Gulf & Ship Island / Illinois Central 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 10 (Locobase 8409)

Data from G & SI 1922 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection and DeGolyer, Volume 27, p. 74. Works numbers were 24432-24433 in June 1904.

The G & SI had a small stud of locomotives, so it's all the more remarkable that that holding included five Atlantics. Sam Lindsey, writing on http://www.samlindsey.com/Logging/GSI/GSI_History ... (accessed 9 October 2005), tells us that the first two were built as a pair and celebrated in August 1904. A note on the Baldwin specifications describes the specs "Gen [erally] as ACL #10" (i.e., essentially copies of the Atlantic Coast Line Atlantics). Their valves originally worked through Stephenson gear, but later were fitted with outside Southern gear.

The two hauled Trains One and Two that had sleeping cars for service from Gulfport to Memphis, Tenn. 11 was scrapped in 1927, 10 sold for scrap in March 1928.


Class 1000 (1) (Locobase 7048)

Data from table in AERJ July 1903. Works numbers were January 1902.

John S Ingles (in Drury (1993)) tells us that this locomotive was procured to be compared against a single Atlantic delivered by Baldwin in the same year. After a year of trials, the Atlantic layout won, but Rogers produced the batch.

This single Prairie was converted into a 4-6-2 and took the number of the experimental Atlantic.


Class 1002 (Locobase 4095)

Data originally taken from a table in Paul T Warner's article on Atlantics in the Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #62 (1943, p 20), but Locobase was supplied the 1913 IC Locomotive Diagram book in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. That data is the information in the specs. Works numbers were 5930-5939 in April 1903; 6115-6119 in February 1904, 6205-6209 in April.

Warner gave a total heating surface of 3,232 sq ft and a grate area of 50.7 sq ft. (Note that the builder's numbers reflect the last entries by Rogers under its own sequence; Alco soon combined all of its works in a single series.)

One of a few 4-4-2 classes to operate west of the Appalachians. For some reason, five more Atlantics had 54 fewer boiler tubes of the same diameter; see Locobase 6551.

Westcott (1960) shows that these were later superheated, fitted with Baker valve gear, 80" drivers, and 21" diameter cylinders; see Locobase 8408.


Class 1002-1026 - superheated (Locobase 8408)

Data from IC 9 -1928 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

When the IC superheated its Atlantics, it took the 20 from the 1002 class (Locobase 4095) and the five from the 1023 class (Locobase 6551) and revamped them according to a common design. In addition to a modest amount of superheat, the shops installed outside Baker valve gear actuating 12" (305 mm) piston valves, and increased the cylinder diameter by an inch.

As evidence for the desperate search for more tractive effort on freight trains after the US entry into World War Two in December 1941, the IC took eleven of the class and mounted them on 63 1/2" drivers in 1942. The shops also raised the boiler pressure to 225 psi (15.5 bar), which Locobase suspects marks a new boiler as well. The combination of higher pressure and smaller drivers raised the tractive effort to 37,190 lb (16,869 kg). These were renumbered 2001-2010.

One ratio suggests the expedient nature of this conversion: an updated factor of adhesion of 3.04. Another indicator was the retirement of nine of the conversions by 1 January 1947.


Class 1022 (Locobase 6551)

Data from the 1913 IC Locomotive Diagram book in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 6233-6237 in 1903-1904.

Locobase 4095 describes the first 20 Atlantics delivered to the IC in 1903-1904. For some reason, the last five had fewer tubes in the boiler and a smaller grate. They were otherwise identical.

Like the 1002s, these five engines were superheated and acquired the same boiler design as the earlier locomotives; see Locobase 8408.


Class 12 (Locobase 8410)

Data from G & SI 1922 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection and DeGolyer, Volume 29, p.139. Works number was 28525 in July 1906.

Two years after the G & SI took delivery of its first Atlantics (Locobase 8409), it added this one (works 28525) with a significantly different extended wagon top boiler profile that had a marked coned section connecting two straight sections. Otherwise, this medium-weight passenger engine was identical and ran for two decades until it was sold for scrap in 1927.


