New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk / Pennsylvania / Vandalia Line 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 2512 (Locobase 5316)

Data from report of Tests of Locomotives at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition published in Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Volume 27 - 1906), pp. 617-618. See also "Locomotive for Experiment, Pennsylvania Railroad," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXX, # 2 (February 1906), pp. 42-46.

De Glehn compound bought from the Alsatian firm that built most of those in French service. Compared to US compound Atlantics, the boiler's sizable enough but the grate is quite small. Also note the relatively small drivers. The committee that led the tests noted that during those trials on the test stand, the "...whole locomotive was unusually steady at all speeds, having very little motion of any kind."

Designed under a different philosophy from most US engines (but possessing a Belpaire firebox, like most other Pennsy locomotives), the 2512 had the large-diameter, internally finned Serve boiler tubes, a relatively high boiler pressure, and splashers with slots over the drivers.

RMM commented that it was "...a lighter machine than its American prototypes, and exemplifies the refinements worked out by ... DeGlehn in producing a locomotive with a minimum weight of driving gear by dividing the working stresses between the driving axles." That is, the HP cylinders were placed outside and drove the rear coupled axle while the LP cylinders lay between the frames and drove the leading coupled axle. Each of the four cylinders was driven by its own set of valve gear.

Never truly suited for PRR operation, he 2512 had a short term of service, being retired in 1912.


Class E (Locobase 13123)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 30, p.203. Works numbers were 30370-30371 in March 1907.

Although in size these were repeats of the pair of 1899 Atlantics shown in Locobase 12355, the 1907 engines had more cylinder volume and a higher boiler pressure. They also were specified to have 72" drivers. Also in contrast to the haste with which the Pennsy disposed of the earlier engines was the decision instead to add superheaters to both locomotives in August 1923.


Class E / Eodd (Locobase 12355)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 22, p.119. Works numbers were 16885-16886 in July 1899.

Locobase considers this pair of undersized Atlantics as Eight-wheelers with an extra truck under the firebox. They certainly didn't have most of the high-stepping, big-grate qualities of the classic express engine. After 20 years on the PNY & N, the Es went on the Pennsylvania's books as 06513 and 06516. 06513 was scrapped almost immediately while 06516 was sold in February 1922.


Class E1 (Locobase 3877)

Notice the big anthracite-burning firebox. Data from "Atlantic Type Locomotive--Class E-1, No. 698", Railroad Gazette, Volume XXX1, No. 27 (7 July 1899), pp. 487-488. See also Paul T Warner, "The Development of the Anthracite-Burning Locomotive", Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, Volume 52, pp. 11-28, as archived on http://himedo.net/TheHopkinThomasProject/TimeLine/BeaverMeadows/HopThomasMasterMechanic/Warner_DevAnthraciteLocomotive.htm . Comments in an article on the E-2, describes an "unsatisfactory cab arrangement of the class E-1" although the author does not elaborate. Locobase concludes that such a big grate meant that the fireman and engineer couldn't communicate across the footplate very easily.

In fact, http://www.northeast.railfan.net/images/prr820s.jpg (last accessed 20 February 2007) shows that this was a camelback with a Wooten firebox, a very rare type on the Pennsylvania. Locobase contends that this is one of the most stylish looking camelbacks, possibly because the cab rides relatively low on the boiler and the dome, stack, and headlight stand tallest on the profile.

Paul T Warner asserted that it was "...safe to say that, at the time of their construction, they represented the most careful designing and the finest workmanship that could be found in this country. They met the 60-minute schedule without difficulty and demonstrated their ability to easily maintain an average speed of 75 miles an hour from Hammonton to Drawbridge, a distance of 27.4 miles, with trains weighing 300 tons behind the tender. "

In the article cited above, Warner described the firebox in great detail, reporting that it "... had a combustion chamber with a brick wall built across the back of it, in accordance with Mr. Wootten 's design, but following Pennsylvania practice the Belpaire System of staying was employed. The crown and roof sheets were flat and horizontal, and the water spaces were of liberal width throughout. The grates were of the rocking type arranged to shake in four sections, and particular attention was given to the arrangement of the ash-pan and smoke-box. All these features contributed to the success of the locomotives."

