Manhattan Railway Company 0-4-4 "Forney" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class B (Locobase 6656)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. According to Brennan's history -- http://www.columbia.edu/~brennan/beach/chapter17.html, accessed 28 October 2005 -- Baldwin and Rhode Island Locomotive Works each produced ten engines. Baldwin's works numbers were 4350, 4353-4355, 4357, 4393, 4396-4397, 4401, 4407 in August 1878; road numbers were 36-40, 56-60. Rhode Island's works numbers were 710-714 in August 1878 and 720-724 in September.

See Locobase 5040 for a more general discussion. The boiler pressure is an estimate as the diagrams do not give the figure.


Class C (Locobase 6657)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Vol 9, p. 33. Baldwin's (Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co, at that point) works numbers were 4465, 4468-4470 in October 1878; 4471-4472, 4477, 4479, 4481-4482, 4484-4485, 4488 in November (road numbers 66-78). Rhode Island supplied the others as works numbers 733-738 in December 1878 and 739-744 in January 1879.

See Locobase 5423 for a more general discussion. The boiler pressure is an estimate as the diagrams do not give the figure.


Class D2 (Locobase 11174)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Baldwin's works numbers were 4538-4540, 4542, 4544-4546, 4548 in February 1879; 4550, 4552, 4568-4573 in March (road numbers 97-113).

The boiler pressure is an estimate as the diagrams do not give the figure. The design is clearly an enlargement of the C class design shown in Locobase 6657. The drivers are taller, the cylinders have a little more volume, but the wheelbase remains the same as does the boiler.

Most of the class was sold to industrial and logging companies, but 102 had a slightly different second life. In 1902, it was sold. Locobase isn't certain of the order, but the ex-102 was operated by the Spring Creek Railway, the Susquehanna & New York, and the Tionesta Valley.


Class E (Locobase 6658)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection and DeGolyer, Vol 10a, p. 167. Works numbers were 5484, 5486, 5496, 5498-5500, 5503-5504 in February 1881; 5540-5541, 5543, 5545-5547 in March; 5573, 5577-5580, 5583 in April; and 5616, 5619-5620, 5622, 5624.

See Locobase 5423 for a more general discussion. The boiler pressure is an estimate as the diagrams do not give the figure. These went to work for the New York Elevated Railway, which soon changed names to the Manhattan Railway. They were "remodeled" by the Manhattan beginning in 1892.

When New York's El system electrified, this clutch was sold off to a variety of industrial and logging users.


Class E (Locobase 15806)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection and DeGolyer, Vol 11, p. 5. Works numbers were 6267, 6265, 6268 in June 1882; 6271-6272, 6275-6277, 6283, 6285, 6288-6289, 628, 6291-6292 in July; 6442-6443, 6445, 6448, 6447, 6484, 6486, 6488-6489 in November.

These followed other Baldwin E types (Locobase 6658) into service on the NYE. This next group had six fewer tubes, but was otherwise identical. It was not long before that elevated was incorporated into the Manhattan Railway and the class was renumbered. Like almost all of these Forneys, the entire class found gainful employment after the elevated electrified in the early 1900s.


Class F/F2/F3 (Locobase 6659)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 129-134 in May 1886, 135-144 in June, 145-153 in August.

See Locobase 5423 for a more general discussion. The boiler pressure is an estimate as the diagrams do not give the figure. Obviously a considerably revamped Forney with bigger cylinders but a smaller boiler.

22 was rebuilt in 1893 as F2; 14,16, 18-19, 21 were updated in 1894-1897 as F3.


Class G (Locobase 6660)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 1305-1324 in February-April 1892.

See Locobase 5423 for a more general discussion.

builder information from B Rumary's compilationt supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. These engines were produced in a single batch as rebuilds of earlier K-class engines. Most were sold off in 1905-1906 after the El's electrification.

A later order featured larger boilers; see Locobase 6662.


Class K (Locobase 6661)

Data from the 1902 Manhattan Railway Company locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 16, p. 171.

Works numbers were 11504, 11508-11510, 11513, 11533, 11549-11550, 11555, 11557, 11562-11563, 11576 in January 1891; 11577-11578, 11603-11605, 11616-11617, 11622-11632, 11644-11645, 11651 in February, 11667, 11670, 11672-11673, 11704

See Locobase 5423 for a more general discussion. The boiler type was Belpaire.

