The main line ran from Chicago, IL through Atchison, KS, Topeka, KS, Wichita, KS, Los Vegas, NV, Albuquerque, NM and on to Los Angeles, CA with connections to San Francisco, CA and San Diego, CA. It had other main lines which served several major cities including Denver, CO, Salt Lake City, UT, Ogden, UT, Kansas City, MO, St. Louis, MO, Dallas, TX, Ft. Worth, TX, El Paso, TX, Houston, TX, Galveston, TX and Guaymas, Mexico.
By 1945, AT&SF's total track length was 13,115 miles, 59,565,100 tons of freight was carried and its ridership was 11,264,000 passengers. The railway owned 1,759 locomotives, 1.436 passenger cars and 81,974 freight cars.
The first "Mikado" type locomotives on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway came from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1902 and 1903. They were assigned road numbers 885 through 899. These 2-8-2s were Vauclain compounds with a wide firebox, which extended over the rear wheels. They were converted to simple locomotives in 1908 and saw service for the next four decades. In 1913, the next group of "Mikados" was purchased from Baldwin. This group was assigned road numbers 3100 through 3128. They had the same basic design as the converted locomotives of 1908, which included 57" diameter drivers, 25" x 32" cylinders, a 170 psi boiler pressure and a tractive effort of 50,700 pounds.
More 2-8-2s arrived in 1916, when Baldwin delivered a group of thirty, which were given road numbers 3129 through 3158. These locomotives had 57" diameter drivers, 25" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 56,650 pounds of tractive effort.
Between 1917 and 1920, the AT&SF received a total of 128 more "Mikados". The locomotives of this group were assigned road numbers 3160 through 3287 and were about 20 tons heavier than the earlier ones. They had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 62, 950 pounds of tractive effort. The last group of new 2-8-2s to be added to the roster was a group of 101 built by Baldwin between 1921 and 1926. This group, road numbers 4000 through 4100 had the same specifications as the 3160-3287 locomotives.
There were five other "Mikados" on the roster. They were two AT&SF shop-built and three second-hand locomotives bought from the PRR. The San Bernardino shops took apart two 2-8-8-2s (numbers 1798 and 1799) and used the rear engines to build two 2-8-2s. These two locomotive were completed in 1924 and carried the same road numbers as the 2-8-8-2s. The three from the PRR came in 1945 and were ex PRR numbers 4031 built by Baldwin in 1917, number 4185 built by the PRR in 1917 and number 7342 built by Baldwin in 1917.
There are two surviving AT&SF 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives. These two locomotives (numbers 3167 and 4076) were lost in a flood in 1952 and are now sunk in the Kaw River in Topeka, KS.
|Class||Qty.||Road Numbers||From Other RR||Year Acquired||Year Built||Builder||Notes|
|882||3||882-884||PRR||1945||1916-1917||Baldwin & PRR||3|
Among the first of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Mikados, these were free-steamers by the looks of the numbers.
In terms of weight, the Santa Fe engines were about at the median for US 2-8-2s of the pre-USRA era. . Relatively large boilers and 16" (406 mm) piston valves supplied the steam. Part of the firebox heating surface included four arch tubes comprising 25.4 sq ft (2.36 sq m). Locobase 5498-5499 show the 3129 and 3160 classes that built on Baldwin's experience producing this design.
Later in their working careers, the class was converted to oil-burning and supplied by a tender now carrying 3,300 US gallons (12,491 litres) of oil and weighing 166,370 lb (75,464 kg). By then, boiler pressure had been reset to 200 psi (13.8 bar).
Virtually all of the class lasted until the 1950s with the first to be scrapped (3114) going in July 1949 and 3116 broken up in December 1949. 3102 and 3123 were the last to go in June 1954.
Data also from AT&SF 7 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange and DeGolyer, Volume 61, pp. 31+. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (also visited 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Works numbers were 43064, 43091-43095 in March 1916; 43138-43139, 43154-43155, 43186-43189, 43263-43266 in April; 43292-43299, 43352-43353, 43397-43398 in May.
