Chesapeake & Ohio / Hocking Valley 2-6-6-2 "Mallet Mogul" Locomotives in the USA

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History of C&O 2-6-6-2 #1309 Steam Locomotive

Called the "Mallet" (pronounced Mallay), #1309 was one of the last types of steam locomotives retired when diesel-electric engines came into the picture. The Mallet is a compound locomotive that was created by Swiss mechanical engineer Anatole Mallet in 1885 for the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz Railway in France. The locomotive is called "compound" because it uses the steam twice, first for the rear set of high pressure cylinders and second for the low pressure front cylinders. On the locomotive there are two cross compound air compressors mounted on the smoke box door to supply enough air for frequent heavy braking for use in heavy mountain railroading. This mounting of compressors on the front of the smokebox gave the locomotive a more "massive" appearance and became known as the "C&O look". This look can be seen on the center locomotive in the steamlocomotive.com header image.

The "mallet" design made its debut in the United States when the American Locomotive Company "ALCO" constructed an 0-6-6-0 compound Mallet for the B&O in 1904. In 1910 the C&O changed to their version of the 2-6-6-2 compound locomotive that helped drag coal through even more mountainous areas and tighter curves in West Virginia and Kentucky.

The Baldwin Locomotive Works built #1309 in September of 1949 as its last Class 1 mainline domestic steam locomotive and the last to be commercially built by Baldwin for use by a railroad in the USA. The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Co. became the last railroad to purchase a steam locomotive built by the Baldwin Locomotive for use in service in America when they ordered 25 2-6-6-2, mallet type locomotive in 1948. At this time, steam locomotives had been in production for over 100 years and over 70,000 had been built to date. A problem arose when one of the worst labor unrests hit the coal fields in 1949. During that year the mines only worked 170 days. C&O was forced to then cancel the last 15 of the locomotives due to the economic state of the railroad. The locomotives arrived on the C&O in 1949 and were assigned to the H-6 class with the numbers of 1300-1309. The new locomotives built, #1300-1309, were to replace the older ones that were at the end of their serviceable lives and were essentially duplicates of the class H-6 type built in the early 1920’s. They were the last of a series of 2-6-6-2s that the Chesapeake & Ohio began in 1911.

Although the locomotives were stored on the railroad for years before the C&O started scrapping them, some steam locomotives were saved for donation to communities along the railroad. The last H-6 #1309 was saved and stored at Russell, KY for years until it was sent to the Huntington Shops, along with K-4 #2705 and J-3a #614, for cosmetic restoration. After the restoration, the three locomotives were shipped in a special train to the B&O Museum in 1972. C&O #1309 has been preserved and displayed for generations of families to enjoy. On May 6, 2014 at 13:09(1:09pm) the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad announced the transfer of #1309 for restoration and operation.

May 2014 Press Release

B&O Railroad Museum announces the transfer of Chesapeake & Ohio #1309 Steam Locomotive to Western Maryland Scenic Railroad for restoration and operation.

The B&O Museum of Baltimore, MD, Western Maryland Scenic Railroad and WMSR Foundation are going full steam ahead with even more exciting news of rail preservation! The transfer of C&O steam locomotive 1309 (2-6-6-2) to the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad of Cumberland, MD will be an incredible milestone for steam operations in the USA! With this transfer, the B&O Railroad Museum and Western Maryland Scenic Railroad will be preserving steam locomotive history for generations to come. As one of the largest steam locomotives in the USA, this locomotive will be restored to its former glory and will be in operation on the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad. The Baldwin Locomotive Works built #1309 in September of 1949 as its last commercially built steam locomotive for use by a railroad in the USA.

C&O steam locomotive #1309 arrived at the B&O Museum in 1972 and has been preserved and displayed for generations of families to enjoy. Today, May 6, 2014 at 13:09 (1:09PM) Western Maryland Scenic Railroad announced the transfer of #1309 for restoration and operation.

Courtney B. Wilson, Director of the B&O Railroad Museum said "This historic agreement is a win-win for railroad preservation. It ensures the long-term preservation and restoration of an important steam locomotive which is central to our mission."

Mark Farris, President of the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad Board of Directors said "With the full support of the Board of Directors, the continued efforts of the executive directors, staff and employees of the WMSR have allowed for the growth and prosperity of our wonderful tourist attraction in Western Maryland. These efforts have provided the resources to give the WMSR the opportunity to acquire locomotive 1309, restore it, and place it back into service in a wonderful mountainous setting where thousands of people can enjoy the sights and sounds of a bygone era."

