New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk / Northern Central / Pennsylvania / Philadelphia & Columbia / Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago / Vandalia Line 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1/D (Locobase 11591)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 15, p. 36. Works numbers were 9901-9902 in March 1889.

The NYP & N was a Delmarva road that connected the Pennsylvania's end point at Delmar in the center of the peninsula with Norfolk. It was created by merging 9-mile Worcester & Newton with the Eastern Shore which linked Delmar to Salisbury and thence southwest to Annensic, later dubbed Crisfield, on Chesapeake Bay. The last and longest element was the 65-mile section built in the 1880s between Pocomoke, Md and the ferry at Cape Charles at the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula.

These small Eight-wheelers eventually found their way onto the Pennsylvania's roster, but not for long. 12 left by 1906 and 1 was retired by 1913.


Class 1504 (Locobase 2834)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Calculated tube heating surface was 1,684 sq ft. Later data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 14-15 gave tube heating surface as 1,672.2 sq ft.

One of three engines assessed at the end of the 19th century. The other two were the 1510, a Baldwin compound (Locobase 2835) , and 1320, a Webb compound. The New Yorker was a straightforward, orthodox simple-expansion locomotive that offered a good- sized boiler as well as a look at building techniques from a manufacturer other than Altoona or the PRR's natural bedmate, Baldwin.

This one was retired in 1911.


Class 1510/D (Locobase 2835)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 18, p. 11. Works number was 12824 in July 1892..

One of three engines assessed at the end of the 19th century. This was a Vauclain compound. The other two were the 1504, a Schenectady-built simple-expansion (Locobase 2834), and 1320, a Webb compound.

Baldwin delivered the 1510 with the 22" LP cylinders shown in this spec, which generated an LP/HP ratio of 2.86, in keeping with many other Vauclain compounds. Later diagrams show the class with 24" LP cylinders, which raised that ratio to 3.41. Very few compounds ever tried to make exhausted HP steam do so much work per square inch.

In 1903, the Pennsy converted the 1510 to a two-cylinder simple-expansion locomotive. In 1909, the railroad replaced its tall express drivers with 68" wheels. The engine was scrapped in 1911.


Class A/D1 (Locobase 1132)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Data confirmed and supplemented from Park Benjamin (Ed), Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics (New York: D Appleton & Company, 1884), p. 348.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. His goal was to standardize to allow greater interchangeability of parts. Duty was light passenger service.


Class AAn/D7 (Locobase 1145)

Based on Cassatt's A class, but fitted with firebox suitable for buring coal. Very similar to K class, but with a slightly greater tube length.

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net .


Class AAn/D7A (Locobase 2825)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Differs from D7 in having smaller drivers, more even weight distribution even as it weighed 1 1/2 tons more. Its firebox rode above the drivers' axles, which allowed the grate to be 41 3/4 (1,060 mm) wide.


Class B/D2 (Locobase 1133)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Compared to As, Bs had larger pistons, smaller drivers, greater TE. Duty was as passenger-service helpers in the mountains.


Class Ba/D2a (Locobase 1143)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Passenger-service locomotive. Nine of these were later converted to D2s with 62" drivers.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class C (Locobase 9945)

Data from C H Caruthers, "Early Baldwin Locomotives on the Pennsylvania Railroad", Locomotive Engineering, Vol XI, No 2 (February 1898), p. 110. Works 387, 389-390 in August 1850; 392, 394 in September 1850; 400 in October; 406 in November; 423 in April 1851; 431 in June; 459 in December; 462 in February 1852; 468 and 470 in March.

These engines were named when they first came into service: Venango, Centre, Clinton, Columbia, Elk, Erie, Bradford, Clearfield, Crawford, Fayette, Somerset, Greene, Lycoming, and Union.

As Caruthers describes the engines, he notes the big Bury firebox , safety valves on the dome and whistle, big cabbage stack, closely spaced truck, raked cylinder pitch (1 3/4" in 10").

