Canadian Pacific 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in Canada


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class P1a/b (Locobase 3086)

Data from "Mikados on the Canadian Pacific", Railway Age Gazette, Vol 56, No 14 (3 April 1914), pp. 779-781

These engines were used for slow and fast freight as well as for passenger service between Sherbrooke and Megantic (PQ). The Sherbrooke-Megantic section had a maximum eastbound grade of 1.72% over which the 10-car passenger trains had frequently to be double-headed by the CP's Pacifics. According to Railway Age of 3 April 1914: "The Mikados have obviated the necessity for two engines, and under the most extreme climatic conditions are doing excellent work."

RA highlighted the wedge truck, which substituted inclined wedges for the more usual swing links. Also singled out was a casting that combined the back steam chest cover and the crosshead guide. These engines also had a vestibule cab.

The first 20 (P1a) delivered by Canadian Pacific, the latter 75 came from Montreal Loco Works as P1b. These engines were redesignated P-1d & e and renumbered 5100-5194 in 1926-1930 when the original superheater installation was replaced by a Schmidt Type A; see Locobase 4524.

Retirements began in 1957 and the last engine had left by 1964.


Class P1d/e (Locobase 4524)

Data from 1947 Canadian Pacific Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Conversions of twenty P1a to P1d (5100-5119) and 75 P1b to P1e (5120-5194). (The original locomotives are described in Locobase 3086.

The principal difference was in the substitution of a Schmidt-design superheater in place of the home-grown Vaughan-Horsey design originally installed. Also, the firebox heating surface now included 26 sq ft (2.4 sq m) of arch tubes. All had Elesco feed water heaters installed at the same time.


Class P1n (Locobase 4523)

Data from 1947 Canadian Pacific Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 10 May 2013 email identifying the valve gear.)

Converted from N2 2-8-0s (Locobase 4525). The firebox heating surface included 26 sq ft of arch tubes, but the chief difference between the N2 and the P1n was the much longer tube length. This enlarged the boiler's steaming capacity and ameliorated the pinched capacity that was a source of complaint by N2 engineers.


Class P2a/b/c (Locobase 407)

Data from 1947 Canadian Pacific Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Series of CP Mikes that were enlargements of the P1a/b engines (Locobase 3086). They had larger-diameter cylinders, bigger grates, and higher boiler pressure. As usual, weight grew as the locomotives were reboilered. In the 1947 book, the P2 appeared in two forms; this version had less superheat surface and thus more evaporative surface. The later P2d had a different balance; see Locobase 9440.


Class P2d (Locobase 9440)

Data from 1947 Canadian Pacific Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

This represents the later version of the P2a/d (Locobase 407), a class that came into service in the mid-1920s. Sacrificing about 45 small tubes for three flues, the design achieved a hotter-steaming boiler at the cost of about 4 tons (3,628 kg) greater weight.


Class P2e/f (Locobase 5050)

Data from 1947 Canadian Pacific Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The first of the P-2s made their appearance in 1919 as part of a major power upgrade on the CP. The design represented a significant enlargement of the P-1 and was big and spry enough to serve passenger as well as freight trains.

The P-2e/f came along 7 years later. Boiler had feedwater heater and 32 2" tubes. See P2h (Locobase 3) for last variant in series.

A series of reminiscences published by W. Bill Young in "The Fraser Canyon Express" ("North Bend Recollections", accessed from http://members.tripod.com/canyon_express/id67.htm on 15 Sept 2007) includes a description of railroad activity in North Bend the 1930s. North Bend is a community near the US-Canadian border, northeast of Vancouver, and lying on the west bank of the Fraser River.

Young quotes from Ernie Ottewell, Canadian Pacific and Canadian National in the Interior of British Columbia. (Calgary: BRMNA, c1996).

About the P-2 in that region, Ottewell notes: "A 5300 Class P2 2-8-2 could handle about 4,500 tons from Coquitlam to Ruby Creek, where the train would be split and the road crew would take one half of the train through to North Bend."

