Canadian Pacific 4-6-4 "Hudson" Locomotives in Canada


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class H-1e (Locobase 178)

Data from 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia, supplemented by CP 2 - 1947 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .) Works numbers were 69292-69296 in 1940.

These were the last five of Bowen's Hudsons; the other four subclasses appear in Locobases 5874-5875 . Like the others, the firebox heating surface included 38 sq ft (3.55 sq m) of arch tubes. They were not very different from the 1937-1938 locomotives and were bought to flesh out express passenger rosters by taking on the British Columbian run between Revelstoke and Vancouver.


Class H1a/H1b (Locobase 5874)

Data from CP 2 -1947 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also "CPR 4-6-4 Type Locomotives Give Good Performance," Railway Age, Volume 90, No 13 (28 March 1931), pp. 617-619. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 4 July 2018 email noting a firebox heating surface discrepancy and correcting the tender's fuel capacity.) The first set of ten was delivered by MLW in 1929 (works numbers 68058-68063 in November, 68064-68067 in December) with another ten following a year later (works numbers 68529-68532 in November, 68533-68538 in December).

These locos -- designed by Chief of Motive Power & Rolling Stock Henry Blane Bowen -- were considered to be the cream of CPR passenger engines. The boiler sat on a General Steel Castings one-piece locomotive bed. In addition to Elesco's Type E superheater and BK automatic stoker, the engines used an American multiple throttle. The 1930 set continued the Bowen Hudson design with slight differences.

Railway Age in 1931, reported on a 130-mile (209-km) test run in which an H1 pulled a 19-car, 1,652-ton train. It's a summary of contemporary steam worked to its limit: Average steam pressure 274 psi (18.9 bar), feedwater temperature 222 deg F (105.5 C), and average superheat temperatuture of 675 deg F (357.2 C). The report also claimed that the "smooth and easy-riding qualities" of this design meant the engine crew felt no discomfort even when traveling at average speeds of 90-95 mph (145-153 kph).

The valve gear had a short throw of the eccentric and a long link and minimum working angles to ensure "an easy and smooth-working valve motion." The 14" (356 mm) valves had a maximum travel of 7" (177 mm). One detail of the design were baffle walls under the Rosebud pinhole grate and over the ashpan that diverted incoming air downward toward the center. Working in combination with 38.5 sq ft (3.6 sq m) of arch tubes spaced to offer a wide brick span in the center and narrow ones at the side, the baffles kept cool air away from the sides, which reduced temperature differences and cracking. Much attention was paid during running to maintain an even temperature in the firebox.

Chris Hohl noticed that the 1930 report on the H1as gave the firebox-combustion chamber total as 313 sq ft (29.08 sq m), while the 1947 Locomotive Diagrams showed 288 sq ft (26.77 sq m) for the same assembly.

All twenty remained in service until the late 1950s.


Class H1c/H1d (Locobase 5875)

Data from CP 2 -1947 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. H-1c works numbers were 68951-68957 in September 1937; 68958-68967 in October; 68968-68977 in November; 68978-68980 in December. These were followed by H-1d works numbers 69100-69109 in August 1938. The first five had road numbers 2838-2842 followed by 2820-2837 and 2843-2859.

After an eight-year lull following the production of the H1a-H1b shown in Locobase 5874, Henry Bowen ordered another 30 Hudsons with the principal difference being the streamlining and four fewer 2 1/4" tubes. Consisting mostly of rounded corners, the treatment was quite handsome when combined with the CP livery of black and red. Ten more came in 1938. As in the earlier engines, the firebox heating surface included 38.5 sq ft (3.6 sq m) of arch tubes.

Runs of 811 miles /1,306 km (Toronto to Fort William) and 832 miles/1,340 km (Winnipeg-Calgary) made full use of the larger tenders.

The class earned British royal permission to call themselves the "Royal Hudsons" and to bear the Royal coat of arms after several of the class pulled the royal visitors around Canada in 1939.

Some of these engines ran into the mid-1960s.


Class T-2a (Locobase 10798)

Data from "Suburban Tank Locomotive 4-6-4 Type", American Engineering and Railroad Journal, Volume , No 11 (November 1910), p. 435-439. See also Wright (Ed.), 1912 Locomotive Cyclopedia (3rd Edition) (New York Simmons-Boardman, 1912), pp. 231; and O [Omar[ S A Lavallee, "Canadian Pacific T-2 Suburban Engine", CRHA News Report No 121 (April 1961), p. 48-49.

The report explains that the 1910 pair was turned out to pull six coaches and a baggage car over the 47 miles between the Windsor Street Station and Point Fortune. (A third joined them in 1912.) In that distance, there were seven regular stops and thirteen flag stops westbound on a 120-minute schedule and four regular and twelve flag stops eastbound (105 minutes overall). Coal and water were taken on at Rigaud, which was 40 miles (64 km) from Montreal.