A 14 March 1890 edition of the Engineer reviewed the El's performance and how these locomotives served: "The maximum speed on the elevated road is twenty-five miles per hour, and on a level line it requires from 1000 ft to 1200 ft.(305 to 366 m) to get up to speed. The average horse-power to do the work required is 145. The average consumption of coal per mile is 45.7 lh. The average number of miles run per ton of coal is 49.4 lb. The Railroad Gazette says: 'The engines work on an average of about twenty hours per day with two crews, each crew averaging seventy miles, and making 208 stops during that time."'

The combination of compact size, sprightly acceleration, and good power for their size obviously appealed to other operators once the Manhattan electrified the El. Not one of the class failed to have a second career.

Choosing almost at random, Locobase finds two them going to work for Lansing Wheelbarrow in Lansing, Ark. The 326 first served small locomotive builder New York Locomotive in Rome, New York and later the San Joaquin & Eastern in California. 319 ran on the Beaumont & Saratoga Transportation's rails while Westerly, RI/s New England Granite Company adopted 317. 335, last in the class, went first to the Pacific Traction Company of Tacoma, Wash and wound up bashing cars on the Nisqually Iron Works's property. (This last owner later merged in 1912 with the Russell Wheel & Foundry Company of Detroit, Mich to form the Nisqually-Russell Car & Machinery Company.)

And the 330, whose history shows the variety of businesses that could find a use for a small steam locomotive in the early part of the American 20th century. first went in April 1905 to the Keating & Smethport (a 0.126 mile/0.2 km road in East Smethport, Pa), then on to the Mount Jewett, Kinzua & Ritterville in 1911 as their "Mt Jewett. Sold by the MJK&R to locomotive rebuilder/reseller Birmingham Rail & Locomotive in August 1912, the engine immediately found a home with Bell Deal Lumber Company of Buhl, Ark. There it stayed as Bell Deal became Deal, then Deal Bachtel Lumber.


Class K (Locobase 12606)

Data from "An Elevated Railroad Locomotive," Railroad & Engineering Journal, Vol LXIV, No 1 (January 1890), p. 9. See also John H White, "Spunky Little Devils: Locomotives of the New York Elevated," Railroad History, Bulletin 162, pp. 21-78.

Works numbers were 221-229 in March 1887, 230-233 in April, 234-235 in May, 236-241 in August, and 241-245 in November . Construction and career information from J F Webber NEW YORK/ROME LOCOMOTIVE WORKS Rome, New York 1883-1891, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his collection.

One of hundreds Matthias Forney tanks designed for rapid acceleration over short distances. A straight boiler rode over the two driving axles and the firebox dropped behind the rear driving axle and in front of the bogie truck under the tank. This particular version had a Belpaire firebox. The boiler pressure is estimated, but based on a similar engine of the same year produced by Rhode Island and outlined in Locobase 5040.

The REJ article is quite explicit about both the dimensions, weights, and other data and the Webber list of New York Locomotive production shows the precise group being discussed. Of particular note at the time was the use of a Belpaire boiler, perhaps because the engines burned only relatively smokeless anthracite coal.

The report (almost certainly written by Matthias Nace Forney, inventor of the design) observes: "The service in which these locomotives are employed is of a difficult nature, owing to the great number of stops required, and also to the sharpness of the curves, and, on some of the lines, the steepness of the grades. The trains drawn consist usually of four or five cars of the pattern in use on elevated roads, which is lighter than that of the passenger cars employed on ordinary lines."

RREJ notes that the Forneys burned anthracite (in theory less smoky) and worked a difficult service. By 1880, Comstock (1971) says, over 300 of these engines were pulling 5-7 cars each. Until the electrification of the elevated railways in New York City, these engines served stations at a rate of one every few minutes. Their use spread to Brooklyn and Chicago. Alas for Forney, he found that "Manufacturers and purchasers found the engines most attractive the day my patents expired." (Comstock, 1971).

Forney's verdict, while perhaps self-interested, was not uwarranted by the evidence: "Under all conditions these engines have done their work well, and appear to be very well adapted to the service."

White admired all of their virtues of reliability and aptness for the demanding service. He continues with a wry response to these questions (p. 44): "But were they really suitable for operation in the midst of a major city? What steps were taken to sanitize them for an urban environment?"

