Chicago, Burlington & Quincy / Colorado & Southern 2-10-2 "Santafe" Locomotives in the USA

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Chicago, Burlington & Quincy

The first "Santa Fe" type locomotives on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad arrived in 1912 from the Baldwin Locomotive works. These five locomotives were designated as Class M-1 and given road numbers 6000 through 6004. They had 59" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, exerted 82,983 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 378,700 pounds. The firebox heating surface included 38.3 square feet of arch tubes, a 9" brick wall in the throat and 65 square feet of combustion chamber. The inside-admission piston valves had a 15" diameter. The first and fifth driving axels had lateral motion which allowed the locomotive to negotiate 21 degree curves. With 59" diameter drivers this powerful locomotive was given a strengthened frame and the driver axles were counterbalanced inside with bob weights

In 1914, twenty-four 2-10-2s were delivered from Baldwin. They were designated as Class M-2 and the group had split road numbers 6100 through 6107 and 6110 through 6125 These locomotives had 60" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, exerted 81,600 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 377,100 pounds.

Also in 1914, two of the Class M-2 locomotives, numbers 6108 and 6109, were rebuilt with lighter, heat-treated steel alloy reciprocating parts, hollow-bore piston rods and crank pins, and the Laird suspended crosshead. The pair was designated as Class M-2A and continued to carry road numbers 6108 and 6109. Tests showed that at higher speeds, the difference in dynamic loads was better than 60% in favor of the M-2A and because of the 379-lb decrease in the weight of reciprocating parts over the M-2, the bob weights could be deleted. As a result of these improvements the CB&Q ordered forty-five more of the class M-2A locomotives from Baldwin. Ten were delivered in 1915, ten more in 1917, followed by ten more in 1919 and fifteen more came in 1920-1921. All of the Class M-2A locomotives had 60" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, exerted 81,600 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 379,500 pounds. However, seventeen had tender which carried 10,000 gallons of water and 20.8 tons of coal and the other twenty-eight carried 2,000 gallon more of water. The 10,000 gallon tender weighed 27,000 pounds less and were 4'-5" shorter.

With the First World War having the same effect on the Burlington as on all other railroads, the USRA allocated ten "Santa Fe-Heavy" type locomotives to the CB&Q which were built by the American Locomotive Company and delivered in 1919. These locomotives were designated as Class M-3 and were given road numbers 6300 through 6309. They had 63" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, exerted 77,715 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 394,600 pounds.

There are no surviving CB&Q 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.

Colorado & Southern

The Colorado & Southern Railway Company was formed on January 11, 1899, when the Colorado and Southern acquired the Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company and the Denver, Leadville and Gunnison Railway Company. It operated independently from 1899 to 1908 and in 1908 became part of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad.

It operated between eastern Wyoming, Colorado, and northwestern Texas. While the C&S is sometimes forgotten as a railroad due to being controlled by the CB&Q for much of its life it had a respectable system and steam locomotive roster, including fleets of 2-8-2 "Mikados", 4-6-2 "Pacifics", and 2-10-2 "Santa Fes".

In 1915, the Baldwin Locomotive Works delivered five .Santa Fe. type locomotives which were designated as Class E-5A and were given road numbers 900 through 904. These 2-10-2s had 60" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 175 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 71,400 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 367,850 pounds. The firebox included 68 square feet of combustion chamber and 43 square feet of arch tubes. These E-5As were updated with Elesco feedwater heaters in all but the 902, which used a Worthington.

The USRA allocated five "Santa Fe-Heavy" locomotives to the C&S and they arrived in 1919 and were designated as Class E-5B with road numbers 905 through 909 assigned.

The last group of 2-10-2s came in 1922 when five Baldwin-built locomotives were delivered. This group was designated as Class E-5C and road numbers 910 through 914 were assigned. The locomotives were a very close copy of the of the Class E-5As which were delivered in 1915.