Warner also called its construction the "high-water mark in the development of the hard-coal burning locomotive."

And yet their design was not repeated as a camelback and the three locomotives were sent to the Long Island where they served only a few years before being scrapped in 1911.


Class E2 (Locobase 3878)

Data from "The Pennsylvania's Class E2 Experimental Locomotive," Railroad Gazette, Volume XXXII, No. 29 (29 July 1900), pp.492-493;"The Pennsylvania Class E-2 Locomotive," Railroad Gazette, Volume XXXII, No 29 (29 July 1900), p. 605; "The New Class E2 Locomotive--Pennsylvania Railroad," Railroad Gazette, Volume XXXIII, No. 24 (14 June 1901), pp.409-410; and from PRR Steam Locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The RG articles reported that "new features had been introduced in the spring rigging [caused] the engine to ride very smoothly on tracks in the ordinary condition, but with perfect ease on the roadbed of the West Jersey & Seashore, which is the nearest approach to perfection which can be produced."


Class E28/E2B (Locobase 115)

Data from Bruce (1952). See also "Locomotive for Experiment, Pennsylvania Railroad," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXX, # 2 (February 1906), pp. 42-46. Works numbers were 25548 in April 1905, 25606 in May.

Unusual Pennsy locomotive in that it used compounding (balanced, 4-cylinder layout) in which the inside, high-pressure cylinders drove the first axle and the outside, low-pressure ones drove the second driver set. Valve motion was inside with each 15"-diameter piston valve feeding the two cylinders on each side.

like most PRR locomotives, it had a Belpaire boiler. Compared to the Alcos described in Locobase 5382, these had fewer but larger-diameter tubes in the boiler. They were otherwise virtually identical.


Class E29/E2B (Locobase 5382)

Data from table in the June 1907 issue AERJ. See also "Locomotive for Experiment, Pennsylvania Railroad," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXX, # 2 (February 1906), pp. 42-46.

In the same year that the Pennsy bought 2 Baldwin balanced compounds, Alco delivered 2 Cole 4-cylinder compounds. Valve motion was inside and like most PRR locomotives, it had a Belpaire boiler. The HP cylinders inside drove the front axle, the outside LP cylinders drove the second axle.

Locobase 115 shows the Baldwin variant that had larger-diameter tubes.

Later simpled, these were reclassified E2b along with the two Baldwins.


Class E2A (Locobase 8415)

Data from 1908 Annual Convention of the American Railway Master Mechanics Association (in Atlantic City), p. 300, and from table in AERJ July 1903.

The website http://broadway.pennsyrr.com/Rail/Prr/Rosters/steam_class.html#class_e (visited 5 February 2003) hosts Bob Berkey's corrected PRR roster and is the source for the number in the class and for the fact that as built the Belpaire-boilered engine had slide valves and Stephenson valve gear. Although Altoona supplied most of these Lines West engines, Schenectady contributed 32. Ten of the Alcos had piston valves.

A total of 25 of these engines were later converted to other classes, being superheated in the process: E3sa (2), E3sd (10), and E7s (13).


Class E2D (Locobase 8416)

Data from 1908 Annual Convention of the American Railway Master Mechanics Association (in Atlantic City), p. 301.

These Atlantics were virtually identical to the E2As supplied a few years earlier, but there were interesting differences. For one thing, the E2Ds had piston valves actuated by the then-controversial Walschaert gear. Also, the E2Ds concentrated their weight much more firmly on the driving axles, taking 5 tons away from the three carrying axles.


