The "mallet" design made its debut in the United States when the American Locomotive Company "ALCO" constructed an 0-6-6-0 compound Mallet for the B&O in 1904. In 1910 the C&O changed to their version of the 2-6-6-2 compound locomotive that helped drag coal through even more mountainous areas and tighter curves in West Virginia and Kentucky.
The Baldwin Locomotive Works built #1309 in September of 1949 as its last Class 1 mainline domestic steam locomotive and the last to be commercially built by Baldwin for use by a railroad in the USA. The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Co. became the last railroad to purchase a steam locomotive built by the Baldwin Locomotive for use in service in America when they ordered 25 2-6-6-2, mallet type locomotive in 1948. At this time, steam locomotives had been in production for over 100 years and over 70,000 had been built to date. A problem arose when one of the worst labor unrests hit the coal fields in 1949. During that year the mines only worked 170 days. C&O was forced to then cancel the last 15 of the locomotives due to the economic state of the railroad. The locomotives arrived on the C&O in 1949 and were assigned to the H-6 class with the numbers of 1300-1309. The new locomotives built, #1300-1309, were to replace the older ones that were at the end of their serviceable lives and were essentially duplicates of the class H-6 type built in the early 1920’s. They were the last of a series of 2-6-6-2s that the Chesapeake & Ohio began in 1911.
Although the locomotives were stored on the railroad for years before the C&O started scrapping them, some steam locomotives were saved for donation to communities along the railroad. The last H-6 #1309 was saved and stored at Russell, KY for years until it was sent to the Huntington Shops, along with K-4 #2705 and J-3a #614, for cosmetic restoration. After the restoration, the three locomotives were shipped in a special train to the B&O Museum in 1972. C&O #1309 has been preserved and displayed for generations of families to enjoy. On May 6, 2014 at 13:09(1:09pm) the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad announced the transfer of #1309 for restoration and operation.
The B&O Museum of Baltimore, MD, Western Maryland Scenic Railroad and WMSR Foundation are going full steam ahead with even more exciting news of rail preservation! The transfer of C&O steam locomotive 1309 (2-6-6-2) to the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad of Cumberland, MD will be an incredible milestone for steam operations in the USA! With this transfer, the B&O Railroad Museum and Western Maryland Scenic Railroad will be preserving steam locomotive history for generations to come. As one of the largest steam locomotives in the USA, this locomotive will be restored to its former glory and will be in operation on the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad. The Baldwin Locomotive Works built #1309 in September of 1949 as its last commercially built steam locomotive for use by a railroad in the USA.
C&O steam locomotive #1309 arrived at the B&O Museum in 1972 and has been preserved and displayed for generations of families to enjoy. Today, May 6, 2014 at 13:09 (1:09PM) Western Maryland Scenic Railroad announced the transfer of #1309 for restoration and operation.
Courtney B. Wilson, Director of the B&O Railroad Museum said "This historic agreement is a win-win for railroad preservation. It ensures the long-term preservation and restoration of an important steam locomotive which is central to our mission."
Mark Farris, President of the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad Board of Directors said "With the full support of the Board of Directors, the continued efforts of the executive directors, staff and employees of the WMSR have allowed for the growth and prosperity of our wonderful tourist attraction in Western Maryland. These efforts have provided the resources to give the WMSR the opportunity to acquire locomotive 1309, restore it, and place it back into service in a wonderful mountainous setting where thousands of people can enjoy the sights and sounds of a bygone era."
The locomotive has been moved to the B&O Railroad Museum’s restoration facility in preparation for shipment to the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad shops. Once this is complete, the locomotive will travel by rail on specialized flat cars pulled by CSX.
Don’t miss out on this incredible historic venture unfolding at the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad in Cumberland, MD. Make sure you join the WMSR Foundation and are following our Facebook page for all of the most up to date info. If you would like to donate to the restoration of C&O #1309 you may contact the WMSR rail preservation group, WMSR Foundation, the where you can join, volunteer and donate to rail preservation projects. For more information go to our website or call 301-759-4400 Ext 130 or 800 TRAIN50 Ext 130. Enjoy the history at Western Maryland Scenic Railroad.
