Lehigh Valley 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class F-1 (Locobase 9932)

Data from American Engineering & Railroading Journal (1896), p. 340. See also Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 20, p. 158. See also Scot Lawrence's account of the Black Diamond service that prompted the order of the first Atlantics archived at http://gold.mylargescale.com/scottychaos/BlackDiamondExpress/index.html; Angus Sinclair, "Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate Area and Cylinder Volume," Locomotive Engineering, Volume X, No. 4 (April 1897), pp. 316-318; and "Lehigh Valley Railroad Express Locomotive," The Locomotive & Railway Carriage & Wagon Review, Vol IV (November 1899), p. 172. Baldwin works numbers were 14956-14960 produced in July 1896.

Ordered only a few days after the Black Diamond all-Pullman express train began service between Buffalo and New York City, this quintet may have been summoned to take on the task of pulling this five-car (205-ton) train at the 46-mph (74 km/h)average speed demanded by the schedule. In 1897, the train achieved a 90% on-time percentage.


Class F-2 (Locobase 12289)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 21, p. 228. Works numbers were 15961-15964 in June 1898.

A quartet of camelbacks of medium size that remained essentially unchanged. 2332 was scrapped quite early in August 1919. All of the others were scrapped in 1919, the 2330 and 233 in March, the 2331 in June.


Class F-3 (Locobase 8950)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 25, p. 270 and Volume 27, p. 170. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his comments regarding tender capacities and heating surface areas.) Works numbers were 22476, 22484-22485, 22547 in July 1903; 24388, 24393, 24407 in June 1904

Firmly pressed into the classic anthracite-road express camelback mold, this design filled a particular LVRR need. The 1903 engines had 318 tubes, the 1904s the 320 tubes shown here. Chris Hohl pointed out that the specs for the first four calculated a 12 1/2 ton coal capacity while the 1904 trio's specs gave the same water capacity and same loaded weight while cutting the coal capacity by 20%.

Six years later, even as the Atlantic's allure had faded considerably, the railroad returned to Baldwin for five duplicates. Chris Hohl's comments led to the discovery of two variants of this design. The slightly larger 1910 locomotives appear in Locobase 13769.

First to the ferro-knackers was 2404 in November 1923. The second and third to go were the last two delivered; 2405-2406 were scrapped in June 1924. 2402 and 2415 followed in September 1925. 2414 went to the yard next in June 1926. 2401 was scrapped in October 1928, 2412-2413, and 2416 were cut up in March 1929, and the last two -- 2400, 2402 -- in April 1929.


Class F-3 - wide firebox (Locobase 13679)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 35, p. 260. See also Clarence Roberts & Russell M Smith, Practical Locomotive Operating (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott Co, 1912), pp 61,67. Thanks to Chris Hohl for his comments on Locobase 8950, which led to a better recognition of the differences in this later batch.) Works numbers were 22476, 22484-22485, 22547 in July 1903; 24388, 24393, 24407 in June 1904; 35585-35586 in November 1910; 35657-35659 in December.

Roberts and Smith intended this engine to be a typical Atlantic express passenger engine. They did pretty well in finding a standard camelback 4-4-2, although the tubes on this class were a bit longer than most.

When Hohl pointed out some discrepancies in the entry for the 1903-1904 engines in Locobase 8950, Locobase determined that the differences came from noticeable changes in the design when the last five were ordered in 1910. The biggest alteration in this quintet was the provision of an even wider Wootten firebox, which grew from 90 1/4"(2.3 m) to 102 3/8"(2.6 m). Firebox length and depth remained unchanged at 108"(2.74 m) and 58 3/4 (1.49 m) (front) and 54 3/4" (1.39 m) (back), respectively, but the 12 1/8"(308 mm) difference accounted for the increased grate and firebox heating surface areas.

Adhesion and engine weights each grew by about three short tons (2.7 metric tons). Another change from the earlier locomotives was the adoption of outside radial valve gear.

First to the ferro-knackers was 2415 followed in September 1925, followed by 2414 in June 1926 and finally 2412-2413, and 2416 were cut up in March 1929.