The last of these was retired in 1870, although their obviously obsolescent design was recognized as early as 1857.


Class C/D3 (Locobase 1134)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Duty was passenger and fast freight service. The tenders for this class were fitted with water scoop for refilling their tanks while moving over sections that had water troughs between the rails.


Class C/D4 (Locobase 2820)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net .

Class C/D4A (Locobase 2821)

These were 15 D4s that were converted to the 68" driver configuration.

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net .


Class CAn/D4 (Locobase 1140)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net and PRR 3 - 1904 109-D Class and Description of Locomotives dated 1 March 1904 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Duty was passenger and fast freight service, had long firebox suitable for burning anthracite coal.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class CAn/D4A (Locobase 2822)

This anthracite burner is identical to the other D4A except for a slightly larger firebox.

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class D16b (Locobase 13320)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . The Pennsy didn't back away from long production runs once they were satisified with a design. After the Class L/D16 entered production in 1895 (Locobase 1144), its impact on PRR passenger trains led to a subclass of 80"-driver express locomotives (Locobase 2833). But the biggest subclass was this slightly modified D16.


Class D16c/D16d (Locobase 13321)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney's summary in Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942).

As with all Pennsy locomotives of this vintage or later, this design used a Belpaire firebox. It's not clear why there were two different subclasses. The chief difference from the D16a (Locobase 2833) was slightly higher weights.

Those that were not later converted to D16 by being fitted with 68" drivers or left alone were upgraded with superheaters and other details very similar to the D16sb (Locobase 103).


Class D16sb (Locobase 103)

Modernized from 1914 on with the 20.5-in diameter pistons and boilers limited to 175 psi, but superheated. According to Edson (Keystone Steam & Electric, 1974), the conversion created an "...excellent engine for suburban service and local trains." Used on many Pennsy branch lines; some later sent over to the Long Island RR.


Class D26 (Locobase 11107)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 8-9.

Schenectady's catalogue of recent American-type engines includes this quartet, whose dimensions match those of the St Lawrence & Adirondack engine shown in Locobase 11106. The chief difference is the driving wheel diameter, which is 6" greater in these main-line express that hauled "...heavy fast trains ...between Indianapolis and St Louis."


Class D26a (Locobase 9507)

Data from "Vandalia Express Engines" Railway and Locomotive Engineering, May 1899, page 225.

Tall express Eight-wheeler quartet that went into service pulling the fast expresses that linked Indianapolis and St Louis "...and they are gaining," said the R&LE's correspondent, "a high reputation for the efficient way in which they do the required work ...we understand that they went into service with exceptionally small trouble from the annoyances common to the breaking-in process."


Class G/D5 (Locobase 1138)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Data confirmed and supplemented from Park Benjamin (Ed), Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics (New York: D Appleton & Company, 1884), p. 342-345

One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. Duty was passenger branch-line service, which is shown by the low axle loading and tractive effort.


Class K/D6 (Locobase 1142)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . One of the classes established by Alexander J. Cassatt in 1867 when he became Master of Machinery. High-drivered design for express passenger service. Note that while the grate was larger than that of the earlier B & C classes in order to burn anthracite coal, the K-class designer chose to use more, smaller boiler tubes. One can also see closer spacing between the drivers, resulting in a shorter wheelbase even though the individual drivers are much taller. This came from placing the firebox above the engine's frame rails rather than between them; the location was one of the first such constructions in a locomotive.

http://www.mth-railking.com/search.asp?item=20-3156-1&page=cat (visited 11 Nov 2004), the MTH models site, confirms Locobase's analysis with the comment that the K represented "an elegant and successful step in the evolution of Pennsy motive power". Ks also featured a two-bar alligator crosshead, powered reversing gear, and sandboxes on the running board rather than sand in a top-mounted dome.

A dissent from this positive assessment is found closer to the time of their use in Railroad & Engineering Journal, Volume LXVI, No 11 (November 1892), p. 487.. The author comments that although they had tall drivers, "...owing to insufficient boiler capacity were not successful in the service for which they were intended - that is, heavy and fast passenger traffic."


