Erie 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

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The Erie Railroad operated in New York State, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, connecting New York City with Lake Erie, and extending west to Cleveland, OH, Cincinnati, OH, and Chicago. In 1960 it merged with the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad to form the Erie Lackawanna Railroad, becoming part of Conrail in 1976.The Erie was never a big player in the Chicago-New York traffic, which was dominated by the New York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Needing motive power to move heavier trains faster the Erie Railroad was satisfied that the "Mikado" type could give it that power. Erie placed an order with the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1911 and took delivery of its first twenty of the 2-8-2 locomotives in late1911 and 1912. This group was designated as Class N-1 and assigned road numbers 3000-3019. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 28" x 32" cylinders, and with a 170 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 57,543 pounds of tractive effort. The firebox was 263 square feet which included 28 square feet of arch tubes, the evaporative heating surface was 4,117 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,960 square feet.

Satisfied with the performance of the new locomotives the Erie bought 135 more of the Class N-1 locomotives, forty-five came from Baldwin, eighty-five from the American Locomotive Company and five from the Lima Locomotive Works. Class N-1 had a total of 155 locomotives, numbered 3020 through 3154, all very similar, but the boiler pressure varied from 170 psi to 200 psi, which caused the tractive effort to range from 57,543 pounds to 67,698 pounds. The total weight of these locomotives ranged from 328,600 pounds to 329,700 pounds.

The Erie was allocated fifteen USRA "Mikado-Heavy" locomotives, which were built by the Brooks Plant of ALCO and delivered in 1918. This group was designated as Class N-2 and given road numbers 3200-3214. The 320,000 pound locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a 190 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 59,801 pounds of tractive effort. The firebox was 319 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,296 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,289 square feet.

In 1923, Baldwin built 40 new 2-8-2s for the Erie Railroad. These locomotives were designated as Class N-3 and were assigned road numbers 3155-3194. The locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 28" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 67,698 pounds of tractive effort. The firebox was 334 square feet which included 97 square feet of thermic syphons, the evaporative heating surface was 3,828 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,854 square feet.

A final, "Mikado" was built in 1926 by Baldwin and it was assigned road number 3199 and designated as Class N-3a. This lone locomotive was very similar to the Class N-3 and it had the same cylinder and boiler pressure, but its tractive effort was rated at 63,700 pounds, which was based on 80% of its boiler pressure instead of 85%, which is the more usual method. Number 3199 was built to use uniflow cylinders, which uses a long piston that admitted steam at each end as did standard double-acting piston designs but exhaust the steam at the center of the cylinder through ports. This in theory would avoid the temperature drop in the valve area that waste energy. The concept proved impractical and 3199 was rebuilt as a conventional locomotive.

There are no surviving Erie 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
N-1203000-30191911-1912Baldwin1
N-1453020-30641912ALCO2
N-1153065-30791912Baldwin3
N-1 53080-30841913Lima4
N-1303085-31141913Baldwin5
N-1403115-31541913ALCO6
N-2153200-32141918ALCO7
N-3403155-31941923Baldwin8
N-3a 131991926Baldwin9
Notes:
  1. Numbers 3000-3019 Six of these locomotives were sold to Alabama Great Southern in 1942. All of the others scrapped between 1947 and 1951.
  2. Numbers 3020-3064 scrapped between 1947 and 1951.
  3. Numbers 3065-3079 scrapped between 1947 and 1951.
  4. Numbers 3080-3084 scrapped between 1947 and 1951.
  5. Four of these N-1s were sold to the Pere Marquette and became PM numbers 1095, 1097-1099. The balance of numbers 3085-3114 scrapped between 1947 and 1951.
  6. One of these N-1s was sold to the Pere Marquette and became PM number 1096. The balance of numbers 3115-3154 scrapped between 1947 and 1951.
  7. Numbers 3200-3214 USRA allocated "Mikado-Heavy" locomotives. One of these locomotives was sold to the Alabama Great Southern in 1942. All of the others scrapped between 1950 and 1952.
  8. Numbers 3155-3194 scrapped between 1949 and 1952.
  9. Number 3199 scrapped in1950.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class N-1 (Locobase 377)

Data from Erie 4 - 1928 locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also detailed specs at Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 40, pp. 175-195 and Volume 41, pp. 286-303. Works numbers were

1911

Baldwin (3000-3019) -- November 37190-37194, 37239-37243, 37249-37253; December 37379-37383

1912

Alco-Schenectady (3020-3064) -- 50585-50599, 52213-52242

Baldwin (3065-3079) -- October 38535-38542; November 38714-38720; December 38938-38988

Lima (3080-3084) -- 1274-1278

1913

Baldwin (3085-3114) -- January 39134-39143, 39179-39182; February 39213-39222

Alco-Schenectady (3115-3154) -- 54321-54360

A large class of 155 Mikados, the N-1s were built by Baldwin, Alco, and Lima from 1911 to 1913. The class came in many varieties. Some had Elesco feedwater heaters, other had Worthingtons. Three types of mechanical stoking gear were fitted, but many were hand-fired. Reversing gear could be either screw, Ragonnet (power), or Precision (power).