Similar to the 3100 class that immediately preceded them (Locobase 5442). The heating surface area of the relatively short but wide firebox included 25.4 sq ft (2.36 sq m) in four arch tubes. Instead of the usual Van Boden oil-burner, the railroad specified a Booth system. The 200-psi boiler increased pulling power, sent steam to the superheater through a 7" (179 mm) stainless steel dry pipe, and capacious 16" (406 mm) diameter piston valves supplied steam to the cylinders. These had been modified from the earlier 3100 design.
The Baldwin specs included a 10 January 1916 letter from M H Haig, Mechanical Engineer from the Santa Fe's Topeka office, that spelled out how three selected engines (the first, 15th, and 30th) would be weighed. The engines were to be under steam and at the working pressure, coal on the grate of the coal-burners, and two gauges of water in the glass. All three selections would be weighed twice each. As it was, the railroad's diagram book shows a slight underrun of the 228,000 lb adhesion weight estimate, a 3,000 lb overrun for the engines, and a 2,000 lb overrun of the tender's weight.
A year later a still larger design of Mikados entered Santa Fe service; see Locobase 5499.
Like the 3100s, these engines saw out steam, retiring in 1948-1954.
All of Drawing Room Specification Book Number 61 of the DeGolyer Library's Baldwin collection is devoted to Santa Fe locomotive orders in the late 19teens and 1920s. The 3160 class specs run from page 31 to 224 and cover seven batches. (Anyone wishing to build a Santa Fe engine delivered by Baldwin in these years could do so from these specs, assuming one had the foundry, components suppliers, overhead cranes, floor space, and the work force to do so.)
(Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 9 May 2015 email and spreadsheet laying out in detail the various capacities and weights of the different tenders used by this class.)
Works numbers were
October 46676, 46728, 46818-46819; November 46961-46965; December 47281, 47389, 47488
January 47571, 47689-47691, 47743; February 47794, 47863, 47915-47917, 47964; March 48024-48025, 48077, 48146-48147; April 48263-48266, 48349-48350; May 48670-48673, 48730; June 48896-48898, 48948, 49082-49083; July 49163-49164, 49292-49294, 49389-49391; August 49470-49471, 49540, 49619; September 49923; October 50128, 50206, 50209; November 50549; December 50886-50889, 50990
January 51028=51029, 51078, 51116-51117, 51150-51151; February 51231, 51252-51253, 51303-51304, 51380-51382, 51437-51439; March 51476, 51511-51513, 51554, 51575, 51580-51583, 51626; April 51659
May 53272; June 53299-53301, 53318-53319, 53330-53331, 53350-53351, 53364; July 53376-53380, 53398-53399, 53430-53434, 53461-53464; August 53504-53505, 53526.
Preceded by the 1913 3100s (Locobase 5442) and the 1916 3129s (Locobase 5498), this class increased cylinder volume to compensate for taller drivers. Specified to have a boiler setting of 190 psi, the class soon operated at 200 psi.
Firebox heating surface area included 34.2 sq ft (3.18 sq m) in four arch tubes space 16 1/4" (413 mm) apart; coal-burners were fitted with Duplex stokers. For all of the batches, all of the heating surface areas were calculated to the nearest 1/10 square feet: tubes 3,067.8 sq ft, flues 1,279.6 ft, fire box 232.4 sq ft, and superheater 1,085.6 sq ft.
All were equipped with Ragonnet Type B power reversing gear. 3160-3187 had Baker gear; 3188-3257 had Walschaert. Both types actuated 15" (381 mm) piston valves, which were an inch smaller than those in the earlier classes.
One clue suggesting why the railroad and builder switched to Walschaert after the first batch comes in the Baldwin specs' supplement paragraph 447: "Pilliod Co. to be warned to allow ample clearance in valve gear as RR [railroad] has had some trouble due to insufficient clearance especially with gear connecting rod."
Another watchword concerned the tires. Baldwin understood that the driver and tender wheel tires needed to meet ASTM specifications that included an acceptable variation among driver sets of 3/32". But the Santa Fe's Charles Riddell of the Chicago office noted in his 8 November 1919 letter to Baldwin's Vice President G Greenough that the railroad's Mr Purcell, who ruled on such matters, was "of the opinion that builders have instructions to turn both driving and truck tires when mounted on axles to uniform diameters, as to pairs." Riddell added that Purcell was considering whether to insist that all drivers in the the same set (i.e., all eight as opposed to each axle's pair) be turned to the same diameters. Given the force of axle loadings and tractive power on these tires, Purcell's position doesn't seem unreasonable.
