Central do Brasil 4-6-2 Locomotives in Brazil

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 360 (Locobase 14513)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 79, pp. 194+; and Flavio R Cavalcanti, "Locomotivas Pacific 350. a 369", esp. Diagram from Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil, reproduced on the Centro-Oeste Brasil website at [], last accessed 21 April 2019. Works numbers were 59723-59742 in January 1927.

The Baldwin specs nicely illustrate the constraints imposed on builder and railroad by available assets or, in this case, the quality of available coal. The specs note that these Pacifics would burn "Brazilian coal", which had a relatively low caloric value. Such "brown coal" needed a firebox similar to that of a Wootten and these engines' fireboxes were almost eight feet wide (actually 95 1/4"/2,419 mm). The back end was relatively shallow at 51 1/2"/1,308 mm, but the grate sloped down to a front depth of 69" (1,753 mm) over a length of 106 1/8" (2,696 mm). Photos of surviving members of the class show how the broad gauge kept the visual proportions in balance.

Another feature was the three-cylinder layout, which placed a higher demand for steam but was favored by some railroads for its smoother pulse. In any case, the EFCB's profile demanded heroic power output to scale its 2.43% grades and negotiate 140 metre (459 foot)/ 12 1/2 degree curves.

The class remained in service for close to 50 years, at times on the Central Line at the head of the Southern Cross (Cruzeiro do Sul) express and on the Sao Paulo branch, later, as diesels proliferated, on the Sao Paulo

Class 370 (Locobase 15023)

Data from Roy V Wright (Ed.) 1922 Locomotive Cyclopedia of American Practice, Sixth Edition (New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company, 1922), 1020; "American Locomotives for Exhibition at the Brazillian Centennial in Rio de Janeiro", Railway Review, Volume 72, No 7 (17 February 1923), p. 286; and and "Locomotives for the Brazilian Centennial Exhibition", Railway Age, Volume 74, No 8 (24 February 1923), pp. 467-468. . See also Nick Burman's entry in "Central of Brazil 370", posted 19 May 2011 at JNS Forum (Japanese Modeling and Japan Rail Enthusiasts Forum), link was http://www.jnsforum.com/community/topic/4350-central-of-brazil-370/ . Works numbers were 63533-63538 in 1922.

Firebox heating surface area included both arch tubes and a combustion chamber. Steam was admitted to the cylinders through 12" (305 mm) piston valves.

Nick Burman gives some history of the lead engine of this class: " This locomotive was reputedly a personal gift of King Albert I of Belgium to the Central as a "thank you" to the Brazilian authorities for the welcome given during his visit an year before. In later years she got the nickname "Zeze Leone" (after a popular "Miss Brazil" of the late 30s-early 40s). For a long time she also had a permanent crew, the driver of which used to take his family to shed to help him clean and polish the loco."

She was finally withdrawn in 1972 and plinthed outside Santos Dumont shops until 2007 when she was taken into the shops and had her restoration begun.

Class 380 (Locobase 13165)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 36, p. 298 and Volume 44, p. 66. Works numbers were 34934-34935 in July 1910; 37838-37845 in June 1912.

Sampling superheaters of various designs at this time, the C do B selected the Emerson. See Locobase 4164 for a full description of this firetube system. Its differences from the much more common Schmidt installation were considerable. Saturated steam went into two headers, not one, which stood vertically in the combustion chamber. So the 24 flues were not grouped at the top of the boiler, but in 4 vertical ranks, 2 on each side.

Belpaire screw reverse gear worked the valve settings.

Notes on the specs reflected the growing body of knowledge about Pacific locomotives, especially with regard to a letter from the C de B on 19 January 1921. RS McC noted on 4 March 1921: "For Hereafter: Raise question about apply [sic] latest type Hodges Truck with back section of engine frame bolted to main frame ...Frame crossties to be more substantial and more securely bolted to frame ...Apply a simpler front engine truck. Raise question apply applying [sic] Player truck." The latter was a Brooks innovation from early in the century. Apparently Baldwin wasn't too proud to look beyond its own design inventory.

Locobase cannot determine how long the 6 engines had the Emerson system. He does note that the locomotives remained in service for decades. The first four were sent to the Araraquara in 1955.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID14,513 15,023 13,165
RailroadCentral do Brasil (EFCB)Central do Brasil (EFCB)Central do Brasil (EFCB)
Number in Class2066
Road Numbers360-369, 350-359370-375380-381, 376-379
Number Built2066
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12.50 / 3.8112.50 / 3.8111.67 / 3.56
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)33.17 / 10.1132.33 / 9.8530.33 / 9.24
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.39 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)59.22 / 18.0559.23 / 18.05
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)133,779 / 60,681121,500 / 55,112122,000 / 55,338
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)99,999 / 46,584106,500 / 48,30860,000 / 27,216
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)321,398 / 147,009316,500 / 143,563242,000 / 109,770
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4501 / 17.054500 / 17.053000 / 11.36
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 8.50 / 7.70 8.50 / 7.707 / 6.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)74 / 3768 / 3468 / 34
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68 / 172768 / 172768 / 1727
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200.20 / 13.80175 / 12.10200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19.02" x 27.99" / 483x711 (3)21.5" x 28" / 546x71121.5" x 28" / 546x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)38,009 / 17240.6128,313 / 12842.5832,358 / 14677.36
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.52 4.29 3.77
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)226.04 / 21203 / 18.86171 / 15.89
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)70.18 / 6.5250.20 / 4.6643 / 4
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2420 / 224.822425 / 225.292773 / 257.71
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)555 / 51.56552 / 51.28631 / 58.64
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2975 / 276.382977 / 276.573404 / 316.35
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume175.28206.11235.69
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation14,05087858600
Same as above plus superheater percentage16,72010,45410,234
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area53,85142,27540,698
Power L114,04314,17417,930
Power MT694.27771.56972.02

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