There are no surviving C&S 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
M-1 56000-60041912BaldwinNumbers 6000-6004 scrapped between 1933 and 1950
M-2 86100-61071914BaldwinNumbers 6100-6107 scrapped between 1951 and 1953
M-2A 26108-61091914BaldwinClass M-2A locomotives built with lightweight alloy steel reciprocating parts, which eliminated the need for counterweights. Numbers 6108 and 6109 scrapped in 1952
M-2166110-61251914BaldwinNumbers 6110-6125 scrapped between 1951 and 1954.
M-2A106126-61351915BaldwinClass M-2A locomotives built with lightweight alloy steel reciprocating parts, which eliminated the need for counterweights. Numbers 6126-6170 scrapped between 1951 and 1954. Numbers 6130, 6147-6150, 6152, 6153, 6155, 6160, 6162-6164, 6166-8168 & 6170 had tender which carried 10,000 gallons of water and 20.8 tons of coal.
M-2A106136-61451917BaldwinClass M-2A locomotives built with lightweight alloy steel reciprocating parts, which eliminated the need for counterweights. Numbers 6126-6170 scrapped between 1951 and 1954. Numbers 6130, 6147-6150, 6152, 6153, 6155, 6160, 6162-6164, 6166-8168 & 6170 had tender which carried 10,000 gallons of water and 20.8 tons of coal.
M-2A106146-61551919BaldwinClass M-2A locomotives built with lightweight alloy steel reciprocating parts, which eliminated the need for counterweights. Numbers 6126-6170 scrapped between 1951 and 1954. Numbers 6130, 6147-6150, 6152, 6153, 6155, 6160, 6162-6164, 6166-8168 & 6170 had tender which carried 10,000 gallons of water and 20.8 tons of coal.
M-2A 46156-61591920BaldwinClass M-2A locomotives built with lightweight alloy steel reciprocating parts, which eliminated the need for counterweights. Numbers 6126-6170 scrapped between 1951 and 1954. Numbers 6130, 6147-6150, 6152, 6153, 6155, 6160, 6162-6164, 6166-8168 & 6170 had tender which carried 10,000 gallons of water and 20.8 tons of coal.
M-2A116160-61701921BaldwinClass M-2A locomotives built with lightweight alloy steel reciprocating parts, which eliminated the need for counterweights. Numbers 6126-6170 scrapped between 1951 and 1954. Numbers 6130, 6147-6150, 6152, 6153, 6155, 6160, 6162-6164, 6166-8168 & 6170 had tender which carried 10,000 gallons of water and 20.8 tons of coal.
M-3106300-63091919ALCOUSRA allocated .Santa Fe-Heavy. locomotives. Numbers 6300-6309 scrapped in 1953-1954.

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
E-5A 5900-9041915BaldwinNumbers 900-904 scrapped between 1956 and 1961.
E-5B 5905-9091919BaldwinUSRA allocated .Santa Fe.-Heavy locomotives. Numbers 905-909 scrapped between 1954 and 1960.
E-5C 5 910-9141922BaldwinNumbers 910-914 scrapped between 1955 and 1960.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class E-5-A/E-5-C (Locobase 5392)

Data from C&S 7 -1939 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange and from a table in the May 1916 issue of RME. See also DeGolyer, Volume 51, pp. 48+ and Volume 67, pp. 169+. Works numbers were 42082-42086 in May 1915.

Identical to the CB&Q Santa Fes delivered in the same year. (See Locobase 2904). The firebox heating surface including 68 sq ft (6.3 sq m) of combustion chamber and 43 sq ft (4 sq m) of arch tubes. Cylinders took steam from relatively large 15" (381 mm) piston valves.They were delivered with Street Stokers. Later the class was updated with Elesco feedwater heaters in all but the 902, which used a Worthington.)

Although the C&S seems to have preferred the USRA 2-10-2s they received a few years later, the E-5s were obviously satisfactory enough. In fact, the C & S bought another five in 1922 (works #55574-55575 in July, 55623-55625 in September). This second group used one less arch tube in the firebox; the remainder contributed 37 sq ft (3.45 sq m) to the direct heating surface area. Along with the combustion chamber (67 sq ft/6.25 sq m) and the slightly larger firebox, total DHS came to 381 sq ft (35.4 sq m).

