Pennsylvania 2-10-0 "Decapod" Locomotives

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class I1s Type A (Locobase 5153)

William D. Edson (Keystone Steam & Electric, 1974) adds that these engines also had "[a] Belpaire boiler, [mechanical] stoker, Worthington feedwater heater, power reverse gear, heat-treated steel reciprocating parts, and underhung crossheads." Of the five sets of drivers, only the first and last had flanges, which reduced the design's minimum curve radius. See Locobase 32 for a comment on the unique design of Pennsy's Belpaire firebox.

Pennsy built the first 123 at their Juniata shops in 1916 and 1918-1919. Never very stylish, these were brute-force engines serving wherever there was a long train and a steep grade.

Alco Estimating Engineer James Partington (in "Avoidable Waste in Locomotive Operation as Affected by Design", Railway Age, Volume 95, No. 11 (5 November 1921), pp. 673-677) comments that the secret to the I-1's great success lay in setting the proportions to allow for limited cutoff operation. Continuous high tractive effort levels on the long uphill runs were achieved by using a long stroke and large cylinders, but cutting off the steam at 50% of the stroke rather than the more usual 90%. Limiting the cutoff may allowed the railroad to use 12" (305 mm) piston valves.

"The expected increase in economy of coal and water," Partington observed, "...has been fully realized. Not only has the engine shown remarkable efficiency, but the economy under wide ranges of load is especially remarkable [sic]."

As a reminder of what "efficiency" consisted of in the steam era, note that the I-1 achieved a maximum of 8.1% thermal efficiency (generating 1,777 ihp), and averaged over 7%. Maximum IHP came to 3,080 (at 40% cutoff and 2.9 lb of coal per IHP hour.).

See Locobase 15291 for the 475 Baldwins of 1922-1923, which introduced

Class I1s Type E - 1922 (Locobase 15921)

Data from DeGolyer, Vol 68, pp. 388+ . Works numbers were:

1922

November 55725-55730, 55777-55785

December 55817-55855, 55943, 55945

1923

January 55946-55989, 56069-56076

March 56164-56194

April 56410-56415, 56432-56452

May 56489-56502, 56531-56535, 56546-56565, 56615-56629

June 56643-56682

July 56747-56758, 56776-56803

August 56869-56895, 56945-56967

September 57037-57061, 57100-57104, 57125-57170

October 57229-57231, 57272-57317

William D. Edson (1974) recorded that these engines also had "[a] Belpaire firebox, Worthington feed water heater, [mechanical] stoker, power reverse gear, heat-treated steel reciprocating parts, and underhung crossheads." Of the five sets of drivers, only the first and last had flanges, which reduced the design's minimum curve radius. A combustion chamber measuring 42.25" added 90 sq ft (8.35 sq m), which together with the 31 sq ft (2.9 sq m) of fire brick tubes, completed the supplementary direct heating surface. Also, the Pennsy had adopted an unusually "square" tube and flue arrangement (usually engines of that era fitted with Type E superheaters had many more flues than tubes). See Locobase 32 for a comment on the unique design of Pennsy's Belpaire firebox..

As Locobase 67 relates, tests on the I-1s in 1923 led to changes in the boiler.

Class I1s Type E - 1929 (Locobase 67)

Data from table in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and PRR Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also "Tests of A Class I 1s Freight Locomotive Equipped with a Feed Water Heater and Type E Superheater", Locomotive Testing Plant Bulletin No. 32 (1924).

Baldwin delivered these 475 decapods in 1922-1923; see Locobase 15921

Of the five sets of drivers, only the first and last had flanges, which reduced the design's minimum curve radius. See Locobase 32 for a comment on the unique design of Pennsy's Belpaire firebox.

The dimensions shown in the specifications come from the Pennsylvania's diagrams, which were dated from the late 1920s. The changes apparently resulted from the Pennsylvania's tests of an I-1s in February 1923. Engineer of Tests F M Waring stated that the "substitution of the Type E for the Type A superheater and the resultant large increase in heating surface has not noticeably increased the evaporative capacity or efficiency of the boiler." He concludes that the evaporative heating surface area in this design limited any possible gains regardless of the size of the superheater.

Waring also noted that use of the Worthington feed water heater resulted in a 14% savings in coal use.

Although no recommendations for modifications to the I-1's boiler appear in the report and the Belpaire firebox remained unchanged., differences found in diagrams prepared just a few years later suggest that the Pennsy's motive power heads decided to adjust the balance of the tube-flue area. Given the Waring's conclusion regarding the boiler's EHS, it's odd that both tube and flue counts both dropped, but the boiler lost more than twice as many 3 1/2" flues than 2 1/4" tubes. Also, tube and flues were all trimmed by 6".

In fact, both the M-1 4-8-2 and the I-1 2-10-0 used boilers with many more small tubes than were found in most boilers with Type E superheaters.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassI1s Type AI1s Type E - 1922I1s Type E - 1929
Locobase ID5153 15921 67
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-02-10-02-10-0
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStd
BuilderseveralBaldwinseveral
Year191619221929
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase22.67'22.67'22.67'
Engine Wheelbase32.17'32.17'32.17'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.70 0.70 0.70
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)73.04'73.04'73.37'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)72600 lbs
Weight on Drivers334500 lbs334500 lbs352500 lbs
Engine Weight366500 lbs366500 lbs386100 lbs
Tender Light Weight182000 lbs182000 lbs204700 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight548500 lbs548500 lbs590800 lbs
Tender Water Capacity9000 gals9000 gals10300 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)17.5 tons17.5 tons18.7 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run112 lb/yard112 lb/yard118 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter62"62"62"
Boiler Pressure250 psi250 psi250 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)30.5" x 32"30.5" x 32"30.5" x 32"
Tractive Effort102027 lbs102027 lbs102027 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.28 3.28 3.45
Heating Ability
Firebox Area272 sq. ft312 sq. ft322 sq. ft
Grate Area70 sq. ft69.90 sq. ft69.90 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface4315 sq. ft4818 sq. ft4590 sq. ft
Superheating Surface1360 sq. ft1986 sq. ft1634 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface5675 sq. ft6804 sq. ft6224 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume159.46178.05169.62
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation175001747517475
Same as above plus superheater percentage217002254322019
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area84320100620101430
Power L1171032315319958
Power MT563.61762.98624.11

Photos


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