He continues with a pungent analogy: "The task was hardly easy, for locomotives are essentially barnyard creatures. They do what they do, when they want to do it. If they feel like spewing out some smoke and cinders or belching up a geyser of dirty water, they do it then and there. Domestication came hard to a machine meant to roam free and wild in the open country."

Smoky and noisy, their replacement was nonetheless greeted with some instant nostalgia.

Like many of the Forneys used on eastern elevated lines, the class served for only a relatively short period before being replaced by electric trains.

Of a handy size and still capable of years' more service, all of this group found useful employment on logging roads, short lines, other street railways, and industrial concerns. The list below is extracted from Webber's summary and shows the occupational and geographic variety of the second careers for these locomotives:

165 Republic Constrution Company, Roundout, IL

Birmingham Rail & Locomotive rebuilder/reseller [ 241 ]

Whitewater Lumber Company, Autaugaville, AL (11/10)

166 Hazard Wharf Co., Locust Point, Baltimore, MD

167 Dailey & Ivans, New York, NY

168 Lackawanna Steel Co., West Seneca, NY

169 Great Falls & Old Dominion RR #169

BR&L [343 ]

Morgan & Shore, Mabel, FL (2/1913)

170 Indianapolis Northern Traction Co., Anderson, IN

171 Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, NY

172 Ragley Lbr.Co., Timpson, TX

173 W. D. Hofius & Co., Seattle, WA.

174 Phillip Carey Co., Lockland, OH

175 Lackawanna Steel Co.#175, West Seneca, NY

BR&L [ 295 ]

O'Brien Cost. Co.#175, Providence, RI

Georgia Car & Locomotive rebuilder/reseller #253

Nadawah Lbr. Co.#3, Nadawah, AL (8/16)

Southern Iron & Equipment rebuilder/reseller #1784

Dunlop Sand & Gravel Co., Petersburg, VA

SI&E #1828

Crescent Lbr.Co.#2, Williamsport, PA (9/23)

176 Cleveland Frog & Switch Co., Cleveland, OH

BR&L [ 394 ]

Excelcior Cypress Co., Timberton, LA (7/14)

177 Indianapolis Northern Traction Co., Anderson, IN

178 W. D. Hofius & Co., Seattle, WA

179 John Shield Const.Co., Quarryville, PA

180 Washington, Frederick & Gettsyburg RR

SI&E #829

So.Eastern Yaryan Naval Stores Co. #1,Brunswick Ga

181 William F.Mosser, Westover, PA

182 Mt.Jewett Tanning Co., Mt.Jewett, PA

183 Ragley Lbr. Co., Timpson, TX

184 American Car & Foundry Co., Berwick, PA

185 F.M.Stillman Co., Essex Falls, NJ

186 Westinghouse, Church & Kerr & Co., So.Ferry, PA

C. W. Blakeslee & Sons #2, New Haven, CT

BR&L

O'Brien Const. Co.#186, Providence RI

BR&L #1115

Henry Wrape Co., Rook, AR

187 Maryland Granite Co., Guilford, Baltimore MD

188 Lackawanna Steel Co., West Seneca, NY

189 W. D.Hofius & Co., Searrle, WA


Class K2 (Locobase 6662)

Data from EER Tratman, "Tank Locomotives", Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club, Vol 17, No. 8 (18 April 1905), pp. 347-348. Works numbers were 1503-1522 in December 1893-February 1894.

See Locobase 5423 for a more general discussion.

Locobase uses an item in an 1894 issue of Locomotive Firemen's Magazine - p. 579 -- (taken from Railway Age) together with builder information from B Rumary's compilation supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004 to piece together the details of this order. Produced in a batch in December 1893 & January-February 1894, these were the largest yet for the Manhattan, a fact attested to in the Railway Age item. A roster compiled in May 1978 (and supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection) shows that like many other Pittsburgh deliveries to the MRwy, these were rebuilds of earlier Baldwin and Rhode Island Forneys.

The article also notes that the boiler combines a Belpaire firebox with an extended wagon top boiler. They were rated at 25 mph and could scale a 2 1/2% grade with 5 cars weighing a total of 72 1/2 tons.