Data from C&O 9 -1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Schenectady delivered 5 in 1917 and Richmond supplied 20 in 1918. Many thanks to Don Black for calling Locobase's attention to some needed work on Chessie 2-6-6-2s in a 31 January 2012 email; the inquiry prompted drafting of this new entry. Works numbers were 57284-57288 in May 1917, 60210-60229 in 1918Locobase 441 originally showed all of the similar engines of the H-3/H-4/H-6 series of Chesapeake & Ohio articulateds as a single entry, but inquiries by such users as Black led him to split them up. Admittedly, the differences are small. In all of the engines, the firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft (2.32 sq m) of arch tubes. The valve gear operated 12" (305 mm) -diameter piston valves for the rear, HP cylinders and slide valves for the LP cylinders driving the forward engine set. But the HV was a separate operating railroad at the time they bought this batch of locomotives and they specified a higher boiler pressure of 220 psi. Also, their tenders seem to have held quite a bit more coal, 7 tons more than most of the C & O engines. By 1936, most used 9RB/RC/RD tenders weighing 168,500 lb (76,430 kg) loaded: 1325-1349 trailed RB and 1350-1361 pulled RCs. Total engine and tender weight for both was 593,500 lb (269,207 kg).
Data from "Mallet Locomotives for the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway", American Engineeer and Railroad Journal, Volume 84, No 12 (December 1910), pp. 471-472. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 31 December 2018 email noted several differences between this first test locomotive and the 24 that would follow and are described in Locobase 440 and thus prompting the drafting of this entry.) Works numbers were 48061 in August 1910 at Schenectady.This "sample" engine tested the value of the 2-6-6-2 compound Mallet on the C&O. The first prototype -- 1300, built at Brooks for the Chicago & Alton (Locobase 16357), and almost immediately sold to the C&O -- was lighter on the drivers (285,000 lb/129,274 kg) than her successors and had a smaller boiler. The 751 bulked up considerably, putting 39,000 lb (17,690 kg) more on its drivers, but retained a saturated boiler with 401 2 1/4" tubes. The 78"- long combustion chamber allowed the builder to place the big firebox behind the rear driving axle. This in turn made room for a deeper throat sheet and placed the top of grate farther below the lowest boiler tube than had usually provided and thus improved conditions for grate combustion. The trailing truck took its radial design and outside bearings from those fitted to the C&O's Pacific passenger engines. Specifications called for the engine to handle 3,000 tons on a 0.4% grade at 15 mph, dropping to 12 mph up 0.57%. Within six months of the start of tests, the 751 had blown through the targets, hauling 3,492 tons eastward over the whole division and maintaining between 20-24 mph with 3,033 tons up a 0.36% grade.
Data from Wiener (1930) and Roy V Wright (Ed), 1912 Locomotive Cyclopedia Third Edition (New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1912), p. 191. See also "Mallet Locomotives for the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway", American Engineeer and Railroad Journal, Volume 84, No 12 (December 1910), pp. 471-472; and "Mallet Locomotives in Road Service on the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry", Railway and Engineering Review, Volume 52, No 17 (27 April 1912), pp. 372-375. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 31 December 2018 email noted several differences between the test locomotive now given its own entry at Locobase 16406 and this production series.) Works numbers were 49386-49399 in March 1911, 49400-49409 in April, 51293-51299 in June 1912, and 51300-53017 in August.After tests with the 751, the C&O was sold on the 2-6-6-2 layout and stabilized design in the 24 engines built at Richmond. These had 23 sq ft (2.1 sq m) of arch tube area. Experience with the 1301 implicitly demonstrated the merits of highly superheated steam generated by a firetube superheater; the change incorporated into the producton engines, wrote the R&ER, "gave greater economy in operaton and increased capacity. This is especially true at higher speeds as a result of the improved cylinder performance thereby secured, which better adapts the Mallet to the varying speed conditions which obtain in road service." The accounting ledgers showed the results when they revealed a 43% savings in coal over the Consolidatons that had wrangled the trains over the line, or "a Mallet will burn no more coal ...in doing 75% more work. And labor couldn't complain, suggested the report, "the fireman's work is no harder and on the average, probably less than formerly on the consolidation." "The boiler has a large capacity," reported the R&ER, as it detailed the greater "evaporative value" of the long combustion chamber over an equivalent length of tubes and flues and the "improved cylinder economy" afforded by the superheater, "the 5,071 square feet of actual heating surface gives ample margin of capacity to develop the maximum power of the locomotive." Although the design represented a significant increase in power, their low drivers and small size doomed them to a relatively short life, even though they were later rebuilt as H-4s (See Locobase 13849.)
