Alabama Midland / Atlantic Coast Line / Charleston & Western Carolina 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class L (Locobase 7679)

Data from the ACL-3 1946 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volumes 24, pp. 150+; 25, pp. 124; and 26, pp. 155+. Works numbers for the first four were 19568-19571 in October 1901. Those that went directly to the ACL in 1903 were 21498, 21505 in January 1903; 23144-23145, 23153, 23186, 23208-23210 in November; 24540 in August 1904.

Consolidations made up only a small part of all of the locomotives operated by the Atlantic Coast LineL and these were the first to be procured by the railroad in the 20th century. In fact, the first four went to the Alabama Midland Railway, which linked Bainbridge, Ga and Montgomery, Ala, when it still operated under the Plant System banner.

The Plant System was absorbed by the ACL within months of this purchase. The ACL went back to Baldwin in 1903 to order a total of 10 more that were produced over the next year and a half. The spec for 706-713 advised the builder "Better [steam] dome construction required to avoid leakage at junction of dome base and barrel of boiler."

In the Baldwin specs, we find that their operating area included "practically no level track." Instead, they faced several straight grades of 66 ft/mile (1.25%) over 3 1/2-4 miles (5.6-6.4 km) over which they were to provide hauling capacity of 865 to 900 tons.

They had a relatively small grate that nevertheless suited the small cylinder dimensions. As delivered, the firebox heating surface area was measured at 172.4 sq ft (16.02 sq m). The later measurement shown in the specs above included 24 sq ft (2.23 sq m) of arch tubes. Tender weight estimates for the latter two batches were 90,000 lb (40,823 kg) for the 704-705 and 95,000 lb (43,091 kg) for 706-713.

Apparently, none of these was superheated. Several were converted to switch engines by the end of the teens. The whole class was retired in 1939-1942.


Class L-1 (Locobase 11168)

Data from the ACL 2-8-0 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 25153-25154, 25168 in February 1905

These light Consolidations completed the rather small holding of 2-8-0s on the ACL. The three L-1 appeared in 1905 as follow-ons to the Class L shown in Locobase 7679. The biggest difference between the two classes was the L-1's 50% larger grate.

Not long after they entered service, all 7 were superheated to the same standard; see Locobase 7680.


Class L-1 (Locobase 13017)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 29, p. 205. Works numbers were 29812-29813, 29830 in December 1906; 31465-31466 in August 1907.

Intriguing note in the specs about the tube counts for this class of Consolidations. It reports that locomotive 965 (in the order book for the year) had 321 tubes (one more than the others) "...on a/c error in boiler shop." That's embarrassing.

Alabama Midland L-class Consolidations shown in Locobase 7679 were essentially identical to this set, which served the C & WC through World War II .


Class L-1-S/L-2-S (Locobase 7680)

Data from the ACL-3 1946 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

These light Consolidations completed the rather small holding of 2-8-0s on the ACL. The three L-1 appeared in 1905 (Locobase 11168) with the four L-2 following in 1911 (Locobase 11169).

Not long after they entered service, all 7 were superheated to the same standard. All had the "modern" steam chest using 8" piston valves with 6" travel. To incorporate the 26 flues, the design had to sacrifice fully half of its small tubes. The shops also raised the boiler's pressure by 15 psi.

Although present in small numbers and possessing relatively small boilers for their cylinder volumes, they showed staying power in the niche in which they operated and saw out steam on the ACL as they were scrapped in 1951-1955.


Class L-2 (Locobase 11169)

Data from the ACL 2-8-0 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 35971-35972, 35984, 35996 in January 1911.

Six years after the three L-1 appeared (Locobase 11168), Baldwin supplied this quartet. The L-2s differed from the L-1s in the use of outside Walschaert valve gear and in weighing about a ton more. The tender also weighed more. (The builder's official name had changed to reflect that it was no longer a partnership, but a corporation.)

Not long after they entered service, all 7 were superheated to the same standard; see Locobase 7680.


Class L-2 (Locobase 13676)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 35, p. 239. Works numbers were 35139-35142 in August 1910, 35245-35246 in September.

These were essentially identical to the L-1 Consolidations of 1906 shown in Locobase 13017 except for the replacement of Stephenson valve gear with Walschaert outside radial valve gear (although the valve train retained the Richardson balanced slide valves). Another difference was the addition of arch tubes, which contributed 31 sq ft to the firebox heating surface area.

Four more L-2s with 12 fewer tubes arrived in 1911; see Locobase 13789.

Like the L-1s, this class remained in service until the late 1940s-early 1950s.


Class L-2 (Locobase 13789)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 35, p. 239. Works numbers were 36720-36721, 36747-36748 September 1911.

A further embellishment of the C & WC's Consolidations, these repeated the L-2s of 1910 (Locobase 13676) except for the deletion of 12 boiler tubes. Another difference was the addition of arch tubes, which contributed 31 sq ft (2.88 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area.

Like the L-1s, this class remained in service until the early 1950s. 288 and 291 were scrapped in November 1951 and 289-290 followed in February 1952


Class L-3 (Locobase 13677)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 41, p. 245. Works numbers were 38180-38181 in August 1912..