The last two were delivered with feed water heaters. 913 was equipped with a Worthington on the left side that combined a feed water heater and pump (#4 size), which had a rated capacity of 7,200 gallons/hour (27,252 litres). 914 used an Elesco G-6 mounted in its soon-to-be-familiar location in a "depression at top front end of smokebox."

They lasted until the end of steam, being retired in 1956-1961..


Class M-1 (Locobase 15943)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 46, pp. 202+. See also "Largest Non-Articulated Locomotive", Railway Age Gazette, Volume 52, No. 18 (3 May 1912), pp. 1006-1010. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 5 July 2017 email reporting the correct boiler pressure.) Works numbers were 37592-37594 and 37599-37600 in March 1912.

These were the largest non-articulated locomotives in the world at the time of their delivery. They were delivered with Emerson superheaters that used thirty 6"(152 mm) diameter flues. Superheater surface area was reported as 1,060 sq ft (93.46 sq m), but a 13 February 1914 note corrected the total to 1,008 sq ft. Also fitted were Barnum stokers with a Bacon 16" x 12" coal crushing devices in the tenders. This latter feature was new technology and a specification note requires that "Instructions for operating coal crusher as copy attached, to be framed and fastened in cab."

Cylinders were served by 15" (381 mm) diameter inside-admission piston valves and the valve gear assisted with the Ragonnet power reverser. The firebox heating surface included a 9" brick wall in the throat, and 65 sq ft (6.04 sq m) of combustion chamber.

Corbin & Kerka note that although the locomotive had a relatively long rigid wheelbase, lateral motion in the first and fifth driving axles allowed it to negotiate 21-deg curves. So powerful was this engine, and so small the drivers, that the frame was especially strengthened and the driven axle counterbalanced inside with bob weights.

Later in their careers, this quintet would undergo considerable modification; the outcome is described in Locobase 2903.


Class M-1 - modified (Locobase 2903)

Data from Corbin & Kerka (1960) and CB&Q Assorted Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 37592-37594 and 37599-37600 in March 1912.

These were the largest non-articulated locomotives in the world at the time of their delivery by Baldwin in 1912 (Locobase 15943). But there were several features that would be altered, added, or replaced and the result appears in this entry. The additions included either an Elesco or a Worthington feed water heater. Two substitutions were the Duplex stoker for the original Barnum apparatus and a Schmidt Type A superheater for the Emerson installation, which had used 30 6" diameter flues. The tube and flue distribution change included decreasing the small-tube count by 21. The tender capacity also grew considerably.

Cylinders were served by 15" (381 mm) diameter inside-admission piston valves and the valve gear assisted with the Ragonnet power reverser. See Railway Age (August 1914). The firebox heating surface included 38.3 sq ft of arch tubes, a 9" brick wall in the throat, and 65 sq ft of combustion chamber.

Corbin & Kerka note that although the locomotive had a relatively long rigid wheelbase, lateral motion in the first and fifth driving axles allowed it to negotiate 21-deg curves. So powerful was this engine, and so small the drivers, that the frame was especially strengthened and the driven axle counterbalanced inside with bob weights.


Class M-2/M-2A (Locobase 2904)

Corbin & Kerka (1960); and "Chicago, Burlington & Quincy", Railway Age Gazette, Volume 57, No. 9 (28 August 1914), pp. 387-389. See also DeGolyer, Vol 50, pp. 135-170, Vol 51, p. 48+, Vol 56, pp. Data from a table in May 1916 Railway Mechanical Engineer (RME) representing one of the first 26 M-2. See also W S Bartholomew, "Mechanical Firing of Locomotives," Official Proceedings of the St Louis Railway Club, Vol 21, #7 (10 November 1916), pp. 191-239. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for correcting a valve gear ID error.)

Works numbers were:

1914

May 41453-41457

June 41476-41477, 41487-41489

August 41633-41636, 41638-41639, 41656-41662

September 41684-41685

October 41737

M2A

1915

May 42087-42091, 42095-42096

June 42119-42120, 42143

1917

May 45581-45582, 45622-45623, 45646-45647, 45661-45662

June 45711, 45828

1919

March 51604-51605, 51640-51641

April 51750-51753

May 51761-51762

1920

November 54073-54074, 54121-54122, 54161-54169

1921

January 54360-54361

This class consisted of M-2s and M-2As. M-2s were very similar to the M-1s, but had a Schmidt superheater, an automatic Street stoker, and a brick arch in the firebox supported by 38.3 sq ft (3.56 sq m) of watertubes. Ahead of the firebox, the combustion chamber contributed 68 sq ft (6.32 sq m) of direct heating surface area. Like the M-1s, the M-2s had 15" (381 mm) piston valves.

