Central RR of New Jersey 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives of the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 456 / P1 (Locobase 12192)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 20, p. 122. Workd number was 14810 in April 1896.

The CNJ's first Atlantic bucked the trend of camelback Atlantics then coming into use on the anthracite roads against which the railroad competed. Instead of a compound steam system, the CNJ adopted a simple-expansion layout. Tube diameter fell between the more common 1 1/2" and 2 or 2 1/4" as well.

In May 1905, the CNJ rebuilt this engine with 18" cylinders and in January 1912 mounted 79" drivers. 503 was scrapped in November 1926.

Class 582 / P3a (Locobase 12377)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 22, p. 190. Works numbers were 17117-17118, 17184-17186 in October 1899; 17246 in November.

As with almost all Vauclain compounds operated in the USA, these Atlantics were rebuilt with simple-expansion cylinders. The conversion to 19" cylinders came in 1904 (5) and 1905 (1 - 585). Four years later, the CNJ fitted 79" drivers on the class, at which point the railroad designated them class P3.

All but one underwent one more modification when the shops increased cylinder size to 20 1/2"; this occurred over several years beginning in 1914 and ending in 1924. All were reclassified P4s, which suggests that part of the upgrade featured the addtion of a superheater.

By that time, 582, which received its larger cylinders in 1914, had been totalled in a March 1920 wreck. The others were all scrapped in 1928-1929.

Class P-1a (Locobase 10764)

Data from Angus Sinclair, Twentieth Century Locomotives (New York: Railway and Locomotive Engineering, 1904), pp.580-582 . Works numbers were 20965-20966, 20983.

This set of camelback Atlantics was smaller and lighter than the Brooks sextet that had appeared a year earlier (Locobase 5331). In 1909-1910 the three were rebuilt with 79" drivers, but as they lacked the sheer size and grate of the P-6s, they were not superheated.

574 was scrapped first in June 1928, with 572 following a month later, and 573 finishing the class in June 1930.

Class P-6 (Locobase 5331)

Data from table in AERJ July 1903. Like all the other Atlantics on the CNJ, these were camelbacks with very tall drivers. Apparently successful, they endured until 1946-1947.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works #3951-3953 in August 1901 and numbered 588-590, renumbered 591-593 soon thereafter. Locoba e Cannot tell about the other two.

http://www.insighting.co.uk/homauchchunk/steam_class.htm for photos and further comments.

Class P-6 superheated (Locobase 9447)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Locobase 5331 shows the sextet of Atlantics as they entered service in 1901. Unlike many of the other American railroads that operated 4-4-2s or Camelbacks, the CNJ held onto their doubly unusual P-6s until the end of steam. But the engines were quite different after a substantial makeover that included increasing piston diameter by 1 1/2" in cylinders supplied by 12" piston valves and reducing the driver diameter by 6 inches. At the same time, adhesion weight went up by more than 15 tons to handle the higher tractive effort. A reconfigured boiler substituted 24 flues (and their superheater elements) for 155 small tubes. Finally, the tender held more water and coal and weighed almost 15 tons more than its older counterpart.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class456 / P1582 / P3aP-1aP-6P-6 superheated
Locobase ID12,192 12,377 10,764 5331 9447
RailroadCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New Jersey
Number in Class16366
Road Numbers456 / 573 / 570582-587597-599 / 573-574590-595590-595
Number Built1636
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBrooksCNJ
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.25 7.25 7.25 7.67 7.67
Engine Wheelbase (ft)26.4226.5826.4229.8329.92
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)53.1753.1753.6758.54
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)80,00088,00084,10099,400127,800
Engine Weight (lbs)141,000167,000151,000191,000215,700
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)100,00099,000124,000153,800
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)267,000250,000315,000369,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)35005000500060007500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)1213
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)67737083107
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)84.5084.2584.508579
Boiler Pressure (psi)200200200210210
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18.75" x 26"14" x 26"18" x 26"20.5" x 26"22" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)24" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)18,38915,34416,94822,94628,433
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.35 5.74 4.96 4.33 4.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)189.80185.37170.70174173.90
Grate Area (sq ft)7676738281.63
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)18352669217429672188
Superheating Surface (sq ft)460
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)18352669217429672648
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume220.84576.16283.90298.72191.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,20015,20014,60017,22017,142
Same as above plus superheater percentage15,20015,20014,60017,22020,056
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area37,96037,07434,14036,54042,727
Power L19437741811,13611,49317,397
Power MT520.12371.68583.84509.81600.22

If you have any railroad data such as diagram books, rail station plans or anything else that you would be willing to share, please contact us.