New Haven 2-10-2 "Santafe" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class L-1 (Locobase 81)

Data from NH 1962 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. See also Alfred Bruce, The Steam Locomotive in America (New York: Bonanza Books, 1952), plate 56 between 276-277. Works numbers were 57891-57940 in March-June 1918.

Although counterbalancing problems (inherent in the Santa Fe wheel arrangement and driver size) limited speeds to 25 mph, these engines lasted through World War II because of their pulling power on the New Haven-Maybrook section.

Later in their careers, the class received an upgrade to their fireboxes (presented in the specifications) that included three syphons adding 154 sq ft (14.31 sq m) to the direct heating surface area. (Others were fitted with four Security Circulators that increased DHS by 58 sq ft/5.39 sq m to 337 sq ft/31.31 sq m.) The firebox kept its Gaines fire box arch and the LT-1 Conversion stoker. The boiler now had a feed water heater.


Class L-1 - with 3 syphons (Locobase 8121)

Data from NH 1962 St Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 81 lets us see the Santa Fes as they were when they were new. Locobase 8120 describes those retrofitted with security circulators.

By the time of the diagram, the New Haven had beefed up its Santa Fe's direct heating surface by adding 156 sq ft (14.5 sq m) of thermic syphons. And the diagram makes great claims for the potency of syphons as water evaporators. Each square foot of tube is credited with making 9.29 lb/hour steam per hour. The larger flues come in at 10.44 lb/hour. But the syphons perform at 55 lb/hour/sq ft, the same as the firebox as a whole.

As a result, maximum water evaporation reached 62,060 lb/hour; 23,100 lb/hour (37.2%) of the total came from direct heating surfaces. Steam consumption by those large cylinders was calculated at 67,500 lb/hour and boiler factor at that rate was 91.8%.


Class L-1 - with 4 circulators (Locobase 8120)

Data from NH 1962 St Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 81 shows the original configuration of these low-drivered Santa Fes. The current entry details one of two upgrades applied to the class later in its career. "Security circulators" were T-shaped water tubes that extended into the firebox and added (in this case) 54 sq ft of heating surface to the firebox. Although quite different from the layout created by the installation of thermic syphons in locomotives described in Locobase 8121, the water evaporation rate wasn't that different. The maximum rate of 60,625 lb/hour included 18,535 lb/hour (30.6%) from direct heating surfaces, a lower percentage that that achieved by thermic syphons. In any case, the boiler could be overmatched by maximum steam consumption demands of 67,500 lb/hour, which yielded an 89.8% boiler factor.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassL-1L-1 - with 3 syphonsL-1 - with 4 circulators
Locobase ID81 8121 8120
RailroadNew Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-22-10-22-10-2
Number in Class505050
Road Numbers3200-32493200-32493206-07, 3238, 3244-3245
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built50
BuilderAlco-SchenectadyAlcoAlco
Year191819281938
Valve GearBakerBakerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)22.50 / 6.8622.50 / 6.8622.50 / 6.86
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)40.60 / 12.3740.60 / 12.3740.60 / 12.37
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55 0.55 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)74.75 / 22.7874.73 / 22.7874.73 / 22.78
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)62,120 / 28,17762,120 / 28,17762,120 / 28,177
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)299,210 / 135,720299,210 / 135,720299,210 / 135,720
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)360,735 / 163,627360,735 / 163,627360,730 / 163,625
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)202,000 / 91,626202,000 / 91,626194,000 / 87,997
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)562,735 / 255,253562,735 / 255,253554,730 / 251,622
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)11,000 / 41.6711,000 / 41.6710,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)16 / 14.5016 / 14.5016 / 14.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)100 / 50100 / 50100 / 50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200.20 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)30" x 32" / 762x81330" x 32" / 762x81330" x 32" / 762x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)77,792 / 35285.9077,714 / 35250.5277,714 / 35250.52
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.85 3.85 3.85
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)420 / 39.02420 / 39.03337 / 31.32
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)82 / 7.6282 / 7.6282 / 7.62
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4443 / 412.764443 / 412.924697 / 436.52
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1155 / 107.301115 / 103.621468 / 136.43
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5598 / 520.065558 / 516.546165 / 572.95
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume169.71169.71179.41
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,41616,40016,400
Same as above plus superheater percentage19,86419,68020,336
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area101,742100,80083,576
Power L113,60013,29815,717
Power MT501.03489.91579.02

Photos