Class E2sd (Locobase 9483)

Data from Rob Schoenberg's scanned-in diagrams at http://prr.railfan.net/diagrams/PRRdiagrams.html?diag=E2sd_E3sa_E3sd-E85286.gif&sel=ste&sz=sm&fr= (visited 5 February 2003) and PRR Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

As the Pennsy superheated its large stud of saturated Atlantics, it adopted a standard boiler for all of the earlier classes. As usual in North American superheater conversion projects, the boiler lost almost half of its 2" tubes in favor of 24 larger flues.

There's a mysterious disagreement within Stanley's diagramRaildata collection. For the E2 through E5 classes, superheater flue diameters differ depending on diagram. For some it's 5 1/2", for others 5 3/8". Even odder, the 5 3/8" version is credited with much more superheater area than the 5 1/2" diagrams, even allowing for the "equivalent superheater" calculation briefly in vogue that credited superheaters with 1 1/2 times as much area as a similar area of small tubes.


Class E3A (Locobase 5329)

Data from http://prr.railfan.net/diagrams/PRRdiagrams.html?diag=E2a_E3a-E85285.gif&sel=ste&sz=sm&fr= (visited 5 Feb 2003) and AERJ July 1903. The website http://broadway.pennsyrr.com/Rail/Prr/Rosters/steam_class.html#class_e (visited 5 February 2003) hosts Bob Berkey's corrected PRR roster and is the source for the number in the class and for the fact that as built the Belpaire-boilered engine had slide valves and Stephenson valve gear.

A total of 15 of these engines were later converted to other classes, being superheated in the process: E3sa (11), E3sd (4).

It's not clear from Rob Schoenberg's diagram at what boiler pressure the E3a ran. It's grouped with the E2a, which AERJ data tells us pressed 205 psi. But its cylinders are 1 1/2" larger, which either translated into that much more tractive effort or a lower boiler pressure for the same TE. In fact, another diagram shows the engines ran at either 195 or 205 psi.


Class E3sd/E4s/E5s (Locobase 452)

Data from Rob Schoenberg's scanned-in diagrams at http://prr.railfan.net/diagrams/PRRdiagrams.html?diag=E2sd_E3sa_E3sd-E85286.gif&sel=ste&sz=sm&fr= (visited 5 February 2003).

Boiler pressure, driving wheel diameter, and grate area were the same for all Pennsy E-types, but the subclasses reflect differences in piston diameters, round-topped or Belpaire fireboxes. E-3d began life with 205-psi operating pressure and a saturated boiler (see Locobase 5329), later reduced to 195 psi during the addition of superheat in 1912-1914 Most E-2d-class engines (Locobase 8416) also were converted to E-3sd. Piston diameter of E-series before E-6 eventually standardized at 22 in.

Note that E4s and E5s were heavier at 208,000 lb engine weight.

NB: There's a mysterious disagreement within Stanley's diagram collection. For the E2 through E5 classes, superheater flue diameters differ depending on diagram. For some it's 5 1/2", for others 5 3/8". Even odder, the 5 3/8" version is credited with much more superheater area than the 5 1/2" diagrams, even allowing for the "equivalent superheater" calculation briefly in vogue that credited superheaters with 1 1/2 times as much area as a similar area of small tubes.


Class E6s (Locobase 109)

Data from PRR Steam Locomotive Diagrams, prepared by Robert Schoenberg, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also Pennsylvania Railroad, Comparison of Passenger Locomotives, Locomotive Testing Plant Bulletin No. 22 (Altoona, Pa: Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1915).

These engines were a development of the earlier E3s. Chief Mechanical Engineer Axel Vogt wrung still more power out of the E3 design by enlarging the boiler diameter from 65 to 76 inches, adding a combustion chamber to the firebox, and installing a superheater. The piston load per pound of reciprocating parts was 83 lb, according to Railway Age (21 July 1916), which was 5.1% more than the Reading Pacifics. The Locomotive Testing Plant bulletin reported that savings in steam consumption of between 27% at 1,100 ihp and 31% at 1,700 ihp.