The locomotive has been moved to the B&O Railroad Museum’s restoration facility in preparation for shipment to the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad shops. Once this is complete, the locomotive will travel by rail on specialized flat cars pulled by CSX.

Don’t miss out on this incredible historic venture unfolding at the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad in Cumberland, MD. Make sure you join the WMSR Foundation and are following our Facebook page for all of the most up to date info. If you would like to donate to the restoration of C&O #1309 you may contact the WMSR rail preservation group, WMSR Foundation, the where you can join, volunteer and donate to rail preservation projects. For more information go to our website or call 301-759-4400 Ext 130 or 800 TRAIN50 Ext 130. Enjoy the history at Western Maryland Scenic Railroad.


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 200/H-3 (Locobase 13848)

Data from C&O 9 -1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Schenectady delivered 5 in 1917 and Richmond supplied 20 in 1918. Many thanks to Don Black for calling Locobase's attention to some needed work on Chessie 2-6-6-2s in a 31 January 2012 email; the inquiry prompted drafting of this new entry. Works numbers were 57284-57288 in May 1917, 60210-60229 in 1918

Locobase 441 originally showed all of the similar engines of the H-3/H-4/H-6 series of Chesapeake & Ohio articulateds as a single entry, but inquiries by such users as Black led him to split them up.

Admittedly, the differences are small. In all of the engines, the firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft (2.32 sq m) of arch tubes. The valve gear operated 12" (305 mm) -diameter piston valves for the rear, HP cylinders and slide valves for the LP cylinders driving the forward engine set. But the HV was a separate operating railroad at the time they bought this batch of locomotives and they specified a higher boiler pressure of 220 psi. Also, their tenders seem to have held quite a bit more coal, 7 tons more than most of the C & O engines.

By 1936, most used 9RB/RC/RD tenders weighing 168,500 lb (76,430 kg) loaded: 1325-1349 trailed RB and 1350-1361 pulled RCs. Total engine and tender weight for both was 593,500 lb (269,207 kg).


Class H-1, H-2 (Locobase 440)

Data from Wiener (1930) and Roy V Wright (Ed), 1912 Locomotive Cyclopedia Third Edition (New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1912), p. 191.

First class of the C&O's 2-6-6-2 compound Mallets. The first (H-3) -- 1300, built at Brooks -- was lighter on the drivers (285,000 lb) than her successors and had a smaller boiler. The 1301 was built at Schenectady in 1910 with considerably more heating surface (6,013 sq ft). The design stabilized in the 23 engines were built at Richmond. These had 23 sq ft (2.1 sq m) of arch tube area.

Although the design represented a significant increase in power, their low drivers and small size doomed them to a relatively short life. They were all scrapped by 1935.


Class H-4 (Locobase 13849)

Data from C&O 9 -1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Richmond supplied 1325-1359 in 1912-1913, 1360-1378 in 1914. Schenectady delivered 1379-1409 in 1915-1916, 1410-1459 in 1917, and Richmond finished the class -- 1460-1474 in 1918. Many thanks to Don Black for calling Locobase's attention to some needed work on Chessie 2-6-6-2s in a 31 January 2012 email; the inquiry prompted drafting of this new entry.

Locobase 441 originally showed all of the similar engines of the H-3/H-4/H-6 series of Chesapeake & Ohio articulateds as a single entry, but inquiries by such users as Black led him to split them up.

Admittedly, the differences are small. In all of the engines, the firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft of arch tubes. The valve gear operated 12"-diameter piston valves for the rear, HP cylinders and slide valves for the LP cylinders driving the forward engine set. Over the six-year run, axle loading grew by as much as 3,300 lb (1,497 kg), adhesion weight increased by 4 1/2 short tons (4,082 kg) and total engine weight by 6 tons (5,443 kg).

During their careers, the H-4s trailed larger and larger tenders until the heaviest weighed 25 tons more than the originals. Maximum engine-and-tender weights for most reached 644,100 lb (292,159 kg) and several would weigh 8,000-10,000 lb more. The combustion chamber later shrank by 4.3 inches.


Class H-5 (Locobase 299)

Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from C & O 9 - 1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Firebox had combustion chamber and 34 sq ft of arch tubes contributed to firebox heating surface. This design was one of two articulated types that formed part of the roster of standardized designs developed for general production in WW I.