Class 13 (Locobase 8411)

Data from G & SI 1922 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Sam Lindsey, writing on http://www.samlindsey.com/Logging/GSI/GSI_History ... (accessed 9 October 2005), gives us the only other information we have on these unusual Atlantics. The Alcos "...were beauties to behold!" when they arrived from the builder (works #44153-44154). Raising the boiler pressure, increasing the cylinder volume, and tilting the valve chests outboard were among the changes from the earlier Baldwins (Locobase 8409-8410).

According to Lindsey, the IC recoiled in horror when they inherited a train with the unlucky number 13 on its cab. Overnight, the 13 became the 15, but was scrapped in 1927.. 14 was the last Atlantic to go, being sold in July 1928.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class101000 (1)10021002-1026 - superheated1022
Locobase ID8409 7048 4095 8408 6551
RailroadGulf & Ship Island (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class3120265
Road Numbers10-1110001002-10211002, 1004-10261022-1026
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built31205
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoRogersICRogers
Year19041902190319181904
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonBakerStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 6.25' 8.50' 7.25' 7.25' 7.25'
Engine Wheelbase24.92'27.75'27.75'29'27.75'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.25 0.31 0.26 0.25 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)59.54'58.71'60.29'58.71'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers88890 lbs95710 lbs102000 lbs113000 lbs101500 lbs
Engine Weight121000 lbs178600 lbs188000 lbs210000 lbs187000 lbs
Tender Light Weight38200 lbs147600 lbs147600 lbs147600 lbs147600 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight159200 lbs326200 lbs335600 lbs357600 lbs334600 lbs
Tender Water Capacity5000 gals7000 gals7000 gals7000 gals7000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons15 tons15 tons15 tons15 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)74 lb/yard80 lb/yard85 lb/yard94 lb/yard85 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter72"79"79"79"79"
Boiler Pressure180 psi200 psi200 psi185 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 24"20" x 28"20" x 28"21" x 28"20" x 28"
Tractive Effort18411 lbs24101 lbs24101 lbs24579 lbs24101 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.83 3.97 4.23 4.60 4.21
Heating Ability
Firebox Area133.50 sq. ft174.70 sq. ft179.70 sq. ft208.20 sq. ft177 sq. ft
Grate Area26.10 sq. ft51 sq. ft51 sq. ft50.90 sq. ft47.60 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2047 sq. ft3192 sq. ft3075 sq. ft2525 sq. ft2709 sq. ft
Superheating Surface495 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2047 sq. ft3192 sq. ft3075 sq. ft3020 sq. ft2709 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume259.91313.52302.03224.95266.08
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation4698102001020094179520
Same as above plus superheater percentage46981020010200109239520
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2403034940359404468035400
Power L174451051510277174069296
Power MT369.30484.41444.25679.18403.83

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1213
Locobase ID8410 8411
RailroadGulf & Ship Island (IC)Gulf & Ship Island (IC)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-2
Number in Class12
Road Numbers1213-14
GaugeStdStd
Number Built12
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoAlco
Year19061907
Valve GearStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 6.33' 6.67'
Engine Wheelbase24.96'27.83'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.25 0.24
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)58.25'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers94420 lbs92900 lbs
Engine Weight125800 lbs140800 lbs
Tender Light Weight47800 lbs57100 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight173600 lbs197900 lbs
Tender Water Capacity5000 gals5000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)11 tons14 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)79 lb/yard77 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter72"72"
Boiler Pressure180 psi190 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 24"19" x 26"
Tractive Effort18411 lbs21053 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.13 4.41
Heating Ability
Firebox Area153.20 sq. ft
Grate Area29.75 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2340 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface2340 sq. ft0
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume297.11
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation53550
Same as above plus superheater percentage53550
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area275760
Power L185180
Power MT397.770

Reference


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