Duluth & Iron Range 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

The United State Steel Corporation bought the Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railway and the Duluth & Iron Range Railroad in 1901 and operated them as two separate entities with both railroads carrying iron ore from the mines in Minnesota to Lake Superior.

In 1913, the D&IR gave an order to the Baldwin Locomotive Works for 4 "Mikado" type locomotives and it also gave the Lima Locomotive Works an order for two of the same. The six 2-8-2s arrived in 1913 and were designated as Class N with the four that Baldwin-built assigned road numbers 300-303 and the two Lima-built were given numbers 304 and 305. These locomotives had 54" drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 170 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 58,522 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 287,600 pounds. The firebox was 271 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,108 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,948 square feet.

Three more 2-8-2s were added to the D&IR roster in 1916. This Lima built group was designated as Class N-1 and were numbered 306-308. They had 58" drivers, 27" X 30" cylinders, a 185 psi boiler pressure and exerted 59,250 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 294,000 pounds. The firebox was 268 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,453 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,539 square feet.

Another three "Mikados" were delivered from Baldwin in 1923. They were designated as Class N-2 with roads numbers 309 through 311 assigned. These locomotives were very similar to the Class N-1 locomotives delivered in 1916. They were 44,320 pounds heavier but the firebox and heating surfaces were almost identical. .

The two railroads were operated independently, but in 1930 they combined their rosters of the motive power. The locomotives of the D&IR were renumbered simply by adding a numeral "1", as a prefix, to all existing road numbers. In 1937, the D&IR and the DM&NR were consolidated with the Spirit Lake Transfer Railway and the combined railroad was named Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Railway.

By the late 1950s, most railroads had converted to diesels, but the DM&IR wanted to continue with steam and in 1948 it bought 26 "Mikados" from another US Steel owned railroad, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern. These locomotives were divided into three classes, Class N-4, all built by ALCO (road numbers 1312-1321), Class N-5, all built by Lima (road numbers 1322-1325) and Class N-6, all built by Baldwin (road numbers 1326-1337). They were similar and had 63" drivers, 28" x 30", a 200 psi boiler pressure and exerted 63,467 pound of tractive effort.

There is one surviving D&IR 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotive. It is a Class N-6, number 1330, which was ex EJ&E number 765. This locomotive is on display at City Hall at the corner of Rte 20 and Rte 53 in Gary, IN.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersDM&IR NumbersFrom Other RRYr. AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNotes
N4300-3031300-13031913Baldwin1
N2304-3051304 & 13051913Lima2
N-13306-3081306-13081916Baldwin3
N-23309-3111309-13111923Baldwin4
N-4101312-1321EJ&E19481923ALCO5
N-541322-1325EJ&E19481923Lima6
N-6121326-1337EJ&E19481929-30Baldwin7
Notes:
  1. Numbers 300-303 renumbered 1300-1303 in 1930. Scrapped between 1959 and 1962.
  2. Numbers 304-305 renumbered 1304-1305 in 1930. Number 305 scrapped in 1959 and number 304 scrapped in 1961.
  3. Numbers 306-308 renumbered 1306-1308 in 1930. All scrapped in 1958-1959.
  4. Numbers 309-311 renumbered 1309-1311 in 1930. All scrapped in 1958-1959.
  5. Numbers 1312-1321 bought from the EJ&E in 1948. Ex EJ&E numbers 746-755. All scrapped between 958 and 1961.
  6. Numbers 1322-1325 bought from the EJ&E in 1948. Ex EJ&E numbers 756-759. All scrapped between 1958 and 1961.
  7. Numbers 1326-1357 bought from the EJ&E in 1948. Ex EJ&E numbers 761-770, 773 & 774. Number 1330 is preserved. All others scrapped between 1958 and 1961.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class N (Locobase 7288)

See data from DM&IR 6 -1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 82005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 46, pp. 289+, and "Mikado and Pacific Locomotives for the Duluth and Iron Range," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Volume 26, No 8 (August 1913), pp. 280-281. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email and spreadsheet spelling out the Baldwin specs for all three orders of D&IR Mikados. It led to the addition of three new entries and revision of 7288-7290.).

When the Iron Range went to Mikados a few years after it bought 8its last Consolidations, it didn't pussy-foot. These 2-8-2s ranked with the largest of the 8time, particularly in the grate and firebox areas. The latter included 37.3 sq ft (398.19 sq m) in five American Arch Company tubes. The cylinders received their steam through 15" (381 mm) piston valves. The R&LE report notes that the back equalizing beams were placed diagonally to connect directly with the truck spring links.Other details allowed the removal of cross beams and allowed "ample room" for the ash pan.

