Santa Fe 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1400 (Locobase 6547)

Data from 1920 AT & SF locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Vol 29, pp. 2+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for noting the tender capacities.). Works numbers were:

1905

July 26110, 26118, 26120-26121; August 26153, 26180, 26194, 26202

1906

February 27593-27594, 27622-27624; March 27754, 27767, 27797-27798, 27819, 27820, 27837; April 27842-27844, 27918, 27963, 28011

1907

March 30385-30386, 30399, 30423, 30430, 30439, 30462-30466; April 30579, 30598-30599, 30652-30653, 30731-30732, 30743, 30746-30747; May 30784, 30794, 30814-30815.

This class was the most numerous group of Atlantics on the Santa Fe; twelve others shown in Locobase 6548 differed in having 73" drivers. Like virtually of the rest, these were four-cylinder Vauclain compounds. They were delivered with the tenders shown in the specs, which had Barber roller bearings in the trucks. Firebox heating surface included 30 sq ft of arch tubes. 1408 to 1426 burned "Gallup New Mexico coal, which closely resembles lignite."

Of these, most of the early engines were never simpled and were scrapped in the late 1920s. Those that were -- 1413, 1415-1417, 1420, 1425, 1428, 1440, 1442, 1444, and 1446-1447 -- were rebuilt as simple-expansion 22"x 26"locomotives in 1926-1929. The renovation extended their service into the late 1930s at the least with at least one being scrapped as late as 1948.

The later locomotives - 1462-1478 -- were delivered in 1909 to essentially the same design. Their works numbers were:33861-33866, 33881-33882, 33899-33906, 33946-33947 in October; 34084-34087 in November; 34106-34109, 34138 in December.

Perhaps because of their slightly later vintage, more of the class was rebuilt as simple-expansion engines with 22" x 26" cylinders. Those engines were 1453, 1456-1458, 1460, 1462, 1466, 1468, 1470, 1472-1473, 1475, 1477-1478.

As Chris Hohl noted in a June 2014 email, later tenders were larger and bunkered either 14 tons (15.4 metric tons) of coal or 3,138 US gallons (11,877 litres) of fuel oil. Those weighing 164,500 lb (74,616 kg) carried the same amount of water as the original tenders, but the 175,000 lb (79,379 kg) tenders had 9,000 US gallons (34,065 litres) of water when loaded.

A further 12 were delivered with 73" drivers; see Locobase 6548. One was superheated; see Locobase 8994.


Class 1452/1550 (Locobase 6548)

The 1920 AT & SF locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 29, page 2. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 9 November 2014 email that supplied the tender's water and coal capacities and a correction in the grate area.) Works numbers were 26009, 26015, 26030, 26049, 26089, 26099, 26104 in July 1905; 27625 in February 1906; and 27664, 27689-27690, 27704 in March.

The larger portion of this class is described in Locobase 6547, but the only significant difference in the 1450s was a 6" (152 mm) smaller driver diameter.

Produced as 1450-1462, they renumbered in the 1550 range to accommodate later orders of 79" Atlantics that took the original locomotives and ensured a continuous numbering for that variant.

Only two of this class--1554, 1556--were rebuilt as two-cylinder, simple-expansion engines with 22"x 26" cylinders. The others were all scrapped in the late 1920s with a few lending their boilers to other members of the class. 1556 was scrapped in August 1940 while 1554 soldiered on and was scrapped only in August 1952.


Class 1453 - superheated (Locobase 8994)

The 1920 AT & SF locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection shows that the firebox heating surface included 30 sq ft of arch tubes.

Locobase was surprised to find this lone superheated compound among the large class of saturated Atlantics produced by Baldwin for the Santa Fe (see Locobase 6547). The large-diameter tubes and flues allowed for a nearly identical heating surface to that of the earlier design, but almost 1/5 of that amount was now superheated.