All had Schmidt type A superheaters. In most, arch tubes contributed 28 sq ft to the firebox heating surface.

Weight on drivers varied from 237,150 to 243,500 lb; overall weight ranged from 320,600 to 329,900 lb.

Boiler pressure ranged from 170 to 200 psi:

180 psi 60,930 lb 725 BDF 54,837 GDF

190 psi 64,329 lb 765 BDF 57,896 GDF

200 psi 67,698 lb 806 BDF 60,928 GDF

Some N1s were sold to other railroads. For example, 5 were sold to the Pere Marquette in 1920 as class MK-6; they were 4 Baldwins (works 37280, 38538, 39143, & 39213) and 1 Alco (works 30585).


Class N-2 (Locobase 79)

Data from Erie 4 - 1928 locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 60385-60399.

Standard USRA Heavy Mikados that earned a reputation as the finest looking locomotives the Erie ever operated. Firebox heating surface area included 34 sq ft (3.16 sq m) in a relatively short combustion chamber and 27 sq ft (2.51 sq m) in arch tubes. They were equipped with mechanical stokers; 3210 had a Standard Type A1 stoker while the others all used Standard DuPont Type Es.

3208-3211 later received Worthington BL feedwater heaters; all others were equipped with Elescos.


Class N-3 (Locobase 78)

Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and Erie 4 - 1928 locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 69, pp. 86+. (Thanks to Stephen Low for his 17 July 2016 email noting the Delta trailing truck and the booster.) Works numbers were

1922

December 55908-55909

1923

January 56008-56015, 56081-56083; March 56202-56223, 5635; April 56407-56409; May 56478.

Baldwin repeats of the N-1 (Locobase 377) with Worthington No 3 feedwater heaters. These engines had unusually large 16" (406 mm) diameter piston valves. The arch tubes were replaced by 95 sq ft (8.8 sq m) of thermic syphons, which added to the firebox heating surface. By now, the boiler was pressed to 200 psi. Reverse gear was Franklin's Precision type. Franklin also supplied the trailing truck booster. The trailing truck itself was Commonwealth's Delta type.

The single N-3-A (3199 - works number 59260 in May 1926) had been intended to use uniflow cylinders. (Uniflow used a long piston that admitted steam at each end -- as did standard double-acting piston designs -- but exhausted the steam at the center of the cylinder through ports. This, said Uniflow advocates, avoided the temperature drop in the valve area that wasted energy.) The concept proved impractical and 3199 was completed as a conventional engine.

All of the class operated for almost 30 years before being retired in the period November 1949 to June 1952.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassN-1N-2N-3
Locobase ID377 79 78
RailroadErie (ERR)Erie (ERR)Erie (ERR)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class1551540
Road Numbers3000-31543200-32143155-3194, 3199
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built1551540
BuilderseveralAlco-BrooksBaldwin
Year191119181923
Valve GearBakerWalschaertBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0316.75 / 5.1116.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)35 / 10.6736.08 / 1136.17 / 11.02
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.46 0.46
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)67.06 / 20.4471.80 / 21.8867.65 / 20.62
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)61,600 / 27,94161,000 / 27,66966,280 / 30,064
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)242,900 / 110,178240,000 / 108,862256,860 / 116,510
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)328,600 / 149,051325,000 / 147,418343,480 / 155,800
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)180,300 / 81,783183,800 / 83,370176,300 / 79,968
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)508,900 / 230,834508,800 / 230,788519,780 / 235,768
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)9000 / 34.0910,000 / 37.889000 / 34.09
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)16 / 14.5016 / 14.5016 / 14.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)101100107
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40200 / 13.80180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)28" x 32" / 711x81327" x 32" / 686x81328" x 32" / 711x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)60,928 / 27636.5162,949 / 28553.2260,928 / 27636.51
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.99 3.81 4.22
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)263 / 24.44319 / 29.64329 / 30.57
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)70 / 6.5170.80 / 6.5870 / 6.51
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4117 / 382.624296 / 399.263826 / 355.58
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)843 / 78.35993 / 92.291068 / 99.26
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4960 / 460.975289 / 491.554894 / 454.84
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume180.53202.59167.77
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,60014,16012,600
Same as above plus superheater percentage14,74216,85015,372
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area55,38875,92272,248
Power L110,78914,68412,500
Power MT391.69539.54429.15

Photos

Reference