Richard M. Gladulich summarizes the impact of the superheater in his Pennsylvania Railroad Museum (http://www.rrmuseumpa.org/about/roster/e6.htm, 17 August 2004) description of the E6:

"The effect of the superheater on the E6 design was astounding. During four years of testing at the PRR Altoona Test Plant, the superheated E6 demonstrated a 30% increase in power, with a corresponding 23% to 46% drop in water and coal consumption, depending on train weight and track gradient." Notable, too, was the patience with which Pennsy engineers would examine a proposed innovation.

(The Locomotive Testing Plant report stated (p. 47) that although the E6s could not equal the K2sa Pacific in starting tractive effort, "that it can produce a drawbar pull equivalent to that of the K2sa at speeds above 22 mph [35 kph] is significant of what has been accomplished with the Atlantic type.)

Gladulich also notes that the E6 had three sets of equalizers - one a central longitudinal beam linking the front bogie and lead driving axle and one for each side's rear driver and trailing axles and KW trailing truck. The Atlantic had an "exceptionally smooth" ride and was much less punishing on the track.

Like most Pennsylvania engines, these locomotives were worked hard, but proved reliable and long-lived.

An account of the 1927 race between an E-6s and an airmail plane to bring newsreel footage of Lindberg's return to Washington, DC tells us what this design could do when pushed. See http://www.rrmuseumpa.org/membership/milepost/lindy/taletwomemos.htm (viewed 27 Dec 2002).

James Alexander, Jr. notes that engine #460 hit 115 mph (185 kph) at some points. After recounting the smashing success of the railroad's run (achieved by processing the film on the train as it rocketed along), Alexander summarizes #460's achievement:

"The spirited locomotive had in fact set a number of records, overall and on various stretches. The entire trip of 224.6 miles (362 km) to Penn Station at an average speed of seventy-two miles per hour beat the previous record of the Coolidge inauguration newsreel run by more than 32 minutes. The three-hour, seven-minute run stood in contrast with the top passenger-train time on that route of five hours. The Special¬s average speed of 74 miles per hour [119 kph] over the 216 miles [348 km] of steam territory was the world¬s record for such a distance and set a record for the Washington-to-Manhattan Transfer distance that was never beaten while steam ran on that busy corridor."

Virtually all E-6s survived to the late 1940s or early 1950s. Most bore numbers in the 2800 range.


Class VE-1 / E-21 (Locobase 9479)

Data from Angus Sinclair (ed), Railway and Locomotive Engineering, January 1903, p. 19.

These were the first Atlantics for the Vandalia Line and were typical 4-4-2s of the time, except perhaps for the use of slide valves.

The Vandalia Line, itself an amalgam of railroads principally including the Terre Haute & Indianapolis, was taken into the Pennsylvania system in 1917.


Class VE-2 / E22 (Locobase 4094)

Taken from a table in Paul T Warner's article on Atlantics in the Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #62 (1943, p 20). Additional data from table in AERJ July 1904.

Compared to most 4-4-2s, this design had a somewhat higher percentage of total weight on the drivers. The Vandalia Line, itself an amalgam of railroads principally including the Terre Haute & Indianapolis, was taken into the Pennsylvania system in 1917.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class2512EE / EoddE1E2
Locobase ID5316 13,123 12,355 3877 3878
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (PRR)New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)/Long IslandPennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class122382
Road Numbers25124 , 32 / 6504, 653213, 16698, 700, 820/198, 200, 19910+
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built122382
BuilderSACMBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoJuniataJuniata
Year19041907189918991900
Valve GearWalschaertStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.0576 7.42 7.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.5225.082327.7530.80
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.24
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)59.4253.79
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)51,30051,105
Weight on Drivers (lbs)87,85487,56062,000101,550110,630
Engine Weight (lbs)164,024150,300114,000173,450169,350
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)132,500120,00071,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)296,524270,300185,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)5499665036004000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons) 6.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)7373528592
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)79.9072688080
Boiler Pressure (psi)224.80200180185185
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)14.17" x 25.59"19.5" x 26"18" x 24"20.5" x 26"20.5" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)23.62" x 25.59"
Tractive Effort (lbs)18,07223,34317,49621,47721,477
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.86 3.75 3.54 4.73 5.15
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)177.54134134218152
Grate Area (sq ft)33.3624.8024.8069.2051
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)26171982198223202430
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)26171982198223202430
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume560.30220.54280.40233.58244.65
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation74994960446412,8029435
Same as above plus superheater percentage74994960446412,8029435
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area39,91126,80024,12040,33028,120
Power L180847082765484697922
Power MT405.72356.63544.33367.72315.74