Class 1480 (Locobase 15301)

Data from the Kansas Historical Society's collection of Santa Fe locomotive diagrams archived at Kansas Memory (http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/221763/page/143, last accessed 14 July 2013).

Locobase 450 describes the strange Bull Moose class, known for its Jacobs-Shupert firebox. In the 1920s, the Santa Fe simpled and superheated some of all the classes of Atlantics and included about half of this class. Although the grate area didn't change and the firebox heating surface area wasn't substantially different, the engine's wheelbase shrank considerably even as combined heating surface area grew.

They proved a very handy size for branch-line local passenger service and served the Santa Fe until the early 1950s.


Class 1480/Bull Moosers (Locobase 450)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive, Record of Recent Construction #37 (1911), p. 27. See also "Heaviest Atlantic Type Locomotive - Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry.", American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume 85, #2 (February 1911), p. 44. Works numbers were 35353-35364 in October 1911; 35528-35538 in November.

These odd Atlantics (23 in all) had an unusual profile with three domes -- the two steam domes flanked the sand dome. Nicknamed "Bull Moosers," their tapered boilers mounted ahead of a Jacobs-Shupert firebox were long enought that there was room for a third driving axle. Also, the Walschaerts valve gear was spread out along the driving set and had intermediate links. The main rod drove the front axle.

The stayless Jacobs-Shupert firebox is discussed in Locobase 463. Its promise was compromised by its inability to avoid leaking.

AERJ's report commented on the novel steam circuit:"A somewhat startling arrangement of steam pipes is a prominent feature in the design, and is clearly indicated in the accompanying illustration. The steam is taken from the boiler at the rear dome and through two 5 in. pipes carried to the forward dome in which the throttle valve is located."

Locobase also notes a result that of the three equal-sized domes on the boiler, the central one was the sand dome and the two flanking domes held steam, the reverse of the usual layout.

AERJ continues" The peculiarity of outside pipes begins at this point with an outside dry pipe running on the center line of the boiler. A T-head at the extremity of the dry pipe, immediately behind the stack, provides for the disposition of the steam to the high pressure cylinders. It is said that this arrangement was desired by the railroad, and it became possible through the construction of the reheater. Greater accessibility is of course secured, and this becomes a matter of some importance in connection with the re-grinding of steam pipe joints, but it is quite evident that the symmetrical appearance of the engine has been largely sacrificed for this advantage."

Note that another steam pipe emerged near the smokebox on either side after passing through a smokebox reheater that measured 1,147 sq ft in area; this pipe entered the outside low-pressure cylinders.

AERJ's editors (either E A Averill or R M Rogers), ever vigilant for innovation, comments on the design: "Outside steam pipes will, however, establish one thing, and that, immunity from any poor steaming condition which might result from impaired draft due to leaky joints. It was proposed for years in several quarters to place steam pipes outside to overcome this very trouble, but the prevailing construction of the period made this impossible."

In the 1920s, fourteen of these engines were converted to simple-expansion operation; see Locobase 15301.

The other engines were retired beginning in 1926. The last of the simple-expansion upgrades went in 1953.


Class 256 (Locobase 5330)

Data from "Compound Passenger Locomotive, 4-4-2 Type", American Engineer & Railroad Journal, Volume 77, No 6 (June 1903), pp. 210-215; as corrected by AT&SF 7 -1901 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 25, pp. 200+. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (also visited 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema . Works numbers were 22339 in June 1903 and 22456, 22511, 22543 in July.

These Atlantics were the first of more than 160 4-4-2s purchased by the Santa Fe. They had the Vauclain balanced compound arrangement in which a single 15" (381 mm) piston valve served each side's set of one HP and one LP cylinder.. At least one (256) had the riveted Jacobs-Shupert firebox. (See Locobase 463 for a description of this unusual firebox design. )

It's not clear whether they were ever superheated or simpled, but it seems unlikely. By 1920, however, the class operated its valves with Baker gear, which replaced the Walschaert gear originally employed.

