1944519445386252018830840
Power L139664350585744167085
Power MT311.16345.46459.52338.89321.72

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD16c/D16dD16sbD26D26aG/D5
Locobase ID13321 103 11107 9507 1138
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Vandalia Line (PRR)Vandalia Line (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class572414418
Road Numbers299
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built574418
BuilderAltoonaJuniataSchenectadySchenectady
Year18991914189518991870
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.75' 7.75' 8.50' 8.50'7'
Engine Wheelbase22.79'22.79'23.92'24.42'19.80'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.36 0.35 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)50.29'55.02'49.96'52.21'40.51'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)48100 lbs52000 lbs20500 lbs
Weight on Drivers94900 lbs98150 lbs84500 lbs85800 lbs40700 lbs
Engine Weight138700 lbs142100 lbs129200 lbs132300 lbs65200 lbs
Tender Light Weight80000 lbs138900 lbs40800 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight218700 lbs281000 lbs106000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity3000 gals5600 gals4000 gals6000 gals1600 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)7.5 tons13 tons tons10 tons3.3 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)79 lb/yard82 lb/yard70 lb/yard72 lb/yard34 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter80"68"73"78"56"
Boiler Pressure185 psi175 psi190 psi190 psi125 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18.5" x 26"20.5" x 26"20" x 24"20" x 26"15" x 22"
Tractive Effort17491 lbs23902 lbs21238 lbs21533 lbs9392 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.43 4.11 3.98 3.98 4.33
Heating Ability
Firebox Area166.20 sq. ft181 sq. ft171.20 sq. ft175 sq. ft69.04 sq. ft
Grate Area33 sq. ft33.20 sq. ft30.05 sq. ft30 sq. ft13.30 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1900 sq. ft1400 sq. ft2168 sq. ft2241 sq. ft721 sq. ft
Superheating Surface253 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface1900 sq. ft1653 sq. ft2168 sq. ft2241 sq. ft721 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume234.89140.95248.43237.05160.23
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation61055810571057001663
Same as above plus superheater percentage61056682571057001663
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area307473642632528332508630
Power L183289149801181412764
Power MT386.94411.00418.02418.36299.44

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassK/D6K/D6AL/D16L/D16aN/D8
Locobase ID1142 2823 1144 2833 1147
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class19767445
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1967445
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaJuniata
Year18801880189618951883
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.75' 7.75' 7.75' 7.75' 8.50'
Engine Wheelbase22.72'22.72'22.79'22.79'23.46'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)48.48'48.48'50.29'50.29'45.96'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)32900 lbs32900 lbs48300 lbs48400 lbs30800 lbs
Weight on Drivers65800 lbs65800 lbs93600 lbs93100 lbs57700 lbs
Engine Weight96700 lbs96700 lbs135900 lbs134500 lbs91300 lbs
Tender Light Weight56300 lbs56300 lbs82000 lbs82000 lbs50500 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight153000 lbs153000 lbs217900 lbs216500 lbs141800 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2400 gals2400 gals3600 gals3600 gals2400 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)6 tons6 tons7.5 tons7.5 tons4 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)55 lb/yard55 lb/yard78 lb/yard78 lb/yard48 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter78"72"68"80"62"
Boiler Pressure140 psi140 psi185 psi185 psi130 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 24"18" x 24"18.5" x 26"18.5" x 26"17" x 24"
Tractive Effort11863 lbs12852 lbs20578 lbs17491 lbs12362 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.55 5.12 4.55 5.32 4.67
Heating Ability
Firebox Area155 sq. ft155.60 sq. ft171.40 sq. ft171.40 sq. ft142 sq. ft
Grate Area34.80 sq. ft34.80 sq. ft33 sq. ft33 sq. ft17.65 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1240 sq. ft1240 sq. ft1918 sq. ft1918 sq. ft1392 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1240 sq. ft1240 sq. ft1918 sq. ft1918 sq. ft1392 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume175.42175.42237.11237.11220.78
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation48724872610561052295
Same as above plus superheater percentage48724872610561052295
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2170021784317093170918460
Power L151884796719384624478
Power MT347.65321.38338.84400.76342.19

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassO/D10O/D10aO/D8AO/D9 & D9AO/D9a
Locobase ID2827 3488 1148 2826 3487
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class5158861713
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built5158861713
BuilderJuniataAltoona
Year18831890188318831889
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 8.50' 8.50' 8.50' 8.50' 8.50'
Engine Wheelbase23.45'23.45'23.46'23.45'23.45'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)47.37'47.37'45.51'47.37'47.37'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)32700 lbs32700 lbs31300 lbs31100 lbs31100 lbs
Weight on Drivers65350 lbs65350 lbs58300 lbs59800 lbs59800 lbs
Engine Weight103000 lbs103000 lbs97900 lbs96700 lbs96700 lbs
Tender Light Weight73350 lbs73350 lbs50500 lbs73350 lbs73350 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight176350 lbs176350 lbs148400 lbs170050 lbs170050 lbs
Tender Water Capacity3600 gals3600 gals3600 gals3600 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)7.5 tons7.5 tons tons7.5 tons7.5 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)54 lb/yard54 lb/yard49 lb/yard50 lb/yard50 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter62"68"62"62"68"
Boiler Pressure160 psi160 psi130 psi160 psi160 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort17057 lbs15552 lbs13859 lbs17057 lbs15552 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.83 4.20 4.21 3.51 3.85
Heating Ability
Firebox Area93 sq. ft93 sq. ft142 sq. ft127.60 sq. ft127.60 sq. ft
Grate Area17.34 sq. ft17.34 sq. ft17.60 sq. ft17.60 sq. ft17.60 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1256 sq. ft1256 sq. ft1392 sq. ft1284 sq. ft1284 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1256 sq. ft1256 sq. ft1392 sq. ft1284 sq. ft1284 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume177.69177.69196.93181.65181.65
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation27742774228828162816
Same as above plus superheater percentage27742774228828162816
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area1488014880184602041620416
Power L140254415399544964931
Power MT271.57297.89302.14331.50363.58

