Gulf, Mobile & Northern / Mobile & Ohio / New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

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The Gulf Mobile and Northern Railroad was a predecessor to the Gulf Mobile and Ohio and it was formed in 1917 to reorganize the New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago Railroad. Its main line ran 408 miles from Jackson, Tennessee to Mobile, Alabama, with a branch line from Union, Mississippi to New Orleans. It also connected from Union to Meridian, Mississippi. The GM&N ran a streamlined train, the Rebel from Jackson to Mobile with a section to New Orleans. In 1940 the GM&N merged with the Mobile and Ohio to become the Gulf Mobile and Ohio Railroad.

The first "Mikado" type locomotives on the GM&N were eight that were conveyed from the NOM&C. They were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1912 and carried road numbers 101 through 108. These locomotives were very light compared to most 2-8-2s built. They weighed 196,000 pounds which was about 68% of the USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotive weight of 290,000 pounds. The locomotives had 57" diameter drivers, 22" x 28" cylinders, a 190 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 38,397 pounds of tractive effort.

After WW I, the GM&N was in need of new locomotives and it ordered four new "Mikados" from Baldwin. They were delivered in 1920 and were given road numbers 109 through 112. These locomotives were close copies of the "Mikados" already on the roster. They were 9,800 pounds heavier, the boiler pressure was 200 psi and they exerted 40,818 pounds of tractive effort. The evaporative heating surface was 2575 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 3,125 square feet.

There are no surviving GM&N 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

Qty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
8101-1081912Baldwin1
4109-1121920Baldwin2
Notes:
  1. Acquired with the NOM&C, the predecessor to the GM&N. Numbers 101 sold to the Tennessee, Alabama &Georgia in 1932 and became TA&G numbers 202. Number 102 sold to the TA&G in 1931 and became TA&G number 203. Number 103 sold to the TA&G in 1933 and became TAG number 204. Number 104 sold to the TA&G in 1934 and became TA&G number 205.
  2. Numbers 109-112. Number 111 sold to a foreign railroad. The other three were scrapped in the late 1940s.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 101 (Locobase 13907)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 41, p. 114. Works numbers were 38354-38355, 38378-38381, 38417-38418 in September 1912

Like the Pacifics supplied to the NOM & C at the same time (Locobase 2789), the eight Mikados of 1912 were built with 13" piston valves supplying an identical cylinder volume and actuated through outside radial valve gear. Smaller drivers suited their freight-hauling role and their boilers had 3 fewer tubes for some reason. For mainline Mikados of the time, these were relatively small, lightweight engines.

The class adopted the herald of the Gulf, Mobile & Northern in 1917, but kept their numbers.

GM & N sold the 101-104 to the Tennessee, Alabama & Gulf, which added 100 to each road number and operated 201-204. The TAG sold all 4 in 1937 to locomotive rebuilder/reseller Southern Iron & Equipment. The Sydney & Louisburg of Cape Breton in Nova Scotia, Canada, bought the quartet in 1938 and renumbered them 73, 75, 76, 74, respectively. They ended their days in 1957.

The latter 4 remained on the GM & N even after it was merged with the Mobile & Ohio and they kept their road numbers. All were scrapped by 1948.


Class 109 (Locobase 1353)

Data from GM&N 7 - 1924 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Vol 59, pp. 423. Works numbers were 54012-54015 in November 1920.

Relatively small Mikados purchased just after the return of railroading to private ownership. The cylinders were supplied by relatively large 13" (330 mm) piston valves. Rail weight was 70 lb/yard (35 kg/metre) and the profile was very mild as it featured 1% maximum grades and 4 degrees curvature

All moved over to the Gulf, Mobile & Ohio roster while retaining their road numbers. Locobase noted a 30-sq ft increase in direct heating surface area after 1924 and suspects that arch tubes may have been added to the firebox.

Three were scrapped in the late 1940s, while 111 was sold overseas.


Class 400 (Locobase 13796)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 38, p. 279. Baldwin's works numbers were 37195-37198 in November 1911; 37676-37677 in April 1912; 38940-38941, 38995 in December; 40823 in November 1913; 41055 in December; 41056-41058, 41090-41093 in January 1914; 42477-42478 in September 1915; 42913 in February 1916.

Apparently encountering some of the Southern's myriad K-class Mikados (Locobase 44) induced the M & O to order four duplicates in 1911.

Later orders increased the count to 21 locomotives. The last three used Southern valve gear in place of the Walschaert design.

This was a class that served the M & O and its successor Gulf, Mobile & Ohio to the end of steam.


Class 477 (Locobase 15338)

Data from DeGolyer, Vol 74, pp. 147+ . Works numbers were 59157-59159, 59170, 59172 in April 1926.

Several years after the Light Mikados designed by the United States Railroad Administration had proliferated throughout the mainline rail network, individual railroads were still ordering slight variations of this very successful locomotive. The M&O's quintet duplicated nearly every dimension and, like the light Mikes, their firebox heating surface areas included 50 sq ft (4.7 sq m) in the combustion chamber and 27 sq ft (2.5 sq m) in arch tubes. Cylinders were served by piston valves measuring 14" (356 mm) in diameter.

The one significant difference was the use of Baker gear instead of the original Walschaert valve gear. Appliances varied; for example, the Franklin power shaker (of the grate) was expressly omitted.

All served the M&O and successor GM&O into the late 1940s.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class101109400477
Locobase ID13,907 1353 13,796 15,338
RailroadNew Orleans, Mobile & Chicago (GM&O)Gulf, Mobile & Northern (GM&O)Mobile & Ohio (GM&O)Mobile & Ohio (GM&O)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class84215
Road Numbers101-108109-112400-420477-481
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built84215
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwin
Year1912192019111926
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15 / 4.5715 / 4.5716.50 / 5.0316.75 / 5.11
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)31.67 / 9.6531.67 / 9.6534.75 / 10.5936.08 / 11
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.46
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)62.46 / 19.0462.6267.06 / 20.4471.37 / 21.75
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)40,200 / 18,234
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)150,000 / 68,039160,800 / 72,938212,300 / 96,298220,000 / 99,790
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)191,000 / 86,636205,800 / 93,349269,000 / 122,016292,000 / 132,449
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)115,000 / 52,163138,000 / 62,596153,000 / 69,400185,400 / 84,096
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)306,000 / 138,799343,800 / 155,945422,000 / 191,416477,400 / 216,545
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.736000 / 22.738000 / 30.3010,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)14 / 12.7014 / 12.7012 / 10.9016 / 14.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)63678892
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 144857 / 144863 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)185 / 12.80200 / 13.80175 / 12.10200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 28" / 559x71122" x 28" / 559x71127" x 30" / 686x76226" x 30" / 660x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)37,387 / 16958.4840,418 / 18333.3251,638 / 23422.6354,724 / 24822.42
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.01 3.98 4.11 4.02
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)180 / 16.72162 / 17.52212 / 17.74283 / 26.29
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)46.80 / 4.3546.80 / 4.3553.30 / 4.9566.70 / 6.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2565 / 238.292565 / 238.383231 / 297.103780 / 351.17
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)550 / 51.10550 / 51.12699 / 64.94882 / 81.94
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3115 / 289.393115 / 289.503930 / 362.044662 / 433.11
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume208.21208.21162.52205.04
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation86589360932813,340
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,21611,04511,00615,875
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area39,29438,23243,77867,354
Power L112,00512,840978114,960
Power MT705.77704.16406.28599.66

Photos