The Rumary list shows that all were sold in 1904-1906, following the electrification of the system. Their post-Elevated lives included a variety of uses from street railway to lumber mill to small railway. Among the latter was the Pamilico, Oriental & Western, which bought the 242 in 1904 to serve as their #1.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassBCD2EE
Locobase ID6656 6657 11174 6658 15806
RailroadManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway Company
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte0-4-4T0-4-4T0-4-4T0-4-4T0-4-4T
Number in Class2025172525
Road Numbers36-45, 56-6566-9097-113229-230, 281-303306-330/133-157
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built20252525
BuilderseveralseveralManchesterBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBurnham, Parry, Williams & Co
Year18791878189518811882
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase5'5'5'5'5'
Engine Wheelbase15.08'16.08'16.08'16.08'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.31
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)15.08'16.08'16.08'16.08'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers20700 lbs24800 lbs24250 lbs29500 lbs29500 lbs
Engine Weight35000 lbs38600 lbs37980 lbs43560 lbs43560 lbs
Tender Light Weight
Total Engine and Tender Weight35000 lbs38600 lbs37980 lbs43560 lbs43560 lbs
Tender Water Capacity475 gals475 gals475 gals512 gals512 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)0.8 tons0.8 tons1.3 tons1.3 tons1.3 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)17 lb/yard21 lb/yard20 lb/yard25 lb/yard25 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter38"38"42"42"42"
Boiler Pressure150 psi150 psi150 psi150 psi150 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)10" x 14"10" x 14"11" x 14"11" x 16"11" x 16"
Tractive Effort4697 lbs4697 lbs5143 lbs5877 lbs5877 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.41 5.28 4.72 5.02 5.02
Heating Ability
Firebox Area40.50 sq. ft44 sq. ft44 sq. ft44 sq. ft44 sq. ft
Grate Area10 sq. ft10 sq. ft10 sq. ft10 sq. ft10 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface273 sq. ft356 sq. ft356 sq. ft356 sq. ft352 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface273 sq. ft356 sq. ft356 sq. ft356 sq. ft352 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume214.52279.73231.19202.29200.01
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15001500150015001500
Same as above plus superheater percentage15001500150015001500
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area60756600660066006600
Power L135504300392834373413
Power MT756.17764.51714.21513.71510.13

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF/F2/F3GKKK2
Locobase ID6659 6660 6661 12606 6662
RailroadManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway CompanyManhattan Railway Company
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte0-4-4T0-4-4T0-4-4T0-4-4T0-4-4T
Number in Class2420302520
Road Numbers13-25, 91-96, 158-16326-31, 33-35, 38, 40-50306-335165-18951-57, 60-64, 201, 236-42
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2420302520
BuilderNew YorkPittsburghBurnham, Williams & CoNew YorkPittsburgh
Year18861892189118871893
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase5'5'5'5'5'
Engine Wheelbase16'16'16'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.31 0.31 0.31
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)16'16'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers29000 lbs32200 lbs32500 lbs29700 lbs32200 lbs
Engine Weight43200 lbs47000 lbs45400 lbs44350 lbs47000 lbs
Tender Light Weight
Total Engine and Tender Weight43200 lbs47000 lbs45400 lbs44350 lbs47000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity512 gals512 gals512 gals512 gals512 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)1.3 tons1.3 tons1.3 tons0.8 tons1.3 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)24 lb/yard27 lb/yard27 lb/yard25 lb/yard27 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter42"42"42"42"42"
Boiler Pressure150 psi140 psi130 psi130 psi140 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)12" x 16"12" x 16"12" x 16"12" x 16"12" x 16"
Tractive Effort6994 lbs6528 lbs6062 lbs6062 lbs6528 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.15 4.93 5.36 4.90 4.93
Heating Ability
Firebox Area49 sq. ft55.80 sq. ft55.80 sq. ft55.77 sq. ft40.30 sq. ft
Grate Area16.50 sq. ft16.50 sq. ft16.50 sq. ft16.43 sq. ft 9.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface304 sq. ft409 sq. ft430 sq. ft430 sq. ft491 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface304 sq. ft409 sq. ft430 sq. ft430 sq. ft491 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume145.15195.28205.31205.31234.44
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation24752310214521361330
Same as above plus superheater percentage24752310214521361330
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area73507812725472505642
Power L127523219308130803240
Power MT418.42440.79418.00457.25443.66


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