As the data shows, these Mikes were considerable larger than the 3129s that immediately preceded them. If, as Drury (1993) notes, the 3129s were akin to the USRA's light Mikados, then these were the Heavies. They came in two subclasses -- the last 30 apparently being strictly coal burners while the first 98 were a mixture of coal- and oil-burning engines.
As late as the specs for 3202-3217, drafted 29 May 1917, the axle loading target was set at 58,500 lb (26,535 kg), but a inked correction dated 21 April 1918 reset the goal to 60,000 lb (27,216 kg). Supplement paragraph 36 suggests one (of many) reasons why this was of such concern when it prescribes the arrangement of equalizers according to the axle loading.
Locobase uses the limit-busting axle loadings laid out in the 1920 Santa Fe diagrams, which held true for all but the last 30. This set, ordered well after the Armistice on 11 February 1920, featured a sterner requirement in supplement paragaph 17: "Locomotives will not be accepted by the Railway Co. if the weight per each axle varies more than 500 pounds above or below that specified." The specs called once again for 240,000 lb on the drivers, 325,000 lb (147,418 kg) for the engine. The 1920 diagram for this set shows a maximum axle loading (first and last driving axles) of 60,450 lb (27,420 kg).. Engine weight came in at 328,920 lb (149,196 kg).
These engines were delivered with cast iron cylinders and later refitted with cast steel types.
By 1941, however, the entire class's maximum axle loading had risen to 67,000 lb (30,391 kg); see Locobase 16083.
Volume 61's page 143, part of the 9 July 1917 specs for the batch road numbered 3218-3227 includes supplement paragraphs 81-82, which describe in lengthy (but oddly fascinating) detail just how the finished locomotive is to be cleaned up for delivery.
Chris Hohl's parsing of the tender assignments reports the following combinations:
Road numbers 3189-3201; #3213-3287 #3160-3188; #3202-3212
Water capacity 12,000 US gal (45,420 litres) 15,000 US gal (56,775 litres)
Fuel 16 tons (14.55 mt) coal 20 tons (18.18 mt) coal
17.5 tons (15.91 mt) coal with coal boards
4,000 gal (15,140 litres) oil 5,000 gal (18,925 litres) oil
Loaded weight 232,700 lb (105,551 kg) 277,00 lb (125,645 kg)
235,700 lb (106,912 kg)
236,600 lb (107,320 kg) 298,600 lb (135,443 kg)
NB: In supplement paragraph 575 of the specs for the first batch (p. 79, Volume 61), the loaded tender weight as delivered is given as 242,000 lb (109,769 kg),
The class was big in both senses and performed throughout the system until 1950-1956. Also, the Santa Fe was sufficiently pleased with the design to go back to Baldwin for 101 more after the USRA era ended; see Locobase 2.
Locobase 5499 describes in detail the Baldwin-built Mikados delivered from 1917-1920. Almost two decades later, Santa Fe diagrams would show how much a main-line design might change to meet the demands. The basic power dimensions remained the same, tube count dropped by only nine, the fire box was essentially untouched. But adhesion weight rose by five tons, engine weight by a lesser amount. Tender weight for the oil-burner increased by almost 20 tons for the coal burners, 30 tons for the oil-burners.
There were other, more subtle differences. The engine now had an Elesco feed water heater, two sand domes ahead of the steam dome (the bell relocated ahead of the first dome), and an extended cab. The running gear's main rod was 8" longer (up to 119"/3.03 m). In both old and new configurations, the third axle took the main rod's thrust. In the 'teens, the journal bearing measured 12" x 20"; in the 1940s, that same bearing measured 12" x 12".
At least one engine--3192- was tested with a Worthington feed water heater in the late 1940s.
Their survival until the end of steam in the early 1950s testifies to the qualities described by E D as "well-balanced, free-steaming, capable machines".
