Big Four / Chicago, Indiana & Southern / Lake Shore & Michigan Southern / New York Central 0-10-0 Locomotives in the USA

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Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class M (Locobase 15890)

Data from NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams Including Subsidiaries. Works numbers were 37751-37753 in July 1905. Locobase 12630 shows the other eight heavy switchers supplied to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at the same time. A comparison of the works numbers shows that this trio immediately followed the LS&MS engines. The extensive commentary in 12630 describes all of them as they were delivered.

The three Ms operated on the New York Central for over a decade during which they were renumbered in 1912. Delivered with 25" (635 mm) cylinders, the Ms were rebored to 24". In 1917, they joined their sisters on the Lake Shore and took the next three road numbers.

Although they were superheated with

Like the other New York Central 0-10-0s


Class M-1 (Locobase 15044)

Data from Roy V Wright (Ed.) 1912 Locomotive Cyclopedia of American Practice, Sixth Edition (New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company, 1912), p. 164. Works numbers were 44049-44050 in November 1907.

Locobase explains in Locobase 12629 that he doesn't usually write about all-adhesion switchers in Locobase for lack of resources and time. But a request from Gareth Edwards prompts this entry as well as the Michigan Central entry in which he was particularly interested. See Locobase 12630 for a longer discussion on the rationale behind these big engines.

This pair was produced for the CI & S, a "tributary" of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, in November 1907 and had slightly less firebox area than the LS & MS engines shown in Locobase 12632.

See Locobase 12631 for the superheated modification.


Class M-1/M-1a (Locobase 12630)

Data from MC 1 - 1930 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also "Ten-Wheel Switcher for the Lake Shore," Railway Master Mechanic, Volume 29 (August 1905), pp. 278-279; and the "The World's Largest Switching Engine", Railroad Men, Volume 19, No 1 (October 1905), p. 17. Works numbers were 37746-37750 in June 1905 and and 40965-40967 in July 1907. Locobase 12629 shows the three Canada Southern locomotives that followed the LS&MS design.

Locobase explains in Locobase 12629 that he doesn't usually write about all-adhesion switchers in Locobase for lack of resources and time. But a request from Gareth Edwards prompts this entry as well as the Michigan Central entry in which he was particularly interested.

The RMM report on the LS&MS class gives a detailed justification for the design of these engines and can be quoted at length:

"The hump or gravity yard will be the scene of operations of these engines, and is responsible for their immense proportions. The modern system of receiving yards and classification tracks in which the gravity section is centrally located, necessitates the use of a high powered machine, since the approach to the hump, from which the cars descend by gravity to their assigned tracks, is usually on a rise of one per cent in each direction, while the classification tracks are practically level. The fact that all switching is done over the hump explains the need for a heavy engine, one that is able to take an incoming train without breaking a coupling, and make the proper distribution of the cars composing it. In fact such an engine requires more power to negotiate the one percent grade than the engine that delivered the train, especially on such a level road as the Lake Shore."

All of the drivers were flanged (because curvatures in the yard would be so gradual) and all of the axles were equalized both longitudinally and laterally, through cross-equalizer at the front. Twelve-inch (305 mm) piston valves seem a bit small for these large engines.

(Note that all of the above applies to the three New York Central locomotives shown in Locobase 15890. These joined the LS&MS engines in 1917.)

According to George Drury (1993), each of these was to replace two 0-6-0s. If big was good, then, bigger was better. As often happened with such large switchers or helpers, however, their very bulk proved an inconvenience. They were heavy, stiff, cumbersome (to borrow George Drury's word).

Many were superheated, but except for the three Michigan Central engines shown in Locobase 12629, all were retired before World War II.


Class M-1/M-1a/M-1f (Locobase 12632)

Data from NYC 1 - 1930 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 12630 has the saturated version of the largest single class that made up the predecessors to this superheated upgrade. In addition to the new tube and flue counts in the boiler, the cylinder volume increased with cylinders increasing in diameter by an inch and a half (38 mm).

The three NYC/LS&MS locomotives shown in Locobase 15890 received the same superheated boilers, but retained the 24" cylinders and developed an initial tractive effort of 56,448 lb (25,604 kg).


Class M-1b - superheated (Locobase 12631)

Data from NYC 1 - 1930 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase explains in Locobase 12631 that a request from Gareth Edwards prompts the preparation of the CI&S pair shown in Locobase 15044.

Not long after they entered service, the pair was superheated. The shops added two fewer flues to the firebox than in the LS&MS conversions, which resulted in less heating surface area.