These light USRA Mallets weren't very well received. Only 30 were built, 10 by Baldwin, 20 by Alco Schenectady. The Baldwins served the Wheeling & Lake Erie for decades, while the 20 Alcos saw service on the C&O, where they "steamed well and performed satisfactorily." Yet the Chessie didn't like the engines much and picked at the design (poor ashpans, need to reduce steam pressure from 225 to 210 psi, poor cab layout). Eugene Huddleston (Trains, March 1991) contends that the C&O's requirements had outstripped the 2-6-6-2 arrangement and that contributed to the road's disaffection.


Class H-6 (Locobase 441)

Data from C&O 9 -1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Alco-Richmond delivered 1475-1494 in 1920-1921 (works numbers 62177-62195 in November 1920, 62196 in March 1921). Schenectady added 1495-1519 in 1923 (works numbers 64101-64124 in April 1923). Many thanks to Don Black for calling Locobase's attention to some much-needed work on Chessie 2-6-6-2s in a 31 January 2012 email.

Locobases 13848-13849 describe the H-3s originally produced for the Hocking Valley in 1917 and the H-4s that served as the main production variant of this design from 1912-1918. Although the C & O took some USRA light articulateds as H-5s, they clearly preferred their own design and bought another 45 in 1920-1923. Adhesion weight varied from a low of 368,500 lb (167,149 kg) to the 376,500 lb (170,778 kg) shown in the specs.

See Locobase 15843 for the ten Baldwin-built H-6s delivered in 1949.

Firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft (2.3 sq m) of arch tubes and a 78" (1,981 mm) long combustion chamber. One difference from the earlier Hs was the use of 12" (305 mm)-diameter piston valves to serve all four cylinders.


Class H-6 (Locobase 15843)

Data from C&O Locomotive Diagrams supplied by John Hankey in an email in May 2014. Works numbers 74269-74278 in 1949. Many thanks for Hankey's suggestion that Locobase give a separate entry to the Baldwin engines.

See Locobase 441 for the Alco H-6s supplied in 1923.

The Chessie went to Baldwin in 1949 to buy the last ten steam locomotives the Eddystone plant would erect for any US railroad. Fifteen more planned for construction were postponed, then cancelled because of a coal strike during critical months.

They were not quite duplicates of the H-3/H-4/H-6 design, although they too had 12" (305 mm) piston valves supplying all four cylinders. The 1300-1309 came in a little lighter than the 1923 Alcos. Their combustion chambers measured 90" (2,286 mm), a foot longer than the Alcos and achieved by lopping a foot of the tube and flue lengths. There were other little detail differences, such as trailing truck wheels measuring 1" (25.4 mm) less in diameter at 44" (1,118 mm).

John Hankey, B&O Railroad Museum's Historian and Archivist just after the 1309 arrived from West Virginia, and later the Museum's Curator, offers this overview of the changes Baldwin applied to the 25-year-old design: "[T]he later H-6s had many subtle improvements and updates that I feel warrant a clear distinction. They include more modern (and arguably, better) steels, roller bearings, forced lubrication, and many small improvements that had essentially become part of the latter-day Baldwin 'package.'".

Don Black notes too that the traditional circular Baldwin builder's plate was replaced by a pyramidal form.

True to their heritage, all ten of the 1300s went directly to the Logan, W.Va., coal district, working out of the Peach Creek Terminal. Encroaching dieselization led to their retirements in 1957.

The 1309's eventual arrival at the B&O Museum is perhaps the best-known disposition of a member of this exemplary late-steam design. (Rumors flared up in 2013 that the 1309 might be headed to West Virginia to be reconditioned for museum service, but the B&O Museum replied that the move was only in the early talking stages.)

1308 also was preserved for display by the Huntington Railroad Museum, the installation being celebrated on 9 October 1962. The September 2012 Gondola Gazette, published by the Collis P Huntington Historical Society, Inc and available at http://www.newrivertrain.com/assets/gg/GGSEPT2012.pdf, featured Larry Fellure's "Fifty Years Admiring a Classc Steam Locomotive", p. 1, 7-15, which includes an account of the 1308's last fire in her firebox.

