Baltimore & Ohio 0-4-0 "Switcher" Locomotives in the USA

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Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Andrew Jackson (Locobase 1019)

Data from Alvin F Staufer's Baltimore & Ohio Steam and Electric Locomotives (Medina, Ohio) supplied by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange May 2005.

Source (Kinert, 1962) says the B&O built at least 16 "Grasshoppers", which had vertical boilers and a walking-beam drive train.

Traveller, Arabian, Mercury, and George Washington were built by Davis and Gartner at the Mount Clare shops. James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison were constructed by Gillingham and Winans in 1835, followed by Andrew Jackson, John Hancock, Phineas Davis, Martin Van Buren, and George Clinton in 1836.

Staufer's data is for the John Hancock.

Class Atlantic (Locobase 3311)

These were the "Grasshoppers" which enjoyed sufficient success to have stayed in yard service for up to 60 years. Steam came from a vertical boiler mounted on a platform over two axles. These were driven off cranks turned by vertical rods moved by walking beams, the up-and-down rocking motion giving the type its nickname.

The Atlantic was reported by the B&O's chief engineer Jonathan Knight (on 16 August 1832) to have pulled 90 passengers on six cars at the rate of 13 mph (21 km/h) for a total of 82 miles (132 km). This was calculated to be the equivalent of 43 horses whose daily expense was estimated to be $33.

Total consumption of anthracite coal came to one ton. Total cost of the trip was $16, of which half was spend on the coal. The three crew were paid a total of $3.50 and $3 went to estimated wear and tear and interest. Water station expenses came to another dollar and oil and packing amounted to 50 cents.

Her sister Arabian managed 113 tons at 12 mph.

Data combines information from Comstock (1971) and White (1968). Reder (1974) says the boiler had 400 1" tubes measuring 3' 2" long.

Class York (Locobase 1017)

One of the contestants for the nascent Baltimore & Ohio's automotive engine, this Phineas Davis design featured a tall boiler centered on a platform and carried by two low-drivered axles. The stack came straight out of the top. Comstock (1971) published a cross-section drawing that shows two pipes leading from the firebox to the stack. Hot gases boiled water in the thin jacket and in a shallow drum (known as a "cheese") suspended from the firebox top.

After experimenting with direct drive for his two vertical cylinders, Davis resorted to a geared system.

Data from Alvin F Staufer's Baltimore & Ohio Steam and Electric Locomotives (Medina, Ohio) supplied by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange May 2005.

See also Kinert, 1962.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassAndrew JacksonAtlanticYork
Locobase ID1019 3311 1017
RailroadBaltimore & Ohio (B&O)Baltimore & Ohio (B&O)Baltimore & Ohio (B&O)
Number in Class9181
Road Numbers
Number Built9181
BuilderseveralPhineas DavisPhineas Davis
Valve Gear
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 4.08 / 1.244 / 1.22
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m) 4.08 / 1.2410.48 / 3.1910.48 / 3.19
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase1 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m) 4.08 / 1.24
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)28,900 / 13,10915,000 / 680413,540 / 6142
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)28,900 / 13,10915,000 / 680413,540 / 6142
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)4660 / 2114
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)18,200 / 8256
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)300 / 1.14
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 0.40 / 0.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)24 / 1213 / 6.5011 / 5.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)35 / 88936 / 91430 / 762
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)75 / 5.2035 / 2.40115 / 7.90
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)12" x 22" / 305x56010" x 20" / 254x5085.25" x 12" / 133x305
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)5770 / 2617.231653 / 749.791078 / 488.97
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.01 9.0712.56
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)29.10 / 2.7029.10 / 2.7028 / 2.60
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)11 / 1.0211 / 1.02 6.75 / 0.63
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)204 / 18.96204 / 18.96100 / 9.29
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)204 / 18.96204 / 18.96100 / 9.29
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume70.84112.21332.60
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation825385776
Same as above plus superheater percentage825385776
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area218310193220
Power L15314044590
Power MT81.01118.761494.71