Philadelphia & Columbia 4-2-0 "Jervis" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Conestoga (Locobase 852)

Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #13 (1927) has report by railroad of this engine's performance.

Connelly's Baldwin works list shows 4 locomotives (works #65-68) built in series in that year for the P & C. Their names were Paoli, Virginia, Conestoga, and Edward F. Gay. Virginia and Conestoga are shown with the cylinder dimensions outlined above while Connelly describes the diameter of the cylinders in Paoli and Edward F. Gay as "10+"; see Locobase 853 for Paoli.

Cost given as $7,500.

According to the P & C, this class was designed as "heavy, and for tonnage draft at speeds not exceeding 10 or 12 miles an hour, so limited, not so much from a want of capacity in the generation of steam, as from injury to the road ..."

Inside-connected on a single-throw crank. Winding a screw-gear transferred up to 2,000 lb of the tender's weight onto the drivers, increasing adhesion weight.

The three were disposed of by August 1857.


Class George Washington (Locobase 3058)

This was William Norris's first great success, a locomotive that could tackle the notorious Belmont Incline, a 7.14% grade. In July 1836, the George Washington hauled a 16-ton load up the incline at 15.5 mph. This performance was questioned by some experts as being beyond an engine with the stated boiler pressure and weight on the drivers, John White notes in his History of the American Locomotive (1968). Reder (1974) cites a study by PC Dewhurst (published in 1950 by the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society), however, that suggested a faulty pressure gauge may have considerably understated the boiler pressure achieved during this run. The Washington County Farmer put up similar performances in October 1836.


Class Martin Van Buren (Locobase 3057)

Although smaller than the Conestoga and Paoli classes built by Baldwin for the same railroad (Locobase 852 & 853), this engine (Baldwin works # 125) is credited with the surprisingly high boiler pressure of 120 psi. The Bury firebox -- possessing a large dome and large steaming space -- used in these and many other engines of the time was, according to Reder (1974), "a great success because it was easily maintained and effectively prevented water from passing into the cylinders, especially when poor track meant that the boiler water swilled about." White (1968) explains that the large steaming area produced a dry steam.

Tufnell (1986) credits this locomotive with 54" drivers, which would raise tractive effort to 2,448 lb.

The locomotive was renamed James R Clarke after Van Buren lost the 1840 presidential election.


Class Paoli (Locobase 853)

Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #13 (1927) has report by railroad of this engine's performance. Connelly's Baldwin works list identifies the works number for Paoli as 65 and notes that it was produced in February 1837.

Cost was $6,500 each for the Paoli, Middleton, and Mount Joy. Middleton put 9,700 lb on the drivers (19,950 lb total weight), and Mount Joy weighed in at 10,600 lb weight on drivers, 20,775 lb total engine weight. According to the P & C, this class was designed as "of lighter make, for the conveyance of passengers at any velocity consistent with safety"

Inside-connected on a single-throw crank. Winding a screw-gear transferred up to 2,000 lb of the tender's weight onto the drivers, increasing adhesion weight.

Paoli made 175 trips from the Inclined plane of the Schuykill to that of the Susquehanna (77 miles) in as many days. Wear on the journal boxes necessitated repairs after that point. Driver tire wear was rated at 9 months.

Paoli was sold to Allegheny Portage in 1846.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassConestogaGeorge WashingtonMartin Van BurenPaoli
Locobase ID852 3058 3057 853
RailroadPhiladelphia & ColumbiaPhiladelphia & ColumbiaPhiladelphia & ColumbiaPhiladelphia & Columbia
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-2-04-2-04-2-04-2-0
Number in Class2111
Road Numbers
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built2111
BuilderMatthias BaldwinWilliam NorrisBaldwin, Vail & HuftyMatthias Baldwin
Year1837183618391837
Valve Gear
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase
Engine Wheelbase
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)30.27'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers12120 lbs6710 lbs9150 lbs
Engine Weight26090 lbs14928 lbs16538 lbs20700 lbs
Tender Light Weight
Total Engine and Tender Weight
Tender Water Capacity
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)20 lb/yard11 lb/yard015 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter48"48"60"60"
Boiler Pressure75 psi60 psi120 psi75 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)12" x 16"10.25" x 17.5"9" x 16"11" x 16"
Tractive Effort3060 lbs1954 lbs2203 lbs2057 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.96 3.43 4.45
Heating Ability
Firebox Area
Grate Area 8.60 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface0000
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation051600
Same as above plus superheater percentage051600
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area0000
Power L10000
Power MT000


If you have any railroad data such as diagram books, rail station plans or anything else that you would be willing to share, please contact us.