Wabash 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class E1 (Locobase 6919)

Data from WAB 1907, WAB 1 - 1917, and WAB 1 - 1929 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 21, p. 188. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his December 2014 email comments concerning the tender capacities.) Works numbers were 15781, 15792-15795 in March 1898.

As many other railroads turned to the Atlantic arrangement for express passenger locomotives, so did the Wabash beginning with this quintet from Baldwin. The purpose of the trailing axle shows clearly in the diagram as the firebox has been shifted behind the rear driving axle. But neither this class nor its successor (Locobase 6920) exploited the greater available space as a chance to enlarge the grate. Baldwin's estimates of 80,000 lb (36,287 kg) adhesion weight and 137,000 lb (62,142 kg) for loaded engine. The figure for the latter in the 1907 diagram ran more than 10 short tons (9.1 metric tons) higher.

When delivered, the class had 175.7 sq ft (1.5 sq m) in direct heating surface area. Arch tubes installed later added 13.6 sq ft (1.25 sq m) to that figure, according to the 1907 diagram. But the 1917 and 1929 diagrams rescind the addition and give the original firebox area. Of the four set of specs Locobase reviewed, only the 1907 gives areas consistent with the tube count, diameter, and length shown in all four; the difference amounts to about 44 sq ft (4.1 sq m).

In any case, the class served the Wabash for more than 30 years. 1601 was scrapped first in June 1931, followed by 1605 in December. The last three went in 1933, 1603 in June and 1602, 1604 in July.


Class E2 (Locobase 6920)

Data from WAB 1907 and WAB 1 - 1917 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 26 July 2015 email locating and stating the tender's capacity.)

The Wabash turned to Richmond for its second batch of Atlantics three years after it received its first 5 from Baldwin (Locobase 6919). The result was a smaller boiler, slightly larger grate and firebox heating surface, and much taller drivers. At 79", the latter put the Wabash in the express passenger big time.

At some later point, the Wabash added 15 sq ft of arch tubes to the direct heating surface, increasing it to 195 sq ft. Hohl points out that some of the class later had tenders with an 11-ton coal capacity.


Class E3 (Locobase 5350)

Data from table in American Engineering and Railroad Journal (AERJ) July 1904 and confirmed by data from WAB 1907 and WAB 1 - 1917 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Note the relatively high drivers even for an Atlantic. Large grate, relatively small boiler compared to other US 4-4-2s of the period. The Wabash later amended the direct heating surface by adding 4 arch tubes comprising 25 sq ft, raising the total to 202 sq ft.

When he can, Locobase likes to include the "special equipment" manufactured by component suppliers to add some detail to the general picture of locomotive production. According to Railroad Gazette, Volume XXXVIII, No 8 (24 February 1905), p. 62, the components were:

Westinghouse high-speed air-brakes

steel axles

Wabash standard bell ringer

Franklin sectional boiler lagging

Damascus brakebeams and iron brake-shoes

Tower couplers

Pyle electric headlights

Nathan injectors and sight-feed lubricators

Ajax plastic bronze journal bearings

Jerome piston rod packings

American Loco Co valve rod packings

Ashton safety valves, Leach and gravity sanding devices

Scott springs

Ashcroft steam gages

Latrobe driving wheel, truck wheel and tender wheel tires

Barnes drifting valve

Elvin driving box lubricator

McCord journal boxes

Anaconda water hose


Class E3s (Locobase 6923)

Data from WAB 1 - 1929 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Date for conversion is the first diagram modification date.

As with other superheating conversions, this modification to the E-3 (see Locobase 5350) took advantage of the greater power in dry steam to drop the boiler pressure by 25 psi. At the same time, driver diameter grew by an inch. Both factors combined to lower the calculated tractive effort. Power at speed, however, increased considerably because the Wabash update resulted in almost the same amount of heating surface as was found in the saturated


Class E4 (Locobase 6921)

Data from WAB 1907 and WAB 1 - 1917 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 27, pp. 130+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his December 2014 comments concerning the tender capacities.) Works numbers were 24480, 24489, 24499-24500, 24507-24509 in July 1904 and 24519, 24521-24522 in August.

It's interesting to compare this set of Atlantics to the E-1 class (Locobase 6918), which Baldwin delivered to the Wabash in 1898. Perhaps these two classes illustrate the essential limitations of the 4-4-2 design as clearly as any comparison could. The boiler was bigger as was the grate, but the direct heating surface barely grew at all. Adhesion weight grew by more than 13 tons, only just keeping pace with the increased tractive effort. Another key difference was the substitution of 12" (305 mm) piston valves for the slide valves used in the E-1s.

Baldwin's estimates of adhesion weight (100,000 lb/4,536 kg) and engine weight (185,000 lb /83,915 kg) ran several tons light.