Data from C&O 9 -1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Don Black for calling Locobase's attention to some needed work on Chessie 2-6-6-2s in a 31 January 2012 email; the inquiry prompted drafting of this new entry. And thanks to Chris Hohl for his email pointing out the earlier series of road numbers for this class. Locobase created the table below to show the the two series of road numbers linked to their works numbers.)Locobase 441 originally showed all of the similar engines of the H-3/H-4/H-6 series of Chesapeake & Ohio articulateds as a single entry, but inquiries by such users as Black led him to split them up. Alco works Works numbers Build date 1st Road 1924 Road Richmond 51293-51317 1912 725-749 1326-1350 Richmond 53807-53818 1913 750-761 1351-1361 Richmond 54593-54606 1914 762-775 1363-1376 Schenectady 55202-55225 1915 776-799 1377-1400 Schenectady 55628-55637 1916 800-809 1401-1410 Schenectady 56595-57042 1917 810-859 1411-1460 Richmond 59965-59979 1918 860-874 1460-1474 24 H-2s (Locobase 440) were rebuilt as H-4s in 1916 and took road numbers 1302-1325 in 1924. Admittedly, the differences are small. In all of the engines, the firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft of arch tubes and the superheater ratio to combined heating surface area rose to 17%. The valve gear operated 12"(305 mm)-diameter piston valves for the rear, HP cylinders and slide valves for the LP cylinders driving the forward engine set. Over the six-year run, axle loading grew by as much as 3,300 lb (1,497 kg), adhesion weight increased by 4 1/2 short tons (4,082 kg) and total engine weight by 6 tons (5,443 kg). During their careers, the H-4s trailed larger and larger tenders until the heaviest weighed 25 tons (22.68 metric tons) more than the originals. Maximum engine-and-tender weights for most reached 644,100 lb (292,159 kg) and several would weigh 8,000-10,000 lb more. The combustion chamber later shrank by 4.3 inches (109 mm).
Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from C & O 9 - 1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.Firebox had combustion chamber and 34 sq ft of arch tubes contributed to firebox heating surface. This design was one of two articulated types that formed part of the roster of standardized designs developed for general production in WW I. These light USRA Mallets weren't very well received. Only 30 were built, 10 by Baldwin, 20 by Alco Schenectady. The Baldwins served the Wheeling & Lake Erie for decades, while the 20 Alcos saw service on the C&O, where they "steamed well and performed satisfactorily." Yet the Chessie didn't like the engines much and picked at the design (poor ashpans, need to reduce steam pressure from 225 to 210 psi, poor cab layout). Eugene Huddleston (Trains, March 1991) contends that the C&O's requirements had outstripped the 2-6-6-2 arrangement and that contributed to the road's disaffection.
Data from C&O 9 -1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Don Black for calling Locobase's attention to some much-needed work on Chessie 2-6-6-2s in a 31 January 2012 email.) Alco-Richmond delivered 1475-1494 in 1920-1921 (works numbers 62177-62195 in November 1920, 62196 in March 1921). Schenectady added 1495-1519 in 1923 (works numbers 64101-64124 in April 1923).Locobases 13848-13849 describe the H-3s originally produced for the Hocking Valley in 1917 and the H-4s that served as the main production variant of this design from 1912-1918. Although the C&O took some USRA light articulateds as H-5s, they clearly preferred their own design and bought another 45 in 1920-1923. Adhesion weight varied from a low of 368,500 lb (167,149 kg) to the 376,500 lb (170,778 kg) shown in the specs. See Locobase 15843 for the ten Baldwin-built H-6s delivered in 1949. Firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft (2.3 sq m) of arch tubes and a 78" (1,981 mm) long combustion chamber. One difference from the earlier Hs was the use of 12" (305 mm)-diameter piston valves to serve all four cylinders.