With passenger-train weights increasing every year, this inherently limited arrangement enjoyed only short-term success and the class operated only until 1925-1927.


Class 507 (Locobase 4091)

Data from AT&SF 9 - 1920 Loco Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also 1906 Baldwin catalogue, which is reproduced on http://www.catskillarchive.com/rrextra/blatpg23.Html (last accessed 19 October 2015); and DeGolyer, Volume 27, pp. 70+.

Works numbers were 24000 in March 1903; 24089, 24091, 24154-24158, 24167 in April; 24180-24182, 24213, 24217, 24220-24221, 24236, 24242, 24247-24248, 24273, 24282, 24287-24288 in May; 24297-24298, 24312, 24349, 24352-24353, 24362, 24367, 24379, 24380, 24389 in June.

The AT&SF bought a couple of batches of Vauclain balanced-compound Atlantics from Baldwin in this year. When delivered, the design's firebox heating surface included 10 sq ft (0.93 sq m) of "firebrick" tubes, which was later enlarged to 30 sq ft (2.79 sq m) of arch tubes. Each of the two 15" (381 mm) diameter piston valves served a set of HP and LP cylinders.

A traction increaser could be adjusted by the engineer to add 12,000 lb (5,443 kg) to the adhesion weight. A cab notice reminded the engine to always start a 507 with the traction increaser on (a signal sounded to alert the operator) and to release it when the locomotive had reached 15 mph (24.2 km/h).

For the later group of Atlantics built to the same design in the same year, but heavier, see Locobase 8993.

The 1906 Baldwin catalogue shows one of the 35-engine class that also was displayed at the St Louis Exposition of 1904. See also the report of Tests of Locomotives at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition published in Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Volume 27 - 1906), pp. 625-626.

In the late 1920s, the Santa Fe either scrapped the Atlantics it had or converted them to simple-expansion and superheaters.


Class 507+ (Locobase 15300)

Data from the Kansas Historical Society's collection of Santa Fe locomotive diagrams archived at Kansas Memory (http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/221763/page/143, last accessed 14 July 2013).

Over two dozen of the Santa Fe's large number of Atlantics of the 507 and 1400 classes (Locobases 4091 and 6547) were simpled and superheated in the late 1920s. Both coal-fired and oil-fired locomotives benefited, the latter's tenders holding either 3,129 or 3,170 US gallons (11,843 or 11,998 litres) of oil.

The simpled Atlantics rolling on 79" drivers were 512, 537, 1413,1416, 1440, 1442, 1452, 1457, 1473, 1475, 1477.

Others had 73"(1,854 mm) drivers and generated a tractive effort of 29,400 lb (13,336 kg). These were 1415, 1417, 1420, 1425, 1428, 1431, 1444, 1446, 1447, 1456, 1458, 1460, 1462, 1466, 1470, 1472, 1478.


Class 542 (Locobase 8993)

Data from AT&SF 9 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 27, pp. 70+. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (accessed 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Works numbers were 24663-24665, 24673, 24678-24679, 24684, 24694-24695, 24702-24704, 24706, 24712-24714, 24725 in September 1904 and 24757 in October.

The AT&SF bought a couple of batches of Vauclain balanced-compound Atlantics from Baldwin in this year. Locobase 4091 tells about the first set. This latter group of eighteen (Works #24663-24665, 24673, 24678-24679, 24684, 24694-24695, 24702-24704, 24706, 24712-24714, 24725, 24757) came in September 1904 and had a firebox heating surface that included 20 sq ft of arch tubes (. Other than that and an increase in weights, the two classes were essentially identical. These too had two 15" (381 mm) piston valves, each serving a set of HP and LP cylinders.

In the late 1920s, the Santa Fe either scrapped the Atlantics it had or converted them to simple-expansion. The latter ran into the 1940s.


