Hecla & Torch Lake 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Cartier (Locobase 13208)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 31, p.82. Works number was 32201 in November 1907.


Class Kitchigami (Locobase 8533)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 12, , p 204 and Volume 13, p. 123. See also http://www.pasty.com/copperrange/chroster.htm for roster information and Reports of the United States Commissioners to the Universal Exposition at Paris in 1889 to the House of Representatives, 51st Congress, 1st Session, Ex. Doc 450 Part 3 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1891), p. 494-495, which identified the engines as belonging to the "Calumet & Hecla Mining Company". See also See also John A Hall, "In the Northern Peninsula of Michigan," Locomotive Engineering, Volume 8, Number 2 (February 1895), pp. 67-71.

According to Connelly's Baldwin list, this pair was produced by Baldwin in consecutive Octobers, works #7709 in 1885 as Kichigami, #8199 in 1886 as Manitou.

Wootten boilers and fireboxes didn't appear on many non-anthracite-burning locomotives, but this pair of Consolidations bought by the Calumet & Hecla Consolidated Mining Company must have seemed a good idea at first. The railway was laid at slightly less than standard gauge and had the big Wootten firebox for burning buckwheat or pea anthracite coal. To compensate for the short boiler tubes that such a design carried, the builder provided a combustion chamber that added to the direct heating surface area. The grate also had water tubes. The whistle was required to have "heavy, deep tones."

But the specification sheet for the 1885 order contains the following note: "for criticism of this engine see letter of Mr L S Woodbury July 12/86", while the 1886 order for Manitou includes "For Performance of Engine see letter L S Woodbury Nov. 24-1886". Locobase hasn't determined what the exact description of the design's deficiencies might have been.

One home-grown feature was locomotive superintendent W A Child's "...peculiar device under the firebox and back of the wheels, that is employed to guide the engine when backing up, by rigidly fastening a connection to the tank trucks, making them act as guiding trucks; this can be thrown into or out of service by use of a lever."

The website roster notes that both Kitchigami and Manitou were later rebuilt with conventional rear cabs and Belpaire fireboxes. This may have occurred when the railroad was converted to standard gauge in 1907. They served the H & LT for almost 60 years each before retiring in 1944 and 1945, respectively.


Class Voyageur (Locobase 12395)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 22, p. 235. See also John A Hall, "In the Northern Peninsula of Michigan," Locomotive Engineering, Volume 8, Number 2 (February 1895), pp. 67-71. Works number was 17458 in February 1900.

The Voyageur was rebuilt to standard gauge dimensions in 1906 and acquired by the Hecla & Torch Lake as their #5.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassCartierKitchigamiVoyageur
Locobase ID13208 8533 12395
RailroadHecla & Torch LakeHecla & Torch LakeHecla & Torch Lake
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class121
Road Numbers76-7
GaugeStd4' 1""Std
Number Built121
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & Co
Year190718851900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase13.75'13.67'14'
Engine Wheelbase21.33'21.75'21.75'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.64 0.63 0.64
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)48.21'44.50'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers124000 lbs103000 lbs128000 lbs
Engine Weight136000 lbs118000 lbs144000 lbs
Tender Light Weight70000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight206000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity3500 gals2400 gals3000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)52 lb/yard43 lb/yard53 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter51"50"51"
Boiler Pressure180 psi130 psi200 psi
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 26"20" x 26"15" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)25" x 26" (2)
Tractive Effort28158 lbs22984 lbs28676 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.40 4.48 4.46
Heating Ability
Firebox Area104.50 sq. ft206.86 sq. ft170.20 sq. ft
Grate Area28 sq. ft76 sq. ft25.87 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1761 sq. ft1332 sq. ft2047 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1761 sq. ft1332 sq. ft2047 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume206.40140.89384.93
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation504098805174
Same as above plus superheater percentage504098805174
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area188102689234040
Power L1409527123335
Power MT291.22232.19229.76


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