Class F-4 / F-5 (Locobase 12290)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volumes 22, p. 260; and 24, p. 20. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for a tweak of the driver diameter and a pointer to the tender's coal capacity. Works numbers were 17792, 17794 in May 1900; 17815 in June; 19208-19209, 19222-19224 in July.

These tall Atlantics were renumbered twice, the first time in order in 1905, the second time sometime later. When the F-4s swapped their 80" drivers for 77" wheels and were reclassed as F-5s, the road-number order got scrambled in the second renumbering, the engines winding up in this order (by builder's number): 2467, 2465, 2462, 2461, 2460, 2466, 2464, and 2463.


Class F-6 (Locobase 9933)

Data from "A Practical Demonstration in Fuel Economy," Railway Age Gazette, Vol , No (28 July 1911), p. 175.

One of the locomotives of this class was featured in a fuel-economy demonstration in which the same locomotive pulled a Buffalo-to-New York City train of up to 10 cars and 560 tons over the entire route of 446.6 miles on 21 June 1911. It was equipped with a tender big enough to hold the 15 tons of coal the engine burned, but 2475 had to stop 8 times for water. The run took 12 hours 3 minutes (running time 10 hrs 40 minutes) and included 31 stops.

The chief outcome of the demonstration was the ability of the crew to reduce coal consumption by nearly half, dropping the average from a whopping 132 lb/train mile to 67.33 lb/train mile. "A remarkable feature in the test," RAG added,"...is that the fire was not cleaned nor even raked during the whole trip and the grates were only lightly shaken six times." Locobase suspects this was not run-of-the-mine coal.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-1F-2F-3F-3 - wide fireboxF-4 / F-5
Locobase ID9932 12289 8950 13679 12290
RailroadLehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class51758
Road Numbers664-668 / 2320-2324669-672 / 2230-2233681-684, 801-8032412-2416673-680 / 2450-2457 / 2460-2467
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built51758
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBurnham, Williams & Co
Year18961898190319101900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 6.58' 6.58' 6.92' 6.92' 6.92'
Engine Wheelbase24'24'24.83'24.83'24.83'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.28
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)54.54'56.22'51.78'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers81800 lbs82000 lbs93350 lbs95280 lbs90000 lbs
Engine Weight140950 lbs142000 lbs178650 lbs183260 lbs157000 lbs
Tender Light Weight85000 lbs85000 lbs120350 lbs135350 lbs95000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight225950 lbs227000 lbs299000 lbs318610 lbs252000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity4000 gals4000 gals5500 gals7000 gals4500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)10 tons12.5 tons10 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)68 lb/yard68 lb/yard78 lb/yard79 lb/yard75 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter76.50"77"76.50"77"80"
Boiler Pressure160 psi200 psi200 psi200 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 26"20" x 26"20" x 26"20" x 26"20" x 26"
Tractive Effort16686 lbs22961 lbs23111 lbs22961 lbs22100 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.90 3.57 4.04 4.15 4.07
Heating Ability
Firebox Area148.91 sq. ft157.13 sq. ft158.30 sq. ft178 sq. ft167 sq. ft
Grate Area63 sq. ft64 sq. ft67.75 sq. ft76.90 sq. ft67.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2230 sq. ft2272 sq. ft2864 sq. ft2883 sq. ft2798 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface2230 sq. ft2272 sq. ft2864 sq. ft2883 sq. ft2798 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume261.37240.32302.94304.95295.96
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1008012800135501538013500
Same as above plus superheater percentage1008012800135501538013500
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2382631426316603560033400
Power L17112830198601024310248
Power MT383.36446.35465.72474.01502.07

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-6
Locobase ID9933
RailroadLehigh Valley (LV)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-4-2
Number in Class5
Road Numbers2475-2479
GaugeStd
Number Built5
BuilderLV
Year1910
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 6.92'
Engine Wheelbase25.67'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.27
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers99700 lbs
Engine Weight
Tender Light Weight135350 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight
Tender Water Capacity7000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)15 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)83 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter77"
Boiler Pressure195 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 26"
Tractive Effort24682 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.04
Heating Ability
Firebox Area160 sq. ft
Grate Area51.20 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface3324 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface3324 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume318.91
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9984
Same as above plus superheater percentage9984
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area31200
Power L19902
Power MT437.92

Reference


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