Class K/D6A (Locobase 2823)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . These 7 were converted from D6 engines with smaller drivers, which raised tractive effort. The factor of adhesion suggests, however, that this design still had some room for growth.


Class L/D16 (Locobase 1144)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney's summary in Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942) and J Parker Lamb, Perfecting the American Steam Locomotive (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003), pp. 25, 27.

426 D-16 engines built in 5 sub-classes. D-16 had 68" drivers; D-16a had 80" drivers. All had the characteristic (for the Pennsy) Belpaire firebox. According to J Parker Lamb, "An unlikely trio of international technical talent" were primarily responsible for designing this large, powerful passenger engine. Theye were the French-born general superintendent of motive power Frank D. Casanave, chief mechanical engineer Axel S. Vogt from Sweden, and American-born chief of motive power Theodore N. Ely. Lamb describes the division of labor: "Casanave supervised the design, whose details were refined by Vogt, while Ely ...used his artistic talents to provide the external contours, and to design the paint scheme and striping of the finished product."

They began with 18.5 x 26 cylinders, 185-psi boilers, yielding a 22,250 lb tractive effort; because of Vogt's "careful attention to details", the first of the class weighed in at a value only 68 pounds away from the estimate.

A mark of their reliability was the performance of one engine (816) which went 3 years and 4 months without being shopped for repairs and traveled 300,000 miles.


Class L/D16a (Locobase 2833)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney's summary in Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942).

As with all Pennsy locomotives of this vintage or later, this design used a Belpaire firebox. Its chief difference from the original D16 was the mounting of 80" drivers.

Later converted to D16 with 68" drivers.


Class N/D8 (Locobase 1147)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Replaced C class. Had a larger boiler. Duty was passenger and fast freight service.


Class O/D10 (Locobase 2827)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Responded to the O class's low factor of adhesion by increasing the weight on the drivers. D10A had only 600 lb more total weight in working order. Among the first Pennsylvania engines to have a Belpaire boiler.


Class O/D10a (Locobase 3488)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . D10A had only 600 lb more total weight in working order, but had the taller drivers. Among the first Pennsylvania engines to have a Belpaire boiler.


Class O/D8A (Locobase 1148)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Similar to N, but with slightly larger cylinders. Duty was passenger and fast freight service.


Class O/D9 & D9A (Locobase 2826)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . Had the earlier O class cylinders, but saw a big jump in boiler pressure with commensurate jump in tractive effort. Also included a Belpaire firebox. Now, however, the factor of adhesion had dropped to the point of slipperiness. D9A had slightly more weight on the drivers.


Class O/D9a (Locobase 3487)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . D9A put slightly more weight on taller drivers than did the D9s, but also had the Belpaire firebox.


Class P/D11 (Locobase 1149)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

Similar to O, but with slightly larger cylinders and higher boiler pressure and "toboggan-type" fireboxes with grates that sloped toward the front. Their service area included the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore and the Baltimore & Potomac pulling 20-car fast freight trains.


Class P/D11a (Locobase 4152)

See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

Like the D11s (Locobase 1149), which ran on 62" drivers, the D11as had radial-stay "toboggan-type" fireboxes with grates that sloped toward the front. Their 18 1/2" cylinder diameter was an unusual diameter in North American practice.

Chaney reported that a D11a ran two round trips daily between Philadelphia and Washington for one month in 1887 and accumulated 17,000 miles (27,370 km).


Class P/D12 (Locobase 2828)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

These two engines were part of the landmark P class variant that introduced the Belpaire boiler, later to become a standard part of Pennsy practice. They were assigned to the Northern Central Railway.


Class P/D12a (Locobase 2829)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11. Produced in 1889-1891.

This large class first used a Belpaire firebox on one of the few US railroads that would adopt the square-shouldered furnace in significant numbers. In this first version, the firebox had 90-degree corners. According to Chaney, "..this design developed a weakness at this point and the design was later modified."