Works numbers were
June 54860-54862; July 54894-54896, 54903-54908, 54915-54916; August 54937
May 56510-56511, 56571; July 56697-56703, 56819-56823; August 56992-56994; September 57086-57087, 57115-57122; October 57242-57244, 57269-57271, 57318-57328
Looks to have been based on the USRA Mikado design, but according to Wes Barris --[external link], accessed 21 June 2006 -- these were repeats of the 1917 3160 class (Locobase 5499). And in fact the design had the same firebox and only minor tweaks to the heating surface, which increased the superheat percentage. All of this group were oil burners.
A few of the earlier engines had their fireboxes retrofitted with thermic syphons that added 70 sq ft (6.5 sq m) to their heating surface areas. These were 4028, 4037, 4038, 4056, 4059.
The last 40 of the class were produced with more superheater area and fewer small tubes; see Locobase 2.
Works numbers were
March 57695-57698; April 57735-57737, 57742-57754; June 57815-57819, 57850
July 59317-59318, 59339, 59349-59356; August 59398-59401.
Following the delivery of the first 61 engines in this class (Locobase 15202), Baldwin began producing a slightly modified design that had two more superheater flues (and more elements) and eight fewer tubes. All had Elesco feed water heaters and 15" (381 mm) piston valves. A relatively short engine wheelbase combined with a relatively tall boiler gave the class a stocky look.
Twenty-five--4060-4069 and 4086-4100--were oil burners and had the tender weights and capacities shown. According to the Santa Fe diagrams, weight distribution differed considerably between those engines burning oil and those fueled with coal. Oil burners put 11,000 lb (4,990 kg) more on the drivers, but coal burners (16 tons/14.5 metric tons of bituminous) had so much more weight on the two non-powered axles (6,250 lb/2,835 kg on the leading truck, 13,050 lb/5,919 kg on the trailing trucks) that their loaded weight reached 344,800 lb (156,399 kg).
Baldwin's spec shows that this class was to be numbered 900-914. Before delivery, however, a note in the specs changed the range to 885-899 to make room for the class 900 Santa Fes.
At the same time Baldwin constructed the first-ever 2-10-2s for any railroad (Locobase 463) as tandem compounds, the builder produced these very similar balanced four-cylinder compound designs, in which the high-pressure cylinders lay inside of the frame and the low-pressure cylinders outside.
Locobase doesn't know which way the emulation flowed, but notes that these Mikes (which were early examples of that arrangement as well) had more tubes stuffed into the same boiler barrel and consequently more heating surface. In fact, other than the single Decapod shown in Locobase 5364, this class had the most tubes measuring 2 1/4" in outside diameter of any locomotive ever built.
Such a big engine couldn't be left a compound. Moreover, it needed superheat. So some time later the Santa Fe simpled and superheated this class; see Locobase 8250.
Locobase 8249 described the 885s in their saturated, compound-working original state. It wasn't too long before the Santa Fe was simplifying the layout in conversions that occurred in 1908-1909.
Not too long after that they installed a superheater. It's odd that so packed a boiler would yield 230 small tubes to allow for 40 large ones, but the total loss in heating surface wasn't extreme. The Baker gear originally required a rocker arm to compensate for the raked HP cylinders, but the later installation of standard cylinders allowed deletion of the rocker arm.
With the exception of the 895, sold in January 1947 to the Apache Railway as their 400, and 896 and 891 (scrapped in August 1947 and November 1949, respectively), the long-lived class operated into the 1950s. 898 was the last to be scrapped in September 1955.
