Part of the locomotive stud that helped the Hebard Cypress Company exploit the vast stands in the Okefenokee Swamp in Florida. The first 10 miles of logging road from Hebardville (2 miles northeast of Waycross) to Fredel opened in 1910 and further construction brought the W & S 10 miles more to the edge of the Swamp at Hopkins.
One of the first engines in service was this wood-burning tender engine.
Rail Georgia notes that HCC's aspirations included building a line clear to Jacksonville some 75 miles away and shows a 1918 timetable with the note: "This line is under construction south from Waycross, Ga., a distance of about 50 miles, but is only open for traffic purposes to Hopkins." But the writer acknowledges that logging ended in 1927 and with it any reason to maintain the railroad.
By that time, the 1 had been sold to the Everglade Cypress Company.
Frank Gould's 50-year retrospective noted that Williams & Salsich had established its mining camp in Star Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin in 1894 after clearing timber from a base at McKenna in Jackson County. The Milwaukee Road opened its branch line from Minocqua to Star Lake in December and the W&S graded a rail line and built bridges from Star Lake to a second logging camp 10 miles north. This set off a boom: "The Star Lake camp grew very fast and in the fall of 1895[i.e. nine months later] it had a large saw mill, a planing mill, 84 company houses, a large boarding house, two or three warehouses, a general store, and a butcher shop; also a three room schoolhouse with three regular teachers."
The draw obviously was the timber: "During the next ten years," Gould wrote, "the country for about five miles around Star Lake was occupied by a number of other logging companies and a great number of camp operations were started. It is estimated by competent authority that one and one-half to two billion feet of pine timber were logged from the lands in the vicinity of Star Lake. Five hundred twenty-five million feet of board lumber was taken out of the Star Lake mill. In 1902 the Milwaukee extended its line from Star Lake to Buswell, Wis., for freight and passengers. This branch was discontinued and the rails taken up in 1914."
The 1 went on to serve the A H Stange Lumber Co operations in another timber area north of Star Lake beginning in 1926. Its trains carried the 10 million board feet of cut trees to the mill at Merrill, Wisc.
Apparently, the state accepted the need to preserve the headwaters of the Wisconsin, Flambeau and Manitowish rivers. So in 1925, the state established the 104,000 acre (162.5 sq mi; 42,088 hectares) Northern State Forest as a park and game refuge in a ring around Star Lake; about 50% was state owned.
Gould reported nine years later that state-funded road improvements "allows for some beautiful drives with frequent views of deer, porcupines, and other wild game. The Ballard Lake Trail Club was allowed to reuse old logging roads to created "about five miles of delightful trails through the forest, circling most of the lakes about Star Lake station. These trails may be safely used without fear of going astray. Star Lake invites the public to come and enjoy the fishing and beauties of this territory."
Over the next 90 years, the Northern Highland American Legion (NHAL) State Forest would grow to encompass 232,000 acres (362.5 sq mi; 93,888 ha).
|Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Railroad||Waycross & Southern||Williams & Salsich|
|Number in Class||1||1|
|Builder||Burnham, Williams & Co||Burnham, Williams & Co|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||11 / 3.35||11 / 3.35|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||19 / 5.79||17.67 / 5.39|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.58||0.62|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||42.98 / 13.10||45.58 / 13.89|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||73,000 / 33,112||58,000 / 26,308|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||85,000 / 38,555||66,000 / 29,937|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||50,000 / 22,680|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||135,000 / 61,235|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||2500 / 9.47||2400 / 9.09|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||41 / 20.50||32 / 16|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||48 / 1219||44 / 1118|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||180 / 12.40||150 / 10.30|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||15" x 22" / 381x559||14" x 22" / 356x559|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||15,778 / 7156.79||12,495 / 5667.64|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.63||4.64|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||90 / 8.36||76.25 / 7.09|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||16.50 / 1.53||14.40 / 1.34|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||1040 / 96.62||776 / 72.12|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||1040 / 96.62||776 / 72.12|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||231.13||197.97|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||2970||2160|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||2970||2160|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||16,200||11,438|