The pair was retired in 1934.


Class M-1c (Locobase 12633)

Data from CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also "Ten-wheel Switching Locomotive for the Big Four," The Railway Age, Vol XLV, No 8), pp. 244-245. Works numbers were 44051-44052 in November 1907.

Locobase explains in Locobase 12629 that he doesn't usually write about all-adhesion switchers in Locobase for lack of resources and time. But a request from Gareth Edwards prompts this entry as well as the Michigan Central entry in which he was particularly interested. See Locobase 12630 for an extended contemporary explanation of the reasoning underlying this design.

The differences between the details shown for the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis pair in this entry and the others are probably attributable to differences in measurement, which is in itself an interesting exploration to undertake. RA's report tells us that the engines would be operated with cut-off at full stroke "nearly all of the time", which accounts, they remark, for the "unusually large" ratio of 314 sq ft of heating surface for every cubic foot of cylinder.

Like the other classes, this pair was superheated but were among the all but three New York Central 0-10-0s that were withdrawn before World War II.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassMM-1M-1/M-1aM-1/M-1a/M-1fM-1b - superheated
Locobase ID15,890 15,044 12,630 12,632 12,631
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)Chicago, Indiana & Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Chicago, Indiana & Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte0-10-00-10-00-10-00-10-00-10-0
Number in Class328102
Road Numbers3650-3652/97-99/4601-46034590-45914592-45994592-4599, 4600, 89984590-4591
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built328
BuilderAlco-BrooksAlco-BrooksAlco-BrooksNYCCI&L
Year190519071905
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)19 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.79
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)19 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.79
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase11111
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)54.46 / 16.5354.22 / 16.5354.22 / 16.5354.22 / 16.5354.22 / 16.53
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)270,000 / 122,470274,000 / 124,284270,000 / 122,470277,000 / 125,645277,000 / 125,645
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)270,000 / 122,470274,000 / 124,284270,000 / 122,470277,000 / 125,645277,000 / 125,645
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)149,700 / 67,903151,700149,700 / 67,903149,700 / 67,903149,700 / 67,903
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)419,700 / 190,373425,700419,700 / 190,373426,700 / 193,548426,700 / 193,548
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8000 / 30.3080008000 / 30.308000 / 30.308000 / 30.30
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.901212 / 10.9012 / 10.9012 / 10.90
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)90 / 4591 / 45.5090 / 4592 / 4692 / 46
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)52 / 129552 / 132151 / 129551 / 129551 / 1295
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)210 / 14.50210 / 14.50210 / 14.50210 / 14.50210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)24" x 28" / 610x71124" x 28" / 610x71124" x 28" / 610x71125.5" x 28" / 648x71125.5" x 28" / 648x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)55,362 / 25111.8155,362 / 25111.8156,448 / 25604.4163,725 / 28905.2163,725 / 28905.21
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.88 4.95 4.78 4.35 4.35
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)198.30 / 21.12186.20 / 17.30227.30 / 21.12197 / 18.31197 / 18.31
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)55.40 / 5.1155 / 5.1155 / 5.1155.40 / 5.1555.40 / 5.15
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4645 / 432.164602 / 427.544650 / 432.164032 / 374.723649 / 339.13
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)827 / 76.86783 / 72.77
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4645 / 432.164602 / 427.544650 / 432.164859 / 451.584432 / 411.90
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume316.83313.90317.17243.62220.47
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation11,63411,55011,55011,63411,634
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,63411,55011,55013,61213,728
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area41,64339,10247,73348,40348,817
Power L169976869704513,43812,598
Power MT285.66276.34287.62534.76501.33

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassM-1c
Locobase ID12,633
RailroadBig Four (NYC)
CountryUSA
Whyte0-10-0
Number in Class2
Road Numbers7498-7499
GaugeStd
Number Built2
BuilderAlco-Brooks
Year1907
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)19 / 5.79
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)19 / 5.79
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase1
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)56.71 / 17.29
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)270,000 / 122,470
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)270,000 / 122,470
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)150,500 / 68,266
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)420,500 / 190,736
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7700 / 29.17
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.90
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)90 / 45
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)51 / 1295
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)24" x 28" / 610x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)56,448 / 25604.41
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.78
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)190 / 17.66
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)56.50 / 5.25
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4605 / 427.97
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4605 / 427.97
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume314.10
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation11,865
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,865
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area39,900
Power L16763
Power MT276.11

Photos

Reference