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP/D11P/D11aP/D12P/D12aP/D13
Locobase ID1149 4152 2828 2829 2830
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Northern Central (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class21462412
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built21462412
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoona
Year18831883189018891892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.75' 7.75' 7.75' 7.75' 7.75'
Engine Wheelbase22.54'22.70'22.50'22.70'22.70'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)48.50'48.10'48.60'48.60'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)38200 lbs38200 lbs36225 lbs36850 lbs37708 lbs
Weight on Drivers74400 lbs67800 lbs72100 lbs73350 lbs74716 lbs
Engine Weight108700 lbs100600 lbs105250 lbs106500 lbs109716 lbs
Tender Light Weight56300 lbs56300 lbs56300 lbs69700 lbs69700 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight165000 lbs156900 lbs161550 lbs176200 lbs179416 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2400 gals2400 gals3000 gals3000 gals3000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)6 tons6 tons7.5 tons7.5 tons7.5 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)62 lb/yard57 lb/yard60 lb/yard61 lb/yard62 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter62"68"62"68"62"
Boiler Pressure140 psi140 psi160 psi160 psi160 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"
Tractive Effort15766 lbs14375 lbs18018 lbs16428 lbs18018 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.72 4.72 4.00 4.46 4.15
Heating Ability
Firebox Area164.40 sq. ft164.40 sq. ft138 sq. ft138 sq. ft137 sq. ft
Grate Area34.76 sq. ft34.76 sq. ft33.25 sq. ft33.25 sq. ft33.25 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1530 sq. ft1530 sq. ft1384 sq. ft1382 sq. ft1572 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1530 sq. ft1530 sq. ft1384 sq. ft1382 sq. ft1572 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume204.91204.91185.36185.09210.53
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation48664866532053205320
Same as above plus superheater percentage48664866532053205320
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2301623016220802208021920
Power L145574998459250324998
Power MT270.07325.04280.82302.49294.95

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP/D13a, D13cP/D14P/D14aT/D15unknown
Locobase ID3489 2831 2832 1152 9519
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class15061614
Road Numbers1515193-196
GaugeStdStdStdStd4' 9.2""
Number Built15061614
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoonaAltoonaM. Baird & Co
Year18921892189418921867
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.75' 7.75' 7.75'8'
Engine Wheelbase22.70'22.70'22.79'23.94'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)48.60'48.60'49.27'48.09'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)37708 lbs42000 lbs43500 lbs48500 lbs
Weight on Drivers74716 lbs82600 lbs87300 lbs95200 lbs46700 lbs
Engine Weight109716 lbs122600 lbs127650 lbs145500 lbs73000 lbs
Tender Light Weight69700 lbs69700 lbs70000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight179416 lbs192300 lbs197650 lbs
Tender Water Capacity3000 gals3000 gals3000 gals3000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)7.5 tons7.5 tons7.5 tons7.5 tons tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)62 lb/yard69 lb/yard73 lb/yard79 lb/yard39 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter68"78"80"84"66"
Boiler Pressure160 psi175 psi175 psi205 psi120 psi
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"19" x 24"19.5" x 28"16" x 24"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)31" x 28" (1)
Tractive Effort16428 lbs15665 lbs16110 lbs15825 lbs9495 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.55 5.27 5.42 6.02 4.92
Heating Ability
Firebox Area137 sq. ft148 sq. ft148 sq. ft163 sq. ft86.10 sq. ft
Grate Area33.25 sq. ft33.25 sq. ft33.25 sq. ft30 sq. ft15 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1572 sq. ft1583 sq. ft1583 sq. ft1825 sq. ft831 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1572 sq. ft1583 sq. ft1583 sq. ft1825 sq. ft831 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume210.53212.01201.00377.13148.79
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation53205819581961501800
Same as above plus superheater percentage53205819581961501800
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2192025900259003341510332
Power L154817078688261952981
Power MT323.45377.83347.59286.92281.45

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Classunknown
Locobase ID11176
RailroadPhiladelphia & Columbia (PRR)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-4-0
Number in Class
Road Numbers
GaugeStd
Number Built
BuilderLancaster
Year1856
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase5'
Engine Wheelbase
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers
Engine Weight
Tender Light Weight
Total Engine and Tender Weight
Tender Water Capacity
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)0
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter60"
Boiler Pressure130 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)16" x 22"
Tractive Effort10372 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)
Heating Ability
Firebox Area83.14 sq. ft
Grate Area
Evaporative Heating Surface974 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface974 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume190.25
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation0
Same as above plus superheater percentage0
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area10808
Power L13529
Power MT

Reference


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