The M-2s were the first locomotives to be designed from the start to use an automatic stoker; previous engine permitted either automatic stoking or hand-bombing. According to Bartholomew (then President of the Locomotive Stoker Company) , these locomotives burned an average of 5,500 lb of slack coal per hour and peak operation demanded 9,000-11,000 lb/hour, "which well illustrates, " Bartholomew commented,"their being beyond the limits of hand-firing."

The first two M-2As began as M-2s, but were rebuilt with lighter, heat-treated steel alloy reciprocating parts, hollow-bore piston rods and crank pins, and the Laird suspended crosshead. Tests showed that at higher speeds, the difference in dynamic loads was better than 60% in favor of the M-2A. Because of the 379-lb decrease in the weight of reciprocating parts over the M-2, the bob weights could be deleted. After the first 26 M-2s were delivered, the rest of the batch were delivered as M-2As.

In later years, the class would see an increase in adhesion weight (to 300,700 lb) and engine weight (379,500 lb in the M-2A). They would also see a boiler pressure increase to 200 psi, which generated a tractive effort of 83,000 lb. Larger tenders carried 20.8 tons of coal and either 10,000 or 12,000 US gallons of water; weights would amount to 194,100 lb or 221,100 lb, respectively.

The class retired between 1951 and 1954.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE-5-A/E-5-CM-1M-1 - modifiedM-2/M-2A
Locobase ID5392 15,943 2903 2904
RailroadColorado & Southern (CB&Q)Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (CB&Q)Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (CB&Q)Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (CB&Q)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-22-10-22-10-22-10-2
Number in Class55571
Road Numbers900-904, 910-9146000-60046000-60046100-6170
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built5571
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinCB&QBaldwin
Year1915191219321914
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)20.75 / 6.3220.75 / 6.3220.75 / 6.3220 / 6.10
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)40.08 / 12.2239.67 / 12.0939.67 / 12.0940.09 / 12.22
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.50
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)74.79 / 22.8074.35 / 22.6678.07 / 23.8074.77 / 22.79
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)61,980 / 28,11465,900 / 29,89262,100 / 28,168
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)295,950 / 134,241301,800 / 136,894301,800 / 136,894293,000 / 132,903
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)367,850 / 166,854378,700 / 171,776378,700 / 171,776370,000 / 167,829
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)194,150 / 88,065184,000 / 83,461221,100 / 100,289185,000 / 83,915
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)562,000 / 254,919562,700 / 255,237599,800 / 272,065555,000 / 251,744
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8812,000 / 45.4510,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)20 / 18.2015 / 13.6020.80 / 18.9015 / 13.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)99 / 49.50101 / 50.50101 / 50.5098 / 49
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)60 / 152460 / 152459 / 149960 / 1524
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10175 / 12.10200 / 13.80175 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)30" x 32" / 762x81330" x 32" / 762x81330" x 32" / 762x81330" x 32" / 762x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)71,400 / 32386.5371,400 / 32386.5382,983 / 37640.5071,400 / 32386.53
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.14 4.23 3.64 4.10
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)383 / 35.58320 / 29.73383 / 35.58383 / 35.59
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)88 / 8.1888 / 8.1888 / 8.1888 / 8.18
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5349 / 496.935161 / 479.475323 / 494.525349 / 497.12
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1232 / 114.461008 / 93.651232 / 114.461232 / 114.50
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)6581 / 611.396169 / 573.126555 / 608.986581 / 611.62
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume204.32197.14203.32204.32
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,40015,40017,60015,400
Same as above plus superheater percentage18,32617,86420,94418,326
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area79,76064,96091,15479,760
Power L112,26710,58413,76712,267
Power MT456.90386.58502.83461.50

Photos

Reference