Data from C&O Locomotive Diagrams supplied by John Hankey in an email in May 2014. See also Jim Wrinn, "20 questions for John Garner at Western Maryland Scenic Railroad about the restoration of 2-6-6-2 No. 1309", posted on the Trains Magazine Train of Thought blog on 12 December 2018. Works numbers 74269-74278 in 1949. Many thanks for Hankey's suggestion that Locobase give a separate entry to the Baldwin engines.See Locobase 441 for the Alco H-6s supplied in 1923. The Chessie went to Baldwin in 1949 to buy the last ten steam locomotives the Eddystone plant would erect for any US railroad. Fifteen more planned for construction were postponed, then cancelled because of a coal strike during critical months. They were not quite duplicates of the H-3/H-4/H-6 design, although they too had 12" (305 mm) piston valves supplying all four cylinders. The 1300-1309 came in a little lighter than the 1923 Alcos. Their combustion chambers measured 90" (2,286 mm), a foot longer than the Alcos, achieved by lopping a foot off the tube and flue lengths. There were other little detail differences, such as trailing truck wheels measuring 1" (25.4 mm) less in diameter at 44" (1,118 mm). John Hankey, B&O Railroad Museum's Historian and Archivist just after the 1309 arrived from West Virginia, and later the Museum's Curator, offers this overview of the changes Baldwin applied to the 25-year-old design: "[T]he later H-6s had many subtle improvements and updates that I feel warrant a clear distinction. They include more modern (and arguably, better) steels, roller bearings, forced lubrication, and many small improvements that had essentially become part of the latter-day Baldwin 'package.'". Don Black notes too that the traditional circular Baldwin builder's plate was replaced by a pyramidal form. True to their heritage, all ten of the 1300s went directly to the Logan, W.Va., coal district, working out of the Peach Creek Terminal. Encroaching dieselization led to their retirements in 1957. 1308 was preserved for display by the Huntington Railroad Museum, the installation being celebrated on 9 October 1962. The September 2012 Gondola Gazette, published by the Collis P Huntington Historical Society, Inc and available at , featured Larry Fellure's "Fifty Years Admiring a Classc Steam Locomotive", p. 1, 7-15, which includes an account of the 1308's last fire in her firebox. "During the fall of 1962, leaves from large sycamore trees began to clutter the new display. Several energetic members raked up the leaves and placed them in 1308ªs firebox to burn. One local resident who lived nearby became concerned about the smoke coming from the stack and called local authorities stating: (Somebody is trying to steal your train!~ The fire department quickly arrived, and after firefighters were given a good explanation as to what was going on, they had a big laugh and returned to their station." Fellure's article noted that despite several proposals to restore the 1308 to service elsewhere, the engine still occupied its display space in 2012. The 1309's eventual arrival at the B&O Museum is perhaps the best-known disposition of a member of this exemplary late-steam design. For decades, no thought was given to trying to run the 1309. But rumors flared up in 2013 that the 1309 might be headed to West Virginia to be reconditioned for museum service, but the B&O Museum replied that the move was only in the early talking stages. The "talking stages" quickly advanced to discussions with the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad based in Cumberland, MD and a deal to move the 1309 west for a complete restoration in 2014. As Wrinn notes in his 2018 introduction to "Twenty Questions", the project has proved to be much more expensive than originally hoped. "The railroad and the project have faced significant challenges, including landslides, funding, employee theft of unique parts, and others." A major unlooked for problem was the damage done by a private contractor who was hired in the 1980s to remove the asbesto lagging. Garner stated that his process was "brutal to the locomotive, and not considering a full preservation effort." Garner's December 2018 statement of finances said that total cost had climbed to $2.4 million, of which all but $300,000 had been obtained. At that time, the engine's wheels still had to be reconditioned or replaced. One requirement is for a coal dock/ash pit that is compliant with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection regulation. Wrinn asked about what needed to be done for the 1309 to use the Frostburg Turntable. Garner replied "Basically, the curve and current track elevations will damage the locomotive. The trackage in Frostburg will need to be realigned along with the gradient for the locomotive to operate safely to the turntable." He added that such improvements would require additional funding and would have to be approved by Alleganey County. Because the 1309 is a WMSR locomotive, said Garner, it would be lettered for the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad.