Another memoir, published by Bill Yeats (CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY 5326) on the West Coast Railway Association's website http://www.wcra.org/features/5326.htm,(accessed 15 Sept 2007) notes of the entire class: "These were very popular mainline freight locomotives, and 162 of this class were built between 1919 and 1944. They hauled freight trains at all points in Canada except for Vancouver Island and some light rail branch lines such as the Kettle Valley. They were also used extensively in pusher service in places like North Bend and the Field Hill. The only places that I recall them being used regularly in passenger service was on the CPR's summer train "The Mountaineer", which connected with their Soo Line and operated between Vancouver and Chicago. The trip between Field, BC and Calgary, Alberta of this train was handled by P2Æs."


Class P2h (Locobase 3)

Data from 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia tables. Also had 32 2" tubes. Firebox heating surface included 36 sq ft of arch tubes.

Last in series of CPR locomotives and part of the generation that was semi-streamlined.. Earlier P2s (Locobase 5050) had larger cylinders (23") and lower boiler pressure (250 psi). Notice how the smaller cylinders stretched the boiler's steam supply.

This last batch went into service on the plains east of the Rockies.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP1a/bP1d/eP1nP2a/b/cP2d
Locobase ID3086 4524 4523 407 9440
RailroadCanadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)
CountryCanadaCanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class9595654515
Road Numbers5000-50945100-19, 5120-945200-52645300-53445345-5359
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built954515
BuilderMontreal LWCanadian Pacificseveralseveralseveral
Year19131926194619191926
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase16.67'16.67'16.60'16.67'16.67'
Engine Wheelbase35.42'35.42'35.42'35.67'35.67'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)66.42'72.74'72.68'75.11'75.11'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers198000 lbs216500 lbs197500 lbs243000 lbs249000 lbs
Engine Weight258000 lbs280000 lbs271000 lbs330000 lbs338000 lbs
Tender Light Weight170000 lbs231000 lbs238000 lbs295000 lbs295000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight428000 lbs511000 lbs509000 lbs625000 lbs633000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity7000 gals12000 gals12000 gals14400 gals14400 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)16 tons14 tons18 tons21 tons21 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)83 lb/yard90 lb/yard82 lb/yard101 lb/yard104 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter63"63"63"63"63"
Boiler Pressure180 psi190 psi215 psi200 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)23.5" x 32"23" x 32"22" x 32"25" x 32"25" x 32"
Tractive Effort42918 lbs43395 lbs44927 lbs53968 lbs53968 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.61 4.99 4.40 4.50 4.61
Heating Ability
Firebox Area188 sq. ft214 sq. ft214 sq. ft317 sq. ft317 sq. ft
Grate Area50 sq. ft50.10 sq. ft50.10 sq. ft70.30 sq. ft70.30 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface3598 sq. ft3138 sq. ft3116 sq. ft3665 sq. ft3560 sq. ft
Superheating Surface760 sq. ft860 sq. ft860 sq. ft845 sq. ft908 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface4358 sq. ft3998 sq. ft3976 sq. ft4510 sq. ft4468 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume223.97203.93221.32201.59195.81
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation90009519107721406014060
Same as above plus superheater percentage1053011613131411673116872
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area3959349605561327544676080
Power L11338615490191231484915382
Power MT596.18630.94853.85538.87544.76

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP2e/fP2h
Locobase ID5050 3
RailroadCanadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)
CountryCanadaCanada
Whyte2-8-22-8-2
Number in Class6069
Road Numbers5360-54045417-5436
GaugeStdStd
Number Built6069
BuilderseveralCanadian Locomotive Co
Year19261943
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase16.50'16.50'
Engine Wheelbase35.67'35.70'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.46 0.46
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)72.12'72.10'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers249000 lbs248400 lbs
Engine Weight338000 lbs339000 lbs
Tender Light Weight237000 lbs238000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight575000 lbs577000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity12000 gals12000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)16 tons18 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)104 lb/yard104 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter63"63"
Boiler Pressure200 psi275 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)23.5" x 32"22" x 32"
Tractive Effort47686 lbs57465 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.22 4.32
Heating Ability
Firebox Area310 sq. ft310 sq. ft
Grate Area70.30 sq. ft70.30 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface3425 sq. ft3436 sq. ft
Superheating Surface990 sq. ft970 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface4415 sq. ft4406 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume213.21244.05
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1406019333
Same as above plus superheater percentage1715323586
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area75640104005
Power L11815128131
Power MT642.83998.68

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