Class P/D13 (Locobase 2830)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11

This pair used the same boiler design as the much more numerous D13a, D13c classes shown in Locobase 3489, but rolled on smaller drivers that were better suited to the NCR's requirements.


Class P/D13a, D13c (Locobase 3489)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11.

Still newer P class, now with more, but smaller tubes and more weight on the drivers. It introduced a new, stronger boiler mated with a flush joint to the Belpaire firebox. The D13a, with their taller drivers, were far more numerous than the duet of D13s (Locobase 2830). D13cs were virtually identical, the new designation representing a modest change in the boiler design introduced in 1893.


Class P/D14 (Locobase 2831)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11

Now the P class stepped up in both boiler pressure and driver diameter for the higher speeds and train tonnages that marked the end of the 19th century. Belpaire firebox.

Later converted to D14c engines with 68" drivers.


Class P/D14a (Locobase 2832)

Data from diagram scanned in by Robert Schoenberg of http://prr.railfan.net . See also Charles B. Chaney, "The Famous Class P Passenger Engines - Pennsylvania Railroad" Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #59 (1942), pp. 6-11; and "Boiler for Class P Locomotive, Pennsylvania Railroad,"American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume LXIX, Number 7 (July 1895), pp. 310-312.

Still taller drivers than on the D14 and 1/2" larger cylinders. Axel Vogt redesigned the crosshead, replacing the 2-bar Alligator type with a 3-bar crosshead.

Like most Pennsylvania engines, this class used the Belpaire firebox. The AERJ report explained that Belpaire boilers had caused "considerable trouble" by leaking at the joint between the barrel and the outer shell of the firebox. "This difficulty has been entirely overcome in the case of these boilers," the report continued, "by flanging the connecting sheet in line, thus making the boiler straight top. The strains of expansion and contraction are in this way brought fair against the riveting, and all working due to buckling is avoided."

As a result of replacing the 18" (457 mm) diameter stack with a tapered, 13 1/2" (343 mm) version, the engines now had exhausts that "sounded like the bark of a rifle," according to Charles Chaney.

NB: The evaporative heating surface area in the AERJ report was given as 1,551.84 sq ft because of a firebox heating surface calculation of 116.64 sq ft. Arch tubes added later probably accounted for the difference between that figure and the 148 sq ft shown in the diagram.

Later converted to D14b with 68" drivers.


Class T/D15 (Locobase 1152)

Some data from "Compound Express Engine, Pennsylvania Railroad" The Locomotive & Railway Carriage & Wagon Review, Vol III (September 1898), p. 139

One of the Pennsy's rare excursions into compounding. Two-cylinder Lindner cross-compound for express passenger service designed by the Chief of Motive Power at the Altoona Shops Theodore N Ely.

Belpaire firebox was of typical Pennsy form, but the dome, the low running board with raised cups for the crankpins gave it a European look.

The author of the Locomotive article noted that the locomotive was a spirited performer, often making up time on the schedule while pulling 12 heavy Pullman cars. "With all this, however, in its favour" he is bound to report, "we doubt if 1515 has ever been really liked by the American drivers. There's something strange about it, with its boxed up wheels, rocking shaft, less valve year, &c, that the men have never taken to, the drivers of the States being very much attached to their American type of engine and its easily accessible parts."


Class unknown (Locobase 9519)

Data from the Twelfth Annual Report of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association, May 13th-May15th, 1879, page 83-84. NB: Boiler pressure is an estimate and the heating surface of the tubes is measured from the inside. Locobase believes this engine is one of the quartet produced by Baldwin in January 1867, works #1573-1574, 1577-1578.

James M. Boone of the P, Ft W & C described the boiler for which he gave the specifications as "a good steamer; will make steam freely with nut coal; does the best work with about 4" of coal on the grate."