The Wabash later amended the direct heating surface by adding 4 arch tubes comprising 25 sq ft, raising the total to 202 sq ft. These engines were superheated in the 1920s; see Locobase 6922.


Class E4s (Locobase 6922)

Data from WAB 1907 and WAB 1 - 1929 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Date given is the first modification date on the diagram. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 28 July 2015 email noting some differences among the engines in this class.)

Superheating the E-4 added quite a bit of power to the basic Atlantic design, perhaps 30% greater power at speed. Although tractive effort dropped as boiler pressure was slightly reduced and driver diameter slightly increased, the decrease in apparent power was more than offset by adding 24 sq ft (2.25 sq m) of arch tubes to the direct heating surface and superheating the steam.

Superheated engines had 12" diameter (305 mm) piston valves. Hohl notes that most of the class retained their Stephenson link motion and maximum valve travel of 6" (152 mm). The 602 and 606, which received Walchaert gear, saw their valve travel increase to 7" (177 mm).

A few of the engines (604, 607, e.g.) were given tenders with cast-steel trucks. Water capacity increased to 7,800 gallons (29,523 litres) and coal bunkerage increased to 13 tons. Engine and tender wheelbase grew by almost five feet to 60 ft 5 1/4" (18.42 metres) and the tender's loaded weight came up to 159,400 lb (72,303 kg).

The class's life certainly was extended with only the 611 being scrapped in the 1930s (June 1936). 604-605, 607 met the torch in 1940 and 609 in 1941. But World War Two demands mean that 603 wouldn't go until December 1942 and 610 worked until April 1944. 606 wasn't scrapped until February 1947 and 608 a month later. 602, first on the production line, was also last to the ferro-knacker in March 1949.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE1E2E3E3sE4
Locobase ID6919 6920 5350 6923 6921
RailroadWabashWabashWabashWabashWabash
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class5612810
Road Numbers601-605/1601-1605606-611/624-629612-623612+602-611
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built561210
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoRichmondAlco-BrooksWabashBurnham, Williams & Co
Year18981901190319281904
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase7'7' 7.50' 7.50' 7.50'
Engine Wheelbase24.47'24.47'30.96'30.96'30.56'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.29 0.29 0.24 0.24 0.25
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)50.87'52.19'50'60.52'55.60'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)42200 lbs42400 lbs56500 lbs
Weight on Drivers83460 lbs81600 lbs96700 lbs111500 lbs110720 lbs
Engine Weight157900 lbs161600 lbs180700 lbs205050 lbs197820 lbs
Tender Light Weight120700 lbs120700 lbs130000 lbs159400 lbs130000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight278600 lbs282300 lbs310700 lbs364450 lbs327820 lbs
Tender Water Capacity4500 gals6000 gals6000 gals7800 gals6000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)10 tons10 tons12 tons13 tons12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)70 lb/yard68 lb/yard81 lb/yard93 lb/yard92 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter73"79"83"84"79"
Boiler Pressure200 psi200 psi215 psi200 psi220 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 26"19" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 28"
Tractive Effort21858 lbs20198 lbs25246 lbs23205 lbs29229 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.82 4.04 3.83 4.80 3.79
Heating Ability
Firebox Area189.29 sq. ft180 sq. ft177 sq. ft202 sq. ft176.33 sq. ft
Grate Area29.79 sq. ft31.50 sq. ft43.70 sq. ft43.71 sq. ft45.12 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2423 sq. ft2315 sq. ft2676 sq. ft2209 sq. ft2942 sq. ft
Superheating Surface483 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2423 sq. ft2315 sq. ft2676 sq. ft2692 sq. ft2942 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume283.99271.33256.74211.94262.10
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation59586300939687429926
Same as above plus superheater percentage595863009396103169926
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area3785836000380554767238793
Power L19610992310161203259867
Power MT507.70536.19463.31803.75392.94

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE4s
Locobase ID6922
RailroadWabash
CountryUSA
Whyte4-4-2
Number in Class10
Road Numbers602-611
GaugeStd
Number Built
BuilderWabash
Year1924
Valve GearStephenson or Walsch
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.50'
Engine Wheelbase30.56'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.25
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)55.60'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)56860 lbs
Weight on Drivers113720 lbs
Engine Weight201820 lbs
Tender Light Weight132000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight333820 lbs
Tender Water Capacity6000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)13 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)95 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter80"
Boiler Pressure210 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 28"
Tractive Effort27551 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.13
Heating Ability
Firebox Area200 sq. ft
Grate Area45.12 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2366 sq. ft
Superheating Surface510 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2876 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume210.79
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9475
Same as above plus superheater percentage11181
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area49560
Power L119846
Power MT769.48

Reference


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