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE28/E2BE29/E2BE2AE2DE2sd
Locobase ID115 5382 8415 8416 9483
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class2293329
Road Numbers2759, 74512760, 74525266316210+
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built229332
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoAlco-SchenectadyseveralAltoonaJuniata
Year19051905190219051912
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.42 7.41 7.42 7.42 7.42
Engine Wheelbase (ft)33.6731.9230.8530.8530.79
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.24
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)63.9261.3360.54
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)56,66761,40063,300
Weight on Drivers (lbs)120,000117,200110,001121,867125,800
Engine Weight (lbs)202,000200,500184,167184,167193,200
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)132,000132,500134,500151,900
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)334,000333,000318,667345,100
Tender Water Capacity (gals)5500550070005800
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)12.5012.501015.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)1009892102105
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)8080808080
Boiler Pressure (psi)205205205205195
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)16" x 26"16" x 26"20.5" x 26"20.5" x 26"20.5" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)27" x 26"27" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)21,45921,45923,79923,79922,638
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.59 5.46 4.62 5.12 5.56
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)166181.40165.70162.61187
Grate Area (sq ft)55.5055.5055.5055.3055.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)28642862263026472041
Superheating Surface (sq ft)412
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)28642862263026472453
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume473.35473.02264.79266.50205.49
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation11,37811,37811,37811,33710,823
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,37811,37811,37811,33712,662
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area34,03037,18733,96933,33542,664
Power L1586059799518952217,497
Power MT215.32224.94381.52344.51613.26

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE3AE3sd/E4s/E5sE6sVE-1 / E-21VE-2 / E22
Locobase ID5329 452 109 9479 4094
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Vandalia Line (PRR)Vandalia Line (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class114758345
Road Numbers10+6056173
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built114758345
BuilderJuniataJuniataJuniataAlco-SchenectadyAlco-Schenectady
Year19021912191419021903
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertWalschaertStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft) 7.42 7.42 7.6077
Engine Wheelbase (ft)30.7930.7929.6027.2527.25
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.26 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)60.2060.546357.9057.90
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)61,70067,40068,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs)118,400128,900136,00091,500109,500
Engine Weight (lbs)190,000208,700243,600164,500179,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)135,000151,900167,650
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)325,000360,600411,250
Tender Water Capacity (gals)5800580071507000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)13.8015.6012.5012
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)991071137691
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7280807879
Boiler Pressure (psi)205195205200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)22" x 26"22" x 26"23.5" x 26"20.5" x 26"21" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)30,45526,07231,27523,81424,674
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.89 4.94 4.35 3.84 4.44
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)165.70187218169.80177.10
Grate Area (sq ft)55.5055.5055.1346.3650.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)26392041285629873100
Superheating Surface (sq ft)412721
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)26392453357729873100
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume230.70178.42218.81300.73297.42
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation11,37810,82311,302927210,040
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,37812,66213,562927210,040
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area33,96942,66453,62833,96035,420
Power L1745715,19221,85210,04110,069
Power MT277.70519.67708.46483.86405.45

Reference


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