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Railroad||Hocking Valley (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)|
|Number in Class||25||1||24||173||20|
|Road Numbers||200-224/1275-1299||751/700/1301/1295/1270||752-775, 725-749/701-724/1301, 1302-1324||725-864/1302-1474||1520-1539|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||10 / 3.05||10 / 3.05||13 / 3.96||10 / 3.05||10.50 / 3.20|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||48.83 / 14.88||48.25 / 14.71||48.83 / 14.88||48.83 / 14.88||45.75 / 13.94|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.20||0.21||0.27||0.20||0.23|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||80.50 / 24.54||80 / 24.38||80.79 / 24.62||80.48 / 24.53||89.42 / 27.26|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)||62,700 / 28,440||59,700 / 27,079||60,100|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||367,000 / 166,469||324,000 / 146,964||337,500 / 153,088||358,000 / 162,386||358,000 / 162,386|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||437,000 / 198,220||392,000 / 177,808||400,000 / 181,437||425,000 / 192,777||448,000 / 203,210|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||187,400 / 85,003||160,200 / 72,666||163,000 / 73,936||168,500 / 85,003||206,500|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||624,400 / 283,223||552,200 / 250,474||563,000 / 255,373||593,500 / 277,780||654,500|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||12,000 / 45.45|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||22 / 20||15 / 13.60||15 / 13.60||22 / 20||16 / 14.50|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||102 / 51||90 / 45||94 / 47||99 / 49.50||99 / 49.50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||56.25 / 1429||56 / 1422||56 / 1422||56.25 / 1429||57 / 1448|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||220 / 15.20||225 / 15.50||225 / 15.50||200 / 13.80||225 / 15.50|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||22" x 32" / 559x813||22" x 32" / 559x813||22" x 32" / 559x813||22" x 32" / 559x813||23" x 32" / 584x813|
|Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||35" x 32" / 889x813||35" x 32" / 889x813||35" x 32" / 889x813||35" x 32" / 889x813||35" x 32" / 889x813|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||73,814 / 33481.51||75,829 / 34395.50||75,829 / 34395.50||67,104 / 30437.90||79,336 / 35986.25|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.97||4.27||4.45||5.34||4.51|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||370 / 34.37||367 / 34.10||367 / 34.10||370 / 34.37||416 / 38.66|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||72.60 / 6.74||72.20 / 6.71||72.20 / 6.71||72.60 / 6.74||76.30 / 7.09|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4902 / 455.41||6013 / 558.62||5041 / 468.32||4902 / 455.41||5443 / 505.86|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||975 / 90.58||911 / 84.63||975 / 90.58||1292 / 120.07|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||5877 / 545.99||6013 / 558.62||5952 / 552.95||5877 / 545.99||6735 / 625.93|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||348.18||427.09||358.05||348.18||353.72|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||15,972||16,245||16,245||14,520||17,168|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||18,687||16,245||18,682||16,988||20,429|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||95,238||82,575||94,961||86,580||111,384|
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Railroad||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)|
|Number in Class||45||10|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||10 / 3.05||10 / 3.05|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||48.83 / 14.88||48.83 / 14.88|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.20||0.20|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||87.86 / 26.78||88.56 / 26.99|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)||65,300 / 29,620||62,600 / 28,395|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||376,500 / 170,778||366,700 / 166,333|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||449,000 / 203,663||434,900 / 197,268|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||209,800 / 95,164||208,200 / 94,438|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||658,800 / 298,827||643,100 / 291,706|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||12,000 / 45.45||12,000 / 45.45|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||15 / 13.60||16 / 14.50|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||105 / 52.50||102 / 51|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||56 / 1422||56 / 1422|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||210 / 14.50||210 / 14.50|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||22" x 32" / 559x813||22" x 32" / 559x813|
|Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||35" x 32" / 889x813||35" x 32" / 889x813|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||70,773 / 32102.13||70,773 / 32102.13|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||5.32||5.18|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||370 / 34.37||389 / 36.14|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||72.50 / 6.74||72.20 / 6.71|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4902 / 455.41||4825 / 448.25|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||975 / 90.58||975 / 90.58|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||5877 / 545.99||5800 / 538.83|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||348.18||342.71|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||15,225||15,162|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||17,813||17,740|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||90,909||95,577|