Southern Pacific 2-10-2 "Santafe" Locomotives in the USA

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The first "Santa Fe" type locomotives on the Southern Pacific Railroad were ten delivered by the American Locomotive Company in 1917. This group was designated as Class F-1 with road numbers 3601 through 3610 assigned. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 27.5" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 65,301 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 352,000 pounds. ALCO also delivered one more 2-10-2 in 1918. This locomotive was similar to the Class F-1s but it had 57" diameter drivers and 26" x 32" cylinders. It was given road number 3600 and classified as Class F-2 until it was rebuilt to the F-1 specifications in 1920 and reclassified as a Class F-1.

The Texas & New Orleans received twelve of the Class F-1 locomotives in 1918. They were given road numbers 970 through 981.

In 1919, the Baldwin Locomotive Works delivered forty-one of the Class F-1 locomotives which were assigned road numbers 3611 through 3651 and ALCO delivered only one which was given road number 3652.

The Lima Locomotive Works received one order from the SP for fifteen of the 2-10-2s. This group was designated as Class F-3 and it was assigned numbers 3653 through 3667. They had 63" diameter drivers, 29.5" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 75,145 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 385,000 pounds.

In the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives the 2-10-0 wheel arrangement was named "Decapod", and this name was sometimes applied to locomotives of 0-10-0 "Ten-Coupled" arrangement. The Southern Pacific did not have any of the 0-10-0 or the 2-10-0 locomotives and when the 2-10-2s arrived it was difficult for enginemen to refer to them as "Santa-Fes" so they called them "Decks" for deca (ten).

Baldwin received an order for fifty 2-10-2s which it delivered in 1922. These locomotives were designated as Class F-4 and were given road numbers 3668 through 3717. They had 63" diameter drivers, 29.5" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 75,145 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 398,000 pounds.

Another order was given to Baldwin for 52 more of the 2-10-2s. During 1923 and 1824 it delivered fifty-one of them which the SP designated as Class F-5 with road numbers 3718 through 3768 assigned. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 29.5" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 75,145 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 397,900 pounds. The 52nd locomotive was number 3769 delivered in 1924. It was fitted with Uniflow valves on delivery and Classified as Class F-6. The valve gear was changed to Walschaert valve gear in 1925. In 1931 the locomotive was fitted with Caprotti valve gear, which was removed when number 3769 was rebuilt and reclassified as a standard Class F-5 in 1937.

There are two surviving SP 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives. One is number 3651. Number 3651 was transferred to the T&NO and was renumbered as 982. It is on display at TRPA Union Station, Minute Maid Baseball Park in Houston, Texas. The other is T&NO number 975, which is on display at the Illinois Railway Museum in Union, IL.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersRoadYear BuiltBuilderNotes
F-1103601-3610Pacific Lines1917ALCONumber 3651 was transferred to the T&NO and was renumbered 982. Number 982 is preserved. The balance of Numbers 3600-3652 were scrapped between 1952 and 1958.
F-2 13600Pacific Lines1918ALCONumber 3651 was transferred to the T&NO and was renumbered 982. Number 982 is preserved. The balance of Numbers 3600-3652 were scrapped between 1952 and 1958.
F-1413611-3651Pacific Lines1919BaldwinNumber 3651 was transferred to the T&NO and was renumbered 982. Number 982 is preserved. The balance of Numbers 3600-3652 were scrapped between 1952 and 1958.
F-1 13652Pacific Lines1919ALCONumber 3651 was transferred to the T&NO and was renumbered 982. Number 982 is preserved. The balance of Numbers 3600-3652 were scrapped between 1952 and 1958.
F-112970-981T&NO1918ALCONumber 975 is preserved. The balance of Numbers 970-981 were scrapped between 1954 and 1956.
F-3153653-3667Pacific Lines1921LimaNumbers 3653-3667 scrapped between 1952 and 1958.
F-4503668-3717Pacific Lines1922BaldwinNumbers 3668-3717 scrapped between 1951 and 1958.
F-5513718-3768Pacific Lines1923-1924BaldwinNumbers 3718-3768 scrapped between 1949 and 1956.
F-6 13769Pacific Lines1924BaldwinNumber 3769 scrapped in 1955.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class F-1 (Locobase 3292)

See Railway Age, 2 July 1921 and DeGolyer, Vol 56, pp. 349+. Baldwin works numbers were 51602-51603 in March 1921; 51672-51674, 51677, 51696-51697 in April; 51763, 51792-51796, 51819-51821, 51831-51837 in May; 51862-51864, 51900-51903, 51932-51935, 51948-51951 in June;52010-52011, 52012, 52051-52053 in July.