Much attention was paid to both free steaming and weight control, the former being aided by 12" (305 mm) piston valves. The latter involved careful design of most of the structural members to maintain strength while minimizing materials use. One mark of its success was claimed to be coal consumption figures of 79 lb/train mile and 345 lb/thousand ton-miles.

Although they were delivered with automatic dampers to cut off the superheater when not needed, they would soon be removed. AERJ gave the reason of eliminating the unnecessary complication of an additional operating a cylinder that fixed a problem that didn't really exist.

The class gave satisfactory service for over twenty years. 5991 and 5993 were scrapped in February 1935 and 5992 followed in September of that year.


Class T1 (Locobase 15788)

Data from CP 1911-24 Locomotive Diagram supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also O [Omar[ S A Lavallee, "Canadian Pacific T-2 Suburban Engine", CRHA News Report No 121 (April 1961), p. 48-49; and F F Angus, "Commuting to the Lakeshore", Canadian Rail 222 (June 1970), p. 180. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 13 April 2019 email correcting the locomotive's wheelbase and original cylinder dimensions.) CPR works number was 1194 in April 1893.

Lavallee wrote that this single light small suburban double-ended tank 'was really only a standard CPR Brown 4-6-0 design augmented with a four-wheel trailing truck and side tanks." It was originally delivered with 19" x 24"(483 x 610 m) cylinders.

Angus said the opening of the Montreal-Point Fortune prompted the CP's Delormier shops to turn out this engine. At first the service was a one-a-day trip out from Montreal's Windsor Station at 5:20 PM hauling second-class coaches. The same consist returned to Windsor Station at 8:45 AM.

The 624 proved "quite successful" and, as Chris Hohl pointed out, was updated by 1911 to the specifications shown. Its example led the Angus Shops to turn out two more tanks, these a "pure side-tank" locomotive. See Locobase 10798.

The T-1 served Montreal's Lakeshore line for more than 30 years before being scrapped in 1924.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassH-1eH1a/H1bH1c/H1dT-2aT1
Locobase ID178 5874 5875 10,798 15,788
RailroadCanadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)Canadian Pacific (CPR)
CountryCanadaCanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Whyte4-6-44-6-44-6-44-6-4T4-6-4T
Number in Class52040310
Road Numbers2860-28642800-28192820-28591991-1993/5991-5993624/1950/1995/5990
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built52040310
BuilderMontreal LWMontreal LWMontreal LWAngus WorksCPR
Year19401929193719101893
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13.17 / 4.0113.17 / 4.0113.17 / 4.0114.83 / 4.5214.42 / 4.40
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)39.50 / 12.0439.50 / 12.0439.50 / 12.0438.83 / 11.8434.50 / 7.24
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.38 0.42
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)80.88 / 24.6580.52 / 24.5480.52 / 24.5438.83 / 11.8434.50 / 7.24
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)194,000 / 87,997183,800 / 83,370186,800 / 84,731135,000 / 61,235
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)366,000 / 166,015351,200 / 159,302354,000 / 160,572236,000 / 107,048170,000 / 77,111
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)283,000 / 128,367291,900 / 132,404288,650 / 130,930
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)649,000 / 294,382643,100 / 291,706642,650 / 291,502236,000170,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)14,400 / 54.5514,400 / 54.5514,400 / 54.553000 / 11.362820 / 10.68
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)5400 / 20.5021 / 19.1021 / 19.104 / 3.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)108 / 54102 / 51104 / 5275 / 37.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)75 / 190575 / 190575 / 190562 / 157562 / 1575
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)275 / 19275 / 19275 / 19200 / 13.80180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 30" / 559x76222" x 30" / 559x76222" x 30" / 559x76220" x 26" / 508x66018" x 22" / 457x559
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)45,254 / 20526.8945,254 / 20526.8945,254 / 20526.8928,516 / 12934.6617,590 / 7978.70
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.29 4.06 4.13 4.73
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)326 / 30.29352 / 32.70326 / 30.30156 / 14.49146 / 13.56
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)80.80 / 7.5180.80 / 7.5180.80 / 7.5133.10 / 3.0818.40 / 1.71
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3791 / 352.193835 / 356.283791 / 352.321801 / 167.321312 / 121.89
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1542 / 143.261640 / 152.361640 / 152.42365 / 33.91
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5333 / 495.455475 / 508.645431 / 504.742166 / 201.231312 / 121.89
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume287.22290.55287.22190.50202.48
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation22,22022,22022,22066203312
Same as above plus superheater percentage28,66428,88628,88677453312
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area115,649125,840116,54536,50426,280
Power L150,26153,01252,55812,8235862
Power MT1713.501907.581860.87628.22

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