Beginning in 1931, the DM&IR significantly modified this quartet; see Locobase 16191.


Class N - modified (Locobase 16191)

Data from DM&IR 6 -1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email and spreadsheet spelling out the Baldwin specs for all three orders of D&IR Mikados. It led to the addition of three new entries and revision of 7288-7290.).

As noted in Locobase 7288, later DM&IR upgrades begun in 1931 significantly altered the specifications of these locomotives. Tube count decreased by 15 to 273 and firebox heating surface area to the 271 sq ft shown. This wasn't an unusual change. What was not common, however, was to trade tube count for an increasd diameter (from 5 3/8" to 5 1/2") in the flues. Even with the increase in flue diameter, the superheater area decreased by 59 sq ft (5.48 sq m), which suggests either shorter or perhaps thinner superheater elements.

Even tender capacities decreased. In those same upgrades, however, boiler pressure increased by 25 psi (1.72 bar) and adhesion weight showed a 15 1/2 ton increase over the 1913 specification (which was not necessarily its delivered weight). As with the Lima engines shown in Locobase 16190, the original 1913 Baldwins may have had difficulty getting enough steam in the cylinders because the piston valve diameter increased to 16" (406 mm). Still later, both 1300 and 1302 were fitted with Security circulators in the firebox.

Like most of the DM & IR engines, these Mikados remained in service until the road went to diesels in the late 1950s.


Class N-1 (Locobase 16190)

Data from DM&IR 6 -1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email and spreadsheet spelling out the Baldwin specs for all three orders of D&IR Mikados. It led to the addition of three new entries and revision of 7288-7290.). Lima works numbers were 1311-1312 in December 1913.

Locobase 7288 shows the first four Duluth & Iron Range Mikados delivered by Baldwin in 1913. The Lima pair were only the sixth and seventh Mikes delivered by that Ohio builder. Locobase has not found data for the original configuration, showing here instead the upgrades adopted beginning in 1931.

They were very similar to those installed in the Baldwins (Locobase 16191), but somehow the superheater area reduction was limited to 29 sq ft (2.69 sq m). The original 1913 design may have had difficulty getting enough steam in the cylinders because the piston valve diameter increased to 16" (406 mm). Later, 1305's firebox received Security circulators.


Class N-2 (Locobase 7289)

See data from DM&IR 6 -1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 55, pp. 177+. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email and spreadsheet spelling out the Baldwin specs for all three orders of D&IR Mikados. It led to the addition of three new entries and revision of 7288-7290.).Works numbers were 43303-43305 in May 1916.

Three years after Baldwin and Lima supplied the Iron Range with its first Mikados (Locobase 7288), Baldwin delivered three more slightly bigger engines. The firebox stayed the same, but the boiler had more tubes and flues, which yielded a higher percentage of superheated heating surface. Steam admission came through 15" (381 mm) piston valves.

Otherwise, there were few differences.

The Mikes went through a makeover at some later stage that seems to involved a new boiler pressed to 200 psi. The boiler's tube count was reduced by sixteen to 288, which reduced the evaporative heating surface area to 4,453 sq ft (413.85 sq m) and two of five arch tubes were also deleted, trimming the firebox heating surface to 268 sq ft (24.9 sq m). The 1951 diagram gives the adhesion weight as a considerable 251,270 lb (113,974 kg) and overall engine weight as 338,320 lb (153,460 kg), which put the factor of adhesion at 3.9.


Class N-2/N-3 - updated (Locobase 16192)

See data from DM&IR 6 -1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email and spreadsheet spelling out the Baldwin specs for all three orders of D&IR Mikados. It led to the addition of three new entries and revision of 7288-7290.).

The Mikes described in Locobase 7289 and 7290 went through a makeover at some later stage that seems to involved a new boiler pressed to 200 psi. In all six, the boiler's tube count was reduced by sixteen to 288. Two of five arch tubes were also deleted, trimming the firebox heating surface. As with the Baldwins shown in Locobase 16190, reducing the number of tubes in the boiler allowed an increase in flue diameter from 5 3/8" to 5 1/2".

The shops later installed two Nicholson syphons in 1308's firebox while fitting Security circulators in 1306.


Class N-3 (Locobase 7290)

See data from DM&IR 6 -1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 71, pp. 65+. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email and spreadsheet spelling out the Baldwin specs for all three orders of D&IR Mikados. It led to the addition of three new entries and revision of 7288-7290.).Works numbers were 56507-56509.