The Espee first procured 2-10-2s with this batch from Brooks and Baldwin. Known as "Decks" (Decapods) on the Southern Pacific, the F-1s represented a step up in power over the Mikados and Consolidations that were already in service. They were followed a few years later by the F-3 line, which had a larger cylinder and significantly large heating surface.

RA's account showed a 273,000-lb (123,831 kg) weight on the drivers. The addition of a Worthington 4S feedwater heater contributed 9,000 lb (4,082 kg) of weight.

F-1s were apparently quite satisfactory, even though they were less powerful than the later F-3s, and operated on the lines until 1952-1958.


Class F-3/F-4 (Locobase 3291)

Data from "Heavy Locomotives for the Southern Pacific", Railway Age, Vol 71, No1 (2 July 1921), pp. 15-17 and SP 7 - 1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied ni May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.. See also the detailed article "Powerful Locomotives for the Southern Pacific Lines", Railway Journal, Vol 28 (June 1922), pp 11-12 and DeGolyer, Vol 69, pp. 350+. Works numbers were (F-3) 54312-54313, 54381-54385, 54502-54509 in January 1921 and (F-4) 55233-55244, 55261-55272 in January 1921; 55293, 55304-55312 in March; 55326-55338 in April; 55377-55379. in May.

The first in a series of uprated Santa Fes that included the 50 F-4s brought west in a single train called the Prosperity Special in 1922 and 51 F-5s delivered in 1923-1924. All were Baldwin built and all had very similar dimensions. All were delivered with 63 1/2" diameter drivers. Known as "Decks" (Decapods) on the Southern Pacific.

Compared to the later F-5, the F-3s had a slightly lower superheat percentage and as is usual with a series, started off with the lowest weights. Firebox heating surface area was supplemented by 130 sq ft (12.1 sq m). Piston valves measured 15" (381 mm) in diameter. They used Franklin Supply Company's Ragonnet Type B power reverse gear.

RA reported that the new Santa Fes were put in service in the Los Angeles-Bakersfield section, a 171-mile run with 2.2-2.37% grade westbound and 2.23-2.54% grades eastbound. Tonnage ratings for the F-3s (and presumably the F-4 and F-5 engines) came to 1,005 tons westbound, 875 tons eastbound.

Locobase 86 shows a later set of firebox and superheater areas that appears to have been standard for all of the Decks from this era. F-3s served until retirement in 1952-1958; F-4s had a similar career and were retired in 1951-1958.


Class F-5 (Locobase 86)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and SP 7 - 1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 69, pp. 381+. Works numbers were 57003 in October 1923; 57357-57363 in October; 57429-57433, 57441, 57472-57491 in November; 57608-57609 in January 1924; 57620-57629, 57650-57651 in February; 57660-57662 in March.

Boiler had Worthington 4-B feed water heater. The last in a run of Santa Fes that included the F-3 and the 50 F-4s brought west in a single train called the Prosperity Special in 1922 (see Locobase 3291). This class has been divided into entries. This one shows the 45 that had 381 sq ft (35.4 sq m), which is a minor difference from the SP diagram.This included 130 sq ft (12.1 sq m) in the combustion chamber. Locobase 15932 documents the impact of installing thermic syphons in the last five engines.

Specs showing a superheater area of 1,381 sq ft (128.3 sq m) in 1930 differs from the Baldwin spec, which amounted to 1,329 sq ft (123.45 sq m). These were considerably larger than the 1,230 sq ft consistently used by the Southern Pacific in its diagram. Locobase uses the SP measurements on the grounds that that was what the railroad would use to assess relative capacity.

Most of the F-5s went to the Texas & New Orleans lines, where they worked until retirement in 1949-1956.


Class F-5 - thermic syphons (Locobase 15932)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and SP 7 - 1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 69, pp. 381+. Works numbers were 57650-57651 in February; 57660-57662 in March.