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Class||3100||3129||3160||3160 - updated||4000|
|Railroad||Santa Fe (ATSF)||Santa Fe (ATSF)||Santa Fe (ATSF)||Santa Fe (ATSF)||Santa Fe (ATSF)|
|Number in Class||29||30||128||128||60|
|Valve Gear||Walschaert||Baker||Baker or Walschaert||Baker or Walschaert||Walschaert|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||16 / 4.88||16 / 4.88||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||34.08 / 10.39||34.08 / 10.39||35.08 / 10.69||35.08 / 10.69||35.08 / 10.69|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.47||0.47||0.47||0.47||0.47|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||66.02 / 20.12||69.39 / 21.15||79.15 / 24.12||79.15 / 24.12||78.19 / 23.83|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)||54,300 / 24,630||57,800 / 26,218||66,500 / 30,164||66,500 / 30,164||65,400 / 29,665|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||218,900 / 99,291||226,300 / 102,648||249,200 / 113,035||259,000 / 117,481||240,000 / 108,862|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||284,100 / 128,866||295,000 / 133,810||341,800 / 155,038||348,400 / 158,032||315,300 / 143,018|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||170,900 / 77,519||221,000 / 100,244||232,700 / 105,551||298,600 / 135,443||298,500 / 135,397|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||455,000 / 206,385||516,000 / 234,054||574,500 / 260,589||647,000 / 293,475||613,800 / 278,415|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||8500 / 32.20||10,000 / 37.88||12,000 / 45.45||15,000 / 56.82||15,000 / 56.82|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||12 / 10.90||3300 / 12.50||16 / 14.50||5000 / 18.90||5000 / 18.90|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||91 / 45.50||94 / 47||104 / 52||108 / 54||100 / 50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||57 / 1448||58 / 1473||63 / 1600||63 / 1600||63 / 1600|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||170 / 11.70||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80||190 / 13.10|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||25" x 32" / 635x813||25" x 32" / 635x813||27" x 32" / 686x813||27" x 32" / 686x813||27" x 32" / 686x813|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||50,702 / 22998.07||58,621 / 26590.07||62,949 / 28553.22||62,949 / 28553.22||59,801 / 27125.31|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.32||3.86||3.96||4.11||4.01|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||262 / 24.35||262.40 / 24.38||276.60 / 25.70||278 / 25.83||278 / 25.83|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||58.50 / 5.44||58.50 / 5.43||66.80 / 6.21||66.80 / 6.21||66.80 / 6.21|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4111 / 382.06||4086 / 379.60||4614 / 428.65||4516 / 419.55||4626 / 429.77|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||880 / 81.78||880 / 81.75||1086 / 100.89||1086 / 100.89||1086 / 100.89|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4991 / 463.84||4966 / 461.35||5700 / 529.54||5602 / 520.44||5712 / 530.66|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||226.12||224.75||217.58||212.96||218.15|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||9945||11,700||13,360||13,360||12,692|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||11,735||13,806||15,898||15,898||15,103|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||52,557||61,926||65,831||66,164||62,856|
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Class||4060||885||885 - superheated|
|Railroad||Santa Fe (ATSF)||Santa Fe (ATSF)||Santa Fe (ATSF)|
|Number in Class||40||15||15|
|Builder||Baldwin||Burnham, Williams & Co||Santa Fe|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||16.50 / 5.03||16 / 4.88||16 / 4.88|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||35 / 10.67||31.54 / 9.61||31.54 / 9.61|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.47||0.51||0.51|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||79.10 / 24.11||59.46 / 18.12||62.28 / 18.98|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)||67,300 / 30,527||53,560 / 24,294||59,400 / 26,943|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||260,200 / 118,025||199,670 / 90,569||213,000 / 96,615|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||342,000 / 155,129||261,720 / 118,714||271,730 / 123,255|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||298,500 / 135,397||136,000 / 61,689||165,800 / 75,206|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||640,500 / 290,526||397,720 / 180,403||437,530 / 198,461|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||15,000 / 56.82||7000 / 26.52||8500 / 32.20|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||5000 / 18.90||11 / 10||13.50 / 12.30|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||108 / 54||83 / 41.50||89 / 44.50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||63 / 1600||57 / 1448||57 / 1448|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||200 / 13.80||225 / 15.50||200 / 13.80|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||27" x 32" / 686x813||18" x 32" / 457x813||25" x 32" / 635x813|
|Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||30" x 32" / 762x813|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||62,949 / 28553.22||51,158 / 23204.91||59,649 / 27056.36|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.13||3.90||3.57|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||278 / 25.83||210 / 19.51||210 / 19.52|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||66.80 / 6.21||58.50 / 5.43||58.50 / 5.44|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4553 / 423.14||5366 / 498.51||3862 / 358.92|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||1143 / 106.23||850 / 79|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||5696 / 529.37||5366 / 498.51||4712 / 437.92|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||214.71||569.35||212.43|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||13,360||13,163||11,700|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||16,032||13,163||13,806|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||66,720||47,250||49,560|