Class unknown (Locobase 11176)

Data from "Fuel for Railroads", William Jenney (ed.), The Mining Magazine and Journal, Vol Six, (January 1856) p. 64-66. See also Locobase 5570 for other early comments on the preference for coal as fuel.

According to the Mining Magazine, as of early 1856 "This is a subject of growing importance, and every investigation of it tends to show the value and importance of coal as an article of fuel." His discussion of the substitution of coal for wood included communications from several locomotive superintendents describing various tests by different railroads in 1855.

The P&C's J B Baker ran several trips measuring 82 miles (132 km) each and "elevation overcome" of 1,045 ft using equal parts of Hollidaysburg and Pittsburgh coal, Pittsburgh coal alone, and Broad Top coal. Broad Top burned the most economically with 6,432 lb (2,918 kg) consumed to evaporate 4,877 gallons (18,459 litres) - this on a grate originally designed for wood burning. The reader will also be able to perform the back-of-the-envelope calculation that over an 82-mile trip pulling 50 cars in a train of 369 short tons total, and given the tender capacity of the day, the crew would have had to stop for water at least three times. No wonder the average speed was 10.9 mph (17.5 km/h).

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1/D15041510/DA/D1AAn/D7
Locobase ID11,591 2834 2835 1132 1145
RailroadNew York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class2111358
Road Numbers1, 1215041510
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2111358
BuilderBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoSchenectadyBurnham, Williams & CoAltoonaAltoona
Year18891892189218671882
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.508 7.508 7.75
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.1723.4222.2919.6022.68
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.34 0.34 0.41 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)47.9847.8544.5148.50
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)30,67041,00041,80024,48033,100
Weight on Drivers (lbs)60,73081,50083,90042,37064,000
Engine Weight (lbs)93,570126,700122,40071,90093,350
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)88,00088,00054,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)214,700210,400125,900
Tender Water Capacity (gals)24003500360024002400
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)8 7.5046
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5168703553
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6278786868
Boiler Pressure (psi)130180180125140
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"18" x 24"13" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)22" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)13,85915,25311,79410,83812,138
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.38 5.34 7.11 3.91 5.27
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)144.30166131.72155
Grate Area (sq ft)17.6026.2038.5016.1034.80
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1817169610491289
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1817169610491289
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume257.05459.99166.38204.44
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation22884716693020134872
Same as above plus superheater percentage22884716693020134872
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,97429,88016,46521,700
Power L18404559838375194
Power MT454.67294.19399.30357.84

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassAAn/D7AB/D2Ba/D2aCC/D3
Locobase ID2825 1133 1143 9945 1134
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class6120452367
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built6120452367
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoonaM W BaldwinAltoona
Year18831867188118491867
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonV-hookStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.75 8.50 8.50 5.33 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.6822.4722.47
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.38 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.5044.5244.6144.97
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)32,65028,00028,33026,880
Weight on Drivers (lbs)65,18053,20053,75426,20050,950
Engine Weight (lbs)96,33080,50082,20045,90079,100
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)51,40051,40051,400
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)131,900133,600130,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)2400240024002400
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)6444
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5444452242
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6262685462
Boiler Pressure (psi)14012512575125
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"15" x 20"17" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)13,31313,32612,150531311,886
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.90 3.99 4.42 4.93 4.29
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)155115.11202115.11
Grate Area (sq ft)34.8017.6017.6017.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1289105711721057
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1289105711721057
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume204.44149.53165.80167.64
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation4872220022002200
Same as above plus superheater percentage4872220022002200
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,70014,38925,25014,389
Power L14736298343733345
Power MT320.38247.23358.70289.48