Class 824/454 (Locobase 16086)

Data from AT&SF 9 - 1920 Loco Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also E D Worley, Iron Horses of the Santa Fe (Dallas: Southwest Railroad Historical Society, 1976), p. 235. Works numbers were 1057-1058 in August 1899 and 1059-1066 in September.

Worley claimed that the small locomotive builder from Scranton, Pa was entirely inappropriate for the task of "constructing a successful high speed locomotive." He added:"In short, and in vulgar parlance, the Santa Fe got a real lemon in the 454 class." Realizing this almost immediately, neither the manufacturer nor the railroad made anything of the class's introduction and apparently took no photos of the locomotives in service.

Comparing the data to other 4-4-2s of the time doesn't uncover any truly oddball ratios, although the boiler is huge compared to the firebox. The one diagram the Santa Fe produced doesn't clearly show the suspension arrangements, so perhaps the problem lay in how the locomotive moved on the rails.

Regardless of its suitability, all of the class were converted to Ten-wheelers in 1904; see Locobase 8990.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class14001452/15501453 - superheated14801480/Bull Moosers
Locobase ID6547 6548 8994 15,301 450
RailroadSanta Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class671211423
Road Numbers1400-1449, 1462-14781450-1461145314801480-1502
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built67121423
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoSanta FeATSFBaldwin
Year19051905191319201910
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 6.83 6.83 6.83 6.83 6.83
Engine Wheelbase (ft)30.2530.2530.2528.9232.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.21
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)59.5462.4462.3560.8164.08
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)56,83056,15059,10057,675
Weight on Drivers (lbs)111,160107,160115,225118,100112,125
Engine Weight (lbs)208,770206,360220,795229,500231,675
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)140,000175,000175,000179,225163,325
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)348,770381,360395,795408,725395,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)85009000900090009000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)2180141431293300
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)9389969893
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7973797373
Boiler Pressure (psi)220220220200220
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)15" x 26"15" x 26"15" x 26"22" x 26"15" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)25" x 26"25" x 26"25" x 26"25" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)20,36422,03820,36429,30522,038
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.46 4.86 5.66 4.03 5.09
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)220220220223190
Grate Area (sq ft)49.6049.5049.504848
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)32363236257923912508
Superheating Surface (sq ft)603456
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)32363236318228472508
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume608.52608.52484.97209.02471.62
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10,91210,89010,890960010,560
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,91210,89012,95911,13610,560
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area48,40048,40057,59651,73641,800
Power L18503785717,85716,1886266
Power MT337.28323.29683.32604.38246.41

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class256507507+542824/454
Locobase ID5330 4091 15,300 8993 16,086
RailroadSanta Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class435281810
Road Numbers256-259507-541507, 1401, 1452542-559824-832/455-464
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built4351810
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoSanta FeBurnham, Williams & CoDickson
Year19031904192319041899
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 6.33 6.83 6.83 6.83 7.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)29.5030.2531.9230.2526.33
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.21 0.23 0.21 0.23 0.28
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)58.7159.5464.2362.4454.67
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)58,15061,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)90,000109,700122,900110,56098,000
Engine Weight (lbs)187,000202,400236,800208,110163,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)140,000164,240175,000175,00098,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)327,000366,640411,800383,110261,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)84009000900090006000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)931381414 7.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)75911029282
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7379797973
Boiler Pressure (psi)220220200220200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)15" x 26"15" x 26"22" x 26"15" x 26"20" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)25" x 26"25" x 26"25" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)22,03820,36427,07920,36424,219
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.08 5.39 4.54 5.43 4.05
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)190200220220183
Grate Area (sq ft)49.5049.5049.5049.5050
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)30833215272032363075
Superheating Surface (sq ft)603
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)30833215332332363075
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume579.75604.57237.78608.52325.26
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10,89010,890990010,89010,000
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,89010,89011,68210,89010,000
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area41,80044,00051,92048,40036,600
Power L17308826521,287850310,270
Power MT358.03332.20763.71339.11462.07

Photos

Reference


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