Source (Kinert, 1962) says the B&O built at least 16 "Grasshoppers", which had vertical boilers and a walking-beam drive train.
Traveller, Arabian, Mercury, and George Washington were built by Davis and Gartner at the Mount Clare shops. James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison were constructed by Gillingham and Winans in 1835, followed by Andrew Jackson, John Hancock, Phineas Davis, Martin Van Buren, and George Clinton in 1836.
Staufer's data is for the John Hancock.
The Atlantic was reported by the B&O's chief engineer Jonathan Knight (on 16 August 1832) to have pulled 90 passengers on six cars at the rate of 13 mph (21 km/h) for a total of 82 miles (132 km). This was calculated to be the equivalent of 43 horses whose daily expense was estimated to be $33.
Total consumption of anthracite coal came to one ton. Total cost of the trip was $16, of which half was spend on the coal. The three crew were paid a total of $3.50 and $3 went to estimated wear and tear and interest. Water station expenses came to another dollar and oil and packing amounted to 50 cents.
Her sister Arabian managed 113 tons at 12 mph.
Data combines information from Comstock (1971) and White (1968). Reder (1974) says the boiler had 400 1" tubes measuring 3' 2" long.
After experimenting with direct drive for his two vertical cylinders, Davis resorted to a geared system.
Data from Alvin F Staufer's Baltimore & Ohio Steam and Electric Locomotives (Medina, Ohio) supplied by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange May 2005.
See also Kinert, 1962.
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Railroad||Baltimore & Ohio (B&O)||Baltimore & Ohio (B&O)||Baltimore & Ohio (B&O)|
|Number in Class||9||18||1|
|Builder||several||Phineas Davis||Phineas Davis|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||4.08 / 1.24||4 / 1.22|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||4.08 / 1.24||10.48 / 3.19||10.48 / 3.19|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||1||0.38|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||4.08 / 1.24|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||28,900 / 13,109||15,000 / 6804||13,540 / 6142|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||28,900 / 13,109||15,000 / 6804||13,540 / 6142|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||4660 / 2114|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||18,200 / 8256|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||300 / 1.14|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||0.40 / 0.40|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||24 / 12||13 / 6.50||11 / 5.50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||35 / 889||36 / 914||30 / 762|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||75 / 5.20||35 / 2.40||115 / 7.90|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||12" x 22" / 305x560||10" x 20" / 254x508||5.25" x 12" / 133x305|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||5770 / 2617.23||1653 / 749.79||1078 / 488.97|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||5.01||9.07||12.56|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||29.10 / 2.70||29.10 / 2.70||28 / 2.60|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||11 / 1.02||11 / 1.02||6.75 / 0.63|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||204 / 18.96||204 / 18.96||100 / 9.29|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||204 / 18.96||204 / 18.96||100 / 9.29|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||70.84||112.21||332.60|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||825||385||776|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||825||385||776|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||2183||1019||3220|