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC/D4C/D4ACAn/D4CAn/D4AD16b
Locobase ID2820 2821 1140 2822 13,320
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class37153737262
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built373737262
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoona
Year18731873187318731900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.50 8.50 8.50 8.50 7.75
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.4722.4722.4722.4722.79
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)46.8446.8446.8446.84
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)29,16028,41029,16030,18850,400
Weight on Drivers (lbs)56,20055,52056,20057,45697,100
Engine Weight (lbs)81,80082,06081,80083,500138,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)51,40051,40051,40051,400132,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)133,200133,460133,200134,900270,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)24002400240024005500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)666612.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4746474881
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6268626868
Boiler Pressure (psi)125125125125185
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"17" x 24"18.5" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)11,88610,83811,88610,83820,578
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.73 5.12 4.73 5.30 4.72
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)155.56155.56309161.50166.70
Grate Area (sq ft)28.5428.5424.3029.1333
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)11581158131411581900
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)11581158131411581900
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume183.66183.66208.41183.66234.89
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation35683568303836416105
Same as above plus superheater percentage35683568303836416105
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area19,44519,44538,62520,18830,840
Power L139664350585744167085
Power MT311.16345.46459.52338.89321.72

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD16c/D16dD16sbD26D26aG/D5
Locobase ID13,321 103 11,107 9507 1138
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Vandalia Line (PRR)Vandalia Line (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class572414418
Road Numbers299
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built574418
BuilderAltoonaJuniataSchenectadySchenectady
Year18991914189518991870
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.75 7.75 8.50 8.507
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.7922.7923.9224.4219.80
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.36 0.35 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)50.2955.0249.9652.2140.51
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)48,10052,00020,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)94,90098,15084,50085,80040,700
Engine Weight (lbs)138,700142,100129,200132,30065,200
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)80,000138,90040,800
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)218,700281,000106,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)30005600400060001600
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons) 7.501310 3.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)7982707234
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)8068737856
Boiler Pressure (psi)185175190190125
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18.5" x 26"20.5" x 26"20" x 24"20" x 26"15" x 22"
Tractive Effort (lbs)17,49123,90221,23821,5339392
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.43 4.11 3.98 3.98 4.33
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)166.20181171.2017569.04
Grate Area (sq ft)3333.2030.053013.30
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1900140021682241721
Superheating Surface (sq ft)253
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1900165321682241721
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume234.89140.95248.43237.05160.23
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation61055810571057001663
Same as above plus superheater percentage61056682571057001663
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area30,74736,42632,52833,2508630
Power L183289149801181412764
Power MT386.94411.00418.02418.36299.44

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassK/D6K/D6AL/D16L/D16aN/D8
Locobase ID1142 2823 1144 2833 1147
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class19767445
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1967445
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaJuniata
Year18801880189618951883
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.7222.7222.7922.7923.46
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.4848.4850.2950.2945.96
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)32,90032,90048,30048,40030,800
Weight on Drivers (lbs)65,80065,80093,60093,10057,700
Engine Weight (lbs)96,70096,700135,900134,50091,300
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)56,30056,30082,00082,00050,500
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)153,000153,000217,900216,500141,800
Tender Water Capacity (gals)24002400360036002400
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)66 7.50 7.504
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5555787848
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7872688062
Boiler Pressure (psi)140140185185130
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"18" x 24"18.5" x 26"18.5" x 26"17" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)11,86312,85220,57817,49112,362
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.55 5.12 4.55 5.32 4.67
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)155155.60171.40171.40142
Grate Area (sq ft)34.8034.80333317.65
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12401240191819181392
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12401240191819181392
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume175.42175.42237.11237.11220.78
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation48724872610561052295
Same as above plus superheater percentage48724872610561052295
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,70021,78431,70931,70918,460
Power L151884796719384624478
Power MT347.65321.38338.84400.76342.19