"During the fall of 1962, leaves from large sycamore trees began to clutter the new display. Several energetic members raked up the leaves and placed them in 1308ªs firebox to burn. One local resident who lived nearby became concerned about the smoke coming from the stack and called local authorities stating:

(Somebody is trying to steal your train!&#Ouml; The fire department quickly arrived, and after firefighters were given a good explanation as to what was going on, they had a big laugh and returned to their station."

Fellure's article noted that despite several proposals to restore the 1308 to service elsewhere, the engine still occupied its display space in 2012.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class200/H-3H-1, H-2H-4H-5H-6
Locobase ID13,848 440 13,849 299 441
RailroadHocking Valley (C&O)Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-6-6-22-6-6-22-6-6-22-6-6-22-6-6-2
Number in Class25251502045
Road Numbers200-224/1275-12991301, 1302-13241325-14741520-15391476-1519
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built25251502045
BuilderAlcoAlcoAlcoAlco-SchenectadyAlco
Year19171911191219191920
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertBakerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)10 / 3.0513 / 3.9610 / 3.0510.50 / 3.2010 / 3.05
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)48.83 / 14.8848.83 / 14.8848.83 / 14.8845.75 / 13.9448.83 / 14.88
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.20 0.27 0.20 0.23 0.20
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)80.50 / 24.5487.48 / 26.6680.48 / 24.5389.42 / 27.2687.86 / 26.78
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)62,700 / 28,44059,700 / 27,07960,10065,300 / 29,620
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)367,000 / 166,469337,500 / 153,088358,000 / 162,386358,000 / 162,386376,500 / 170,778
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)437,000 / 198,220400,000 / 181,437425,000 / 192,777448,000 / 203,210449,000 / 203,663
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)187,400 / 85,003168,500 / 85,003206,500209,800 / 95,164
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)624,400 / 283,223400,000593,500 / 277,780654,500658,800 / 298,827
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)9000 / 34.099000 / 34.099000 / 34.0912,000 / 45.4512,000 / 45.45
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)22 / 2015 / 13.6022 / 2016 / 14.5015 / 13.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)102 / 5194 / 4799 / 49.5099 / 49.50105 / 52.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56.25 / 142956 / 142256.25 / 142957 / 144856 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)220 / 15.20200 / 13.80200 / 13.80225 / 15.50210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 32" / 559x81322" x 32" / 559x81322" x 32" / 559x81323" x 32" / 584x81322" x 32" / 559x813
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)35" x 32" / 889x81335" x 32" / 889x81335" x 32" / 889x81335" x 32" / 889x81335" x 32" / 889x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)73,814 / 33481.5167,403 / 30573.5267,104 / 30437.9079,336 / 35986.2570,773 / 32102.13
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.97 5.01 5.34 4.51 5.32
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)370 / 34.37367 / 31.97370 / 34.37416 / 38.66370 / 34.37
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)72.60 / 6.7472.20 / 6.7172.60 / 6.7476.30 / 7.0972.50 / 6.74
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4902 / 455.415042 / 468.594902 / 455.415443 / 505.864902 / 455.41
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)975 / 90.58911 / 84.67975 / 90.581292 / 120.07975 / 90.58
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5877 / 545.995953 / 553.265877 / 545.996735 / 625.935877 / 545.99
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume348.18358.12348.18353.72348.18
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,97214,44014,52017,16815,225
Same as above plus superheater percentage18,68716,60616,98820,42917,813
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area95,23884,41086,580111,38490,909
Power L189877898817011,4888540
Power MT323.92309.55301.87424.47300.04

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassH-6
Locobase ID15,843
RailroadChesapeake & Ohio (C&O)
CountryUSA
Whyte2-6-6-2
Number in Class10
Road Numbers1300-1309
GaugeStd
Number Built10
BuilderBaldwin
Year1949
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)10 / 3.05
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)48.83 / 14.88
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.20
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)88.56 / 26.99
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)62,600 / 28,395
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)366,700 / 166,333
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)434,900 / 197,268
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)208,200 / 94,438
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)643,100 / 291,706
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)12,000 / 45.45
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)16 / 14.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)102 / 51
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 32" / 559x813
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)35" x 32" / 889x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)70,773 / 32102.13
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.18
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)389 / 36.14
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)72.20 / 6.71
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4825 / 448.25
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)975 / 90.58
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5800 / 538.83
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume342.71
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,162
Same as above plus superheater percentage17,740
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area95,577
Power L18550
Power MT308.42

Photos

Reference