Soon after the First World War, the Iron Range returned to Baldwin for more Mikados. Rather than adopting the USRA Heavy Mikado design, the Iron Range accepted a slight rework of the 1916 Mikes they already operated (see Locobase 7289).

A principal reason may have been the need to have smaller drivers than the USRA's 63" and the railroad was quite familiar with the peculiarities of this design. The 1923 trio was delivered with the same tube count as the 1916 engines, but later had the count reduced to 291 resulting in a reduction of the evaporative heating surface to 4,484 sq ft as shown in the specifications.

One difference was the provision of a Superheater Company (Elesco) feed water heater. Steam was admitted to the cylinders through 15" (381 mm) piston valve.

In any case, all of the engines served to the end of steam power on the DM & IR.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassNN - modifiedN-1N-2N-2/N-3 - updated
Locobase ID7288 16,191 16,190 7289 16,192
RailroadDuluth & Iron Range (DM&IR)Duluth & Iron Range (DM&IR)Duluth & Iron Range (DM&IR)Duluth & Iron Range (DM&IR)Duluth & Iron Range (DM&IR)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class45236
Road Numbers300-303/1300-13031300-1303304-305/1304-1305306-308/1306-13081306-1311
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built423
BuilderBaldwinDM&IRLimaBaldwinDM&IR
Year19131931191319161931
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.75 / 4.8015.75 / 4.8015.75 / 4.8015.75 / 4.8015.75 / 4.80
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)33.67 / 10.2635 / 10.6734.83 / 10.6235 / 10.6735 / 10.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)68.90 / 2170.37 / 21.4570.23 / 21.4170.37 / 21.4570.37 / 21.45
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)220,000 / 99,790251,270 / 113,974251,270 / 113,974230,000 / 104,326251,270 / 113,974
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)290,000 / 131,542338,320 / 153,460338,320 / 153,460296,000 / 134,264338,320 / 153,460
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)166,000 / 75,296159,500 / 72,348167,600 / 76,022161,100 / 73,074161,100 / 73,074
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)456,000 / 206,838497,820 / 225,808505,920 / 229,482457,100 / 207,338499,420 / 226,534
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)9000 / 34.098260 / 31.298560 / 32.428260 / 31.298260 / 31.29
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)14 / 12.7013 / 11.8015.80 / 14.4013 / 11.8013.80 / 12.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)92 / 46105 / 52.50105 / 52.5096 / 48105 / 52.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)58 / 147358 / 147358 / 147358 / 147358 / 1473
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10200 / 13.80200 / 13.80185 / 12.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 30" / 686x76227" x 30" / 686x76227" x 30" / 686x76227" x 30" / 686x76227" x 30" / 686x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)56,089 / 25441.5764,102 / 29076.2164,102 / 29076.2159,294 / 26895.3464,102 / 29076.21
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.92 3.92 3.92 3.88 3.92
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)289.30 / 26.88271 / 25.18272 / 25.27281.50 / 26.15268 / 24.90
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)74.60 / 6.9374.60 / 6.9374.60 / 6.9374.60 / 6.9374.60 / 6.93
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4249 / 391.304108 / 381.644109 / 381.744583 / 425.774453 / 413.69
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)899 / 83.52840 / 78.04870 / 80.821086 / 100.891086 / 100.89
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5148 / 474.824948 / 459.684979 / 462.565669 / 526.665539 / 514.58
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume213.73206.64206.69230.53223.99
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation13,05514,92014,92013,80114,920
Same as above plus superheater percentage15,27417,45617,45616,42317,904
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area59,23463,41463,64861,97264,320
Power L111,73112,66512,93314,18115,139
Power MT470.23444.49453.89543.72531.31

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassN-3
Locobase ID7290
RailroadDuluth & Iron Range (DM&IR)
CountryUSA
Whyte2-8-2
Number in Class3
Road Numbers309-311/1309-1311
GaugeStd
Number Built3
BuilderBaldwin
Year1923
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.75 / 4.80
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)35 / 10.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)70.37 / 21.45
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)240,000 / 113,974
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)320,000 / 153,460
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)161,100 / 73,074
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)481,100 / 226,534
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8260 / 31.29
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)13 / 11.80
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)100 / 50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)58 / 1473
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)185 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 30" / 686x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)59,294 / 26895.34
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.05
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)279 / 25.92
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)74.60 / 6.93
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4580 / 425.49
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1072 / 99.59
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5652 / 525.08
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume230.38
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation13,801
Same as above plus superheater percentage16,423
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area61,422
Power L114,054
Power MT516.40

Photos

Reference