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassO/D10O/D10aO/D8AO/D9 & D9AO/D9a
Locobase ID2827 3488 1148 2826 3487
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class5158861713
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built5158861713
BuilderJuniataAltoona
Year18831890188318831889
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 8.50 8.50 8.50 8.50 8.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.4523.4523.4623.4523.45
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)47.3747.3745.5147.3747.37
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)32,70032,70031,30031,10031,100
Weight on Drivers (lbs)65,35065,35058,30059,80059,800
Engine Weight (lbs)103,000103,00097,90096,70096,700
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)73,35073,35050,50073,35073,350
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)176,350176,350148,400170,050170,050
Tender Water Capacity (gals)3600360036003600
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons) 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5454495050
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6268626268
Boiler Pressure (psi)160160130160160
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)17,05715,55213,85917,05715,552
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.83 4.20 4.21 3.51 3.85
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)9393142127.60127.60
Grate Area (sq ft)17.3417.3417.6017.6017.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12561256139212841284
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12561256139212841284
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume177.69177.69196.93181.65181.65
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation27742774228828162816
Same as above plus superheater percentage27742774228828162816
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area14,88014,88018,46020,41620,416
Power L140254415399544964931
Power MT271.57297.89302.14331.50363.58

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP/D11P/D11aP/D12P/D12aP/D13
Locobase ID1149 4152 2828 2829 2830
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Northern Central (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class21462412
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built21462412
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoona
Year18831883189018891892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.5422.7022.5022.7022.70
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.5048.1048.6048.60
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)38,20038,20036,22536,85037,708
Weight on Drivers (lbs)74,40067,80072,10073,35074,716
Engine Weight (lbs)108,700100,600105,250106,500109,716
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)56,30056,30056,30069,70069,700
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)165,000156,900161,550176,200179,416
Tender Water Capacity (gals)24002400300030003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)66 7.50 7.50 7.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6257606162
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6268626862
Boiler Pressure (psi)140140160160160
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)15,76614,37518,01816,42818,018
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.72 4.72 4.00 4.46 4.15
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)164.40164.40138138137
Grate Area (sq ft)34.7634.7633.2533.2533.25
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)15301530138413821572
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)15301530138413821572
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume204.91204.91185.36185.09210.53
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation48664866532053205320
Same as above plus superheater percentage48664866532053205320
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area23,01623,01622,08022,08021,920
Power L145574998459250324998
Power MT270.07325.04280.82302.49294.95

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP/D13a, D13cP/D14P/D14aT/D15unknown
Locobase ID3489 2831 2832 1152 9519
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class15061614
Road Numbers1515193-196
GaugeStdStdStdStd4' 9.2""
Number Built15061614
BuilderAltoonaAltoonaAltoonaAltoonaM. Baird & Co
Year18921892189418921867
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.75 7.75 7.758
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.7022.7022.7923.94
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.6048.6049.2748.09
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)37,70842,00043,50048,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)74,71682,60087,30095,20046,700
Engine Weight (lbs)109,716122,600127,650145,50073,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)69,70069,70070,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)179,416192,300197,650
Tender Water Capacity (gals)3000300030003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons) 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6269737939
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6878808466
Boiler Pressure (psi)160175175205120
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18.5" x 24"18.5" x 24"19" x 24"19.5" x 28" (1)16" x 24"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)31" x 28" (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs)16,42815,66516,11015,8259495
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.55 5.27 5.42 6.02 4.92
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)13714814816386.10
Grate Area (sq ft)33.2533.2533.253015
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1572158315831825831
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1572158315831825831
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume210.53212.01201.00377.13148.79
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation53205819581961501800
Same as above plus superheater percentage53205819581961501800
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,92025,90025,90033,41510,332
Power L154817078688261952981
Power MT323.45377.83347.59286.92281.45

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Classunknown
Locobase ID11,176
RailroadPhiladelphia & Columbia (PRR)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-4-0
Number in Class
Road Numbers
GaugeStd
Number Built
BuilderLancaster
Year1856
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)5
Engine Wheelbase (ft)
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)
Engine Weight (lbs)
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)
Tender Water Capacity (gals)
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)60
Boiler Pressure (psi)130
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)16" x 22"
Tractive Effort (lbs)10,372
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)83.14
Grate Area (sq ft)
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)974
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)974
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume190.25
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation
Same as above plus superheater percentage
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area10,808
Power L13529
Power MT

Reference


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