L-3 Consolidations were similar to the L-2s of 1910 that appear in Locobase 13676 with the major difference of arriving on the road with Schmidt superheaters already installed. Using the superheater also dictated the fitting of 12" piston valves. At the time, superheating the steam led locomotive superintendents to reduce steam pressure settings by 5-10%, as happened with this pair.

Like the L-1s and L-2s, the two L-3s remained in service until the early 1950s.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassLL-1L-1L-1-S/L-2-SL-2
Locobase ID7679 11,168 13,017 7680 11,169
RailroadAlabama Midland (ACL)Atlantic Coast Line (ACL)Charleston & Western Carolina (ACL)Atlantic Coast Line (ACL)Atlantic Coast Line (ACL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class143574
Road Numbers530-533/700-703, 704-713714-716277-281714-720717-720
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built143574
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoACLBaldwin
Year19011905190619051911
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.67 / 4.7815.42 / 4.7015.42 / 4.7015.42 / 4.7015.42 / 4.70
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.75 / 7.2423.50 / 7.1623.50 / 7.1623.50 / 7.1623.50 / 7.16
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)52.92 / 16.1355.56 / 16.9354.96 / 16.7555.56 / 16.9355.56 / 16.93
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)41,740 / 18,93340,150 / 18,21240,150 / 18,21240,150 / 18,212
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)146,590 / 66,492151,800 / 68,855146,300 / 66,361151,800 / 68,855152,800 / 69,309
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)161,230 / 73,133167,500 / 75,977161,000 / 73,028167,500 / 75,977170,800 / 77,474
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)120,000 / 54,431106,900 / 48,489120,000 / 54,431106,900 / 48,489120,000 / 54,431
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)281,230 / 127,564274,400 / 124,466281,000 / 127,459274,400 / 124,466290,800 / 131,905
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.946000 / 22.736000 / 22.736000 / 22.736000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)11.50 / 10.5015.50 / 14.1015.50 / 14.1015.50 / 14.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)61 / 30.5063 / 31.5061 / 30.5063 / 31.5064 / 32
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56.50 / 143556.50 / 143556.50 / 143556.50 / 143556.50 / 1435
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)185 / 12.80185 / 12.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80185 / 12.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)21" x 28" / 533x71121" x 28" / 533x71121" x 28" / 533x71121" x 28" / 533x71121" x 28" / 533x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)34,367 / 15588.6334,367 / 15588.6337,153 / 16852.3437,153 / 16852.3434,367 / 15588.63
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.27 4.42 3.94 4.09 4.45
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)187 / 17.37187.30 / 17.41163.20 / 15.17187.30 / 17.41187.30 / 17.41
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)33 / 3.0749 / 4.5549 / 4.5549 / 4.5549 / 4.55
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2533 / 235.322533 / 235.412495 / 231.881753 / 162.922533 / 235.41
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)392 / 35.50
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2533 / 235.322533 / 235.412495 / 231.882145 / 198.422533 / 235.41
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume225.66225.66222.28156.17225.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation61059065980098009065
Same as above plus superheater percentage61059065980011,5649065
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area34,59534,65132,64044,20334,651
Power L153825385555510,4325385
Power MT323.77312.83334.84606.02310.78

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassL-2L-2L-3
Locobase ID13,676 13,789 13,677
RailroadCharleston & Western Carolina (ACL)Charleston & Western Carolina (ACL)Charleston & Western Carolina (ACL)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class642
Road Numbers282-287288-291292-293
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built642
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBaldwin
Year191019111912
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.42 / 4.7015.42 / 4.7015.42 / 4.70
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.50 / 7.1623.50 / 7.1623.50 / 7.16
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)56.35 / 16.7556.35 / 17.1856.35 / 17.18
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)41,800 / 18,960
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)150,000 / 66,361150,000 / 68,039150,000 / 68,039
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)166,000 / 73,028168,000 / 76,204166,000 / 75,296
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)120,000 / 54,431120,000 / 54,431120,000 / 54,431
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)286,000 / 127,459288,000 / 130,635286,000 / 129,727
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.736000 / 22.736000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)15.5010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)63 / 31.5063 / 31.5063 / 31.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56.50 / 143556.50 / 143556.50 / 1435
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80185 / 12.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)21" x 28" / 533x71121" x 28" / 533x71121" x 28" / 533x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)37,153 / 16852.3437,153 / 16852.3434,367 / 15588.63
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.04 4.04 4.36
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)194.20 / 15.17194.20 / 18.04191.30 / 17.77
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)49 / 4.5549 / 4.5549 / 4.55
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2495 / 231.882407 / 223.621999 / 185.71
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)385 / 35.77
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2495 / 231.882407 / 223.622384 / 221.48
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume222.28214.44178.09
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation980098009065
Same as above plus superheater percentage9800980010,515
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area38,84038,84041,053
Power L1581556689965
Power MT341.86333.22585.84

Photos

Reference