Great Northern 2-10-2 "Santafe" Locomotives in the USA

The first "Santa Fe" type locomotives to be put on the Great Northern Railway roster were thirty locomotives built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1923. This group of 2-10-2s became Class Q-1 on the GN and they were assigned road numbers 2100 through 2129. The locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 31" x 32" cylinders, a 210 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 87,130 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 428,340 pounds.

The Q-1 2-10-2s were big in every respect, they had the Belpaire firebox. 15" piston valves, and lots of weight on the drivers. Their tube & flues had large diameters and the 60 superheater flues were among the most in any boiler. A smallish grate area meant much less to an oil-fired class and they had few rivals in the adhesion weight they could throw into hauling a train. These oil burners were delivered with 284 sq ft of heating surface in the firebox, 115 square feet of heating surface in the combustion chamber and 5,075 square feet heating surface of tubes for a total of 5,474 square feet, and later 39 square feet of arch tubes were added. The superheater surface added another 1,318 square feet. A trailing-truck booster was added to twenty-five of the Q-1 which added 12,200 pounds to the tractive effort. Numbers 2110, 2113, 2114, 2115 and 2118 did not receive the booster.

In 1928, the Great Northern built fifteen 2-10-2s from fifteen Lima-built 4-8-2s which were GN numbers 1750 through 1764. These new "Santa Fes", numbered 2175 through 2189, had 63" diameter drivers, 29" x 32" cylinders, a 210 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 76,250 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 364,000 pounds.

The Class Q-2 rebuilds kept their long boilers with Belpaire firebox stretched by a combustion chamber. Everything else from the internal arrangement of tubes and flues to the number and diameter of drivers changed as did their service from heavy passenger to drag freight. The fire box with arch tubes heating surface was 272 square feet, the combustion chamber added another 90 square feet making a total heating surface of 4,825 square feet and a superheater added another 1,184 square feet.

There are no surviving GN 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
Q-1302100-21291923BaldwinNumbers 2100-2129 were scrapped as follows: 2100, 2108, 2118 & 2129 in 1950, 2111 in 1951, 2109 in 1952, 2104 & 2119 in 1953, 2113, 2114 & 2124 in 1954, 2102, 2103, 2105, 2106, 2110, 2112, 2116 & 2123 in 1955, 2115, 2117, 2121, 2125 & 2126 in 1956, 2127 & 2128 in 1957, 2101, 2107 & 2120 in 1958 and 2122 in 1962.
Q-2152175-21891928GNBuilt in 1928 by the GN from 15 GN 4-8-2s (numbers 1750-1764), which were built by Lima in 1914. Numbers 2175-2189 were scrapped as follows: 2175, 2176, 2183, 2185 & 2187 in 1953, 2179, 2180 & 2184 in 1955, 2186 in 1957 and 2177, 2178, 2181, 2182, 2188 & 2189 in 1958.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Q-1 (Locobase 8813)

Data from GN 1 - 1929 and 4 - 1946 Locomotive Diagrams books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Roster information from Ben Ringnalda's Great Northern Empire website at http://www.greatnorthernempire.net/index2.htm?GNEGNPrototypeDrawingsSteam.htm, last accessed 20 October 2007. See also DeGolyer Volume 67, pp. 331+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 10 December 2016 email noting that all of the class were delivered as oil burners.) Works numbers were 57410, 57442, 57517-57532 in November 1923; 57559-57568, 57592-57593 in December.

Big engines in every respect, these Santa Fes had the Belpaire firebox beloved by the Great Northern, 15" (381 mm) piston valves, and lots of weight on the drivers. Their tube & flues had large diameters and the 60 superheater flues were among the most in any boiler. A smallish grate area meant much less to an oil-fired class and they had few rivals in the adhesion weight they could throw into hauling a train. They were rated at 3,000 tons of trailing load (75 cars) over the mountainous Montana profile beetween Whitefish and Cutbank.

Chris Hohl points out that all were delivered as oil burners trailing Vanderbilt tenders weighing 265,000 lb (120,202 kg) when carrying 15,000 US gallons(56,775 litres) of water and 5,000 gallons (18,925 litres) of oil. Hohl added that several locomotives converted to coal burning and the 1929 diagrams bear him out. In that listing, fifteen engines--2000-2001, 2004-2008, 2010-2016, and 2019--pulled tenders that weighed 123,950 lb (56,223 kg) empty and, when filled with 25 tons of coal (22.7 metric tons), 298,950 lb (135,602 kg) loaded.

Delivered with 370 sq ft (34.37 sq m) of heating surface and 5,499 sq ft (510.87 sq m) total, the class later added 39 sq ft (3.63 sq m) of arch tubes and a trailing-truck booster developing 12,200 lb.

All remained in service until the 1950s with the last 3 being withdrawn in December 1957.


Class Q-2 (Locobase 8814)

Data from GN 4 - 1946 Locomotive Diagrams book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Originally delivered to the GNas 4-8-2s in 1914, the entire class was converted to Santa Fes in 1929. In the process, they kept their long boilers with Belpaire firebox stretched by a combustion chamber. Everything else - from the internal arrangement of tubes and flues to the number and diameter of drivers - changed as did their service from heavy passenger to drag freight.

They all lasted into the 1950s, the last five being retired in April 1958.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassQ-1Q-2
Locobase ID8813 8814
RailroadGreat Northern (GN)Great Northern (GN)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-22-10-2
Number in Class3015
Road Numbers2100-21292175-2189
GaugeStdStd
Number Built30
BuilderBaldwinGN
Year19231928
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)22 / 6.7122 / 6.71
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)32.83 / 10.0131.33 / 9.55
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.67 0.70
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)86.22 / 26.2883.56 / 25.47
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)69,840 / 31,67958,000 / 26,308
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)342,490 / 155,351290,000 / 131,542
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)428,340 / 194,292364,000 / 165,108
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)324,500 / 147,191315,600 / 143,154
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)752,840 / 341,483679,600 / 308,262
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)17,000 / 64.3917,000 / 64.39
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)5800 / 225800 / 22
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)114 / 5797 / 48.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)210 / 14.50210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)31" x 32" / 787x81329" x 32" / 737x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)87,131 / 39522.0076,251 / 34586.91
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.93 3.80
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)409 / 38362 / 33.64
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)88 / 8.1878 / 7.25
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5538 / 514.494825 / 448.42
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1518 / 141.031184 / 110.04
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)7056 / 655.526009 / 558.46
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume198.11197.23
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation18,48016,380
Same as above plus superheater percentage22,54619,656
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area104,78691,224
Power L116,75815,585
Power MT539.36592.40

Photos

Reference