Philadelphia & Reading 2-10-2 "Santafe" Locomotives in the USA

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The Reading needed more powerful locomotives and decided to build some powerful "Santa Fe" locomotives in its own shops. Mr. I. A. Seiders, the superintendent of motive power, selected eleven of the railroad's older "Mallet" 2-8-8-2 locomotives. These "Mallets" were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1917 and were Reading Class N1sa with road numbers 1800 through 1810.

The first ten Reading 2-10-2s built in Reading Shops during 1927 through 1929 were designated Class K1sa and were assigned road numbers 3000 through 3009. They had 61.5 diameter drivers, 30.5" x 32" cylinders, a 220 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 90,514 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 439,900 pounds. An eleventh "Santa Fe" was built in 1929 and was similar to the other ten except it received Caprotti poppet valve gear where the others had Walschaerts. This locomotive was designated as Class K1sc and carried road number 3010. The Caprotti valve gear proved to be a maintenance problem and was replaced with Walschaerts in 1942. All eleven of the Reading shop built Class K1sa and K1sc locomotives retained the 11,000 gallons and 18-ton capacity tenders of the former "Mallets"

In 1930, Baldwin built and delivered ten "Santa Fe" locomotives similar to the ones built by the Reading. This group was designated as Class K1sb and assigned road numbers 3011 through 3020. They had 61.5 diameter drivers, 30.5" x 32" cylinders, a 225 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 92,521 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 445,900 pounds. These locomotives came with new tenders, which carried 19,000 gallons of water and 26 tons of coal. The total weight of the locomotive and tender was 811,000 pounds. The other eleven locomotives received these larger tenders shortly after 1930 except number 3010 which did not receive a larger tender until 1942.

There are no surviving Reading 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
K1sa103000-30091927-1929ReadingNumbers 3000-3010 were built from Reading Class N1sa with road numbers 1800 through 1809. They were scrapped by 1954.
K1sc130101929ReadingNumber 3010 was built from Reading Class N1sa number 1810 and scrapped by 1954.
K1sb103011-30201931BaldwinNumbers 3011-3020 scrapped by 1954.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class K1-sa (Locobase 83)

Data from table in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia. See also Bert Pennypacker's article "Reading's Remarkable 2-10-2 Types", Milepost 1207, pp. 12-21. (A publication of the Friends of the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.)

These were conversions of N1-sa 2-8-8-2s (Locobase 326) that entered service between 1927 and 1944.

Firebox had thermic syphon; boiler had exhaust steam injector. They were later converted to K1-sd. when the third, driving axle was fitted with Baldwin cross-balanced Boxpok type drivers. Dynamic load was further decreased through the use of tapered main rods. The locomotives now operated cylinder lubricators and cylinder pressure relief valves. Pennypacker says the goal was a 50-mph top speed.


Class K1-sb (Locobase 1387)

See also Bert Pennypacker's article "Reading's Remarkable 2-10-2 Types", Milepost 1207, pp. 12-21. (A publication of the Friends of the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.) and DeGolyer, Vol 82, pp. 65+. Works numbers 61617-61618 in March 1931, 61624-61626 in May, 61638-61639 in June and 61640, 61650-61651 in July.

After the Reading began converting its N-1 2-8-8-2s in 1927 as K1-sa (see Locobase 83), it ordered 10 new-build near-sisters in 1931.

They would prove to be the largest Santa Fes ever built and were delivered with cast-steel frames. The Wootten firebox had 91 sq ft (8.45 sq m) of thermic syphons in addition to 95 sq ft (8.8 sq m) in the combustion chamber. The boiler had a Sellers Type A, exhaust steam injector, and Standard HT stokers fed the grate. Thirteen-inch (330 mm) diameter piston valves supplied the steam to the cylinders.

K1-sbs were converted to K1-se in 1945 when the third, driving axle was fitted with Baldwin cross-balanced Boxpok type drivers. Dynamic load was further decreased through the use of tapered main rods. The locomotives now operated exhaust steam injectors, cylinder lubricators, and cylinder pressure relief valves. Pennypacker says the goal was a 50-mph top speed.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassK1-saK1-sb
Locobase ID83 1387
RailroadPhiladelphia & ReadingPhiladelphia & Reading
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-22-10-2
Number in Class1110
Road Numbers3000-30103011-3020
GaugeStdStd
Number Built10
BuilderReadingBaldwin
Year19281931
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)22 / 6.7122 / 6.71
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)42 / 12.8042.08 / 12.83
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.52
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)95.25 / 29.0395.23 / 29.03
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)78,625 / 35,66473,850 / 33,498
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)364,000 / 165,108363,900 / 165,062
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)439,900 / 199,536451,000 / 204,570
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)228,160 / 103,492363,500 / 164,881
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)668,060 / 303,028814,500 / 369,451
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)12,000 / 45.4519,000 / 71.97
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)18 / 16.4026 / 23.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)121 / 60.50121 / 60.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157561.50 / 1562
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)220.50 / 15.20225 / 15.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)30.5" x 32" / 775x81330.5" x 32" / 775x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)89,988 / 40817.9292,571 / 41989.55
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.04 3.93
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)446 / 41.45439 / 40.78
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)108 / 10.04108 / 10.03
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5502 / 511.345472 / 508.36
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1840 / 1711578 / 146.60
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)7342 / 682.347050 / 654.96
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume203.33202.22
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation23,81424,300
Same as above plus superheater percentage29,76829,646
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area122,929120,506
Power L120,45418,638
Power MT619.41564.57

Photos

Reference