Boiler had Worthington 4-B feed water heater, 15" (381 mm) balanced piston valves. In most respects, this quintet's design repeated the F-5s shown in Locobase 86. But their fireboxes had 110 sq ft (10.22 sq m) more heating surface area thanks to the inclusion of 116 sq ft (10.78 sq m) in three Nicholson thermic syphons. Their addition increased adhesion weight by less than 1,000 lb (454 kg).

Most of the F-5s went to the Texas & New Orleans lines, where they worked until retirement in 1949-1956.


Class F-6 (Locobase 15933)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 69, pp. 417+. Works number was 57947 in July 1924.

This was the last of the F-5 Santa Fes built by Baldwin for the SP in 1923-1924 (Locobases 86 and 15932). It originally was ordered to test "two-flow cylinders for which an economy was promised." To gain a clear reading of the advantage, the specs advised "No changes other than those absolutely necessary for the proper application of two-flow cylinders are agreed to by the railway company because if a number of irrelevant changes are made it will be impossible whether two-flow cylinders are effective or not."

The Pennsylvania was to assess this system at its Altoona testing plant and the locomotive did enter service in June 1925. However, a later note citing Extra order 9620-28 shows that the 3769 would get Caprotti poppet valve gear and this was installed in January 1931. Finally, the engine was converted to a standard piston-valve setup in February 1937.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-1F-3/F-4F-5F-5 - thermic syphonsF-6
Locobase ID3292 3291 86 15,932 15,933
RailroadSouthern Pacific (SP)Southern Pacific (SP)Southern Pacific (SP)Southern Pacific (SP)Southern Pacific (SP)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-22-10-22-10-22-10-22-10-2
Number in Class50154651
Road Numbers3601-36513652-3667, 3668-37173718-37633764-37683769
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built50154651
BuilderseveralBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwin
Year19171921192319241924
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)22.50 / 6.8622.83 / 6.9622.80 / 6.9522.80 / 6.9522.80 / 6.95
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)41.50 / 12.6542.33 / 12.9042.30 / 12.8942.30 / 12.8942.30 / 12.89
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)80.21 / 24.4582.62 / 25.1884.11 / 25.6484.11 / 25.6484.11 / 25.64
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)59,600 / 27,03461,500 / 27,89661,990 / 28,11861,500 / 27,896
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)282,000 / 127,913306,000 / 138,799306,100 / 138,845306,720 / 139,126306,100 / 138,845
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)352,000 / 159,665398,000 / 180,530397,900 / 180,485400,900 / 181,845397,900 / 180,485
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)173,460 / 78,680223,000 / 101,151239,600 / 108,681239,600 / 108,681239,600 / 108,681
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)525,460 / 238,345621,000 / 281,681637,500 / 289,166640,500 / 290,526637,500 / 289,166
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,030 / 37.9912,000 / 45.4512,000 / 45.4512,000 / 45.4512,000 / 45.45
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)3120 / 11.804000 / 15.204000 / 15.204000 / 15.204000 / 15.20
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)94 / 47102 / 51102 / 51102 / 51102 / 51
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63.50 / 161363 / 161363 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200.20 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27.5" x 32" / 699x81329.5" x 32" / 749x81329.5" x 32" / 749x81329.5" x 32" / 749x81329.5" x 32" / 749x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)64,787 / 29386.9275,145 / 34085.2475,221 / 34119.7175,145 / 34085.2475,145 / 34085.24
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.35 4.07 4.07 4.08 4.07
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)332 / 30.86381 / 35.41381 / 35.41491 / 45.62491 / 45.62
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)63 / 5.8682.50 / 7.6782.50 / 7.6782.50 / 7.6682.50 / 7.66
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4462 / 414.685103 / 474.265097 / 473.705213 / 484.305213 / 484.30
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)950 / 88.291329 / 123.511230 / 114.311329 / 123.471329 / 123.47
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5412 / 502.976432 / 597.776327 / 588.016542 / 607.776542 / 607.77
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume202.83201.58201.35205.93205.93
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,60016,50016,51716,50016,500
Same as above plus superheater percentage14,86819,96519,65519,80019,800
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area78,35292,20290,769117,840117,840
Power L114,11715,73615,00716,28316,283
Power MT551.82566.86540.42585.19586.37

Photos

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