The Baldwin Locomotive Works built the first of the IC's 2-8-2s in 1911. During 1911 and 1912 Baldwin delivered 100, which were assigned road numbers 1601 through 1700 and in 1912 Baldwin delivered another 50, which were assigned road numbers 1551 through 1600. Baldwin received another order and delivered 50 more of the same design in 1914, which were given road numbers 1501 through 1550. These 200 Baldwin-built locomotives had 63.5" diameter drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 185 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,158 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 283,850 pounds. The firebox was 235 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,070 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,153 square feet. The piston valve had a 15" diameter..
The Lima Locomotive Works received an order to build 97 "Mikados" of the same specifications as the 200 built by Baldwin and delivered them during 1915 and 1916. These locomotives were assigned road numbers 1701 through 1797.
During the First World War the United States Railroad Administration was formed to run the U. S. railroads and it in charge from December 1917 until March 1920. The USRA standardized locomotive designs and carefully administered production and allocated locomotive deliveries to best affect movement of war material and troops. No USRA locomotives were assigned to the IC. However, during 1918 and 1919 the USRA permitted Baldwin to deliver 35 "Mikados" of the Illinois Central design and permitted Lima to deliver 50 more of the same. The Baldwin locomotives were given road numbers 1798 through 1832 and the Lima-built 2-8-2s were assigned road numbers 1833 through 1882.
Theses 182 locomotives had 63.5" diameter drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 185 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,158 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 282,700 pounds. The firebox was 266.6 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,102 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,201 square feet. The piston valve had a 15" diameter.
In 1923, the American Locomotive Company delivered numbers 1183 through 1907. These locomotives had 63.5" diameter drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 185 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,158 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 298,000 pounds. The firebox was 266.6 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,102 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4.962 square feet. The piston valve had a 15" diameter.
Another 110 "Mikados" came from Lima, in 1923, which were assigned road numbers 1908 through 2017. This last group of 110 Lima-built "Mikados" had 64" diameter drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 225 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 65,354 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 298,000 pounds. The firebox was 307.2 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,093 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,192 square feet. The piston valve had a 15" diameter.
This last order completed what would become one of the largest groups of locomotives of the same basic design used by a North American railroad. The 517 Illinois Central road numbers 1501 through 2017 "Mikados" were second only to the 574 Pennsylvania Railroad Class L1 "Mikados"
The Illinois Central Railroad acquired the Alabama & Vicksburg and the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Railroads in 1926. With these acquisitions came a total of thirteen 2-8-2s, which were assigned road numbers 3960-3972. Numbers 3960, 3961, 3963-3968 and 3970-3972 were rebuilt into 0-8-0s between 1937 and 1942.
Needing faster locomotive the IC decided to rebuild some of its 2-10-2s into 4-8-2s with larger driving wheels. There were a total of 56 locomotives built in the Paducah shop using the boilers from the 2-10-2s and new frames, cylinders, wheels, and other components between 1937 and 1942. Concurrent with the conversion of the 2-10-2s the shops modified the frames from the 2-10-2s and used the cylinders and driving wheels along with new boilers to construct a total of forty-one 2-8-2s. They were built between 1937 and 1942 and assigned road numbers 2100 through 2140. The cylinders of first 30 of the shop-built "Mikados" were bushed down to a 28" diameter and the other eleven were out shopped with the same 30" diameter cylinders that were on the 2-10-2s. These locomotives incorporated many of the same design improvements that had been added to the fleet of 2-8-2s over the years and were given tenders that carried 13,000 gallons of water and 21 tons of coal. The IC shops built one more "Mikado" in 1937. It was built with the frame, cylinders, and drivers from 2-8-4 number 7038 and the boiler from 4-6-4 number 1549. This locomotive was given road number 2020 and was renumbered 2199 in 1942.
There is one surviving IC 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives. It is number 1518 on display at 1st and Broadway in Paducah, KY.
|Qty.||Road Numbers||From Other RR||Year Acquired||Year Built||Builder||Notes|
|33||3795 …. 3934||1916-1924||IC||1,2|
Following on from the large order filled by Baldwin in 1911-1912 (Locobase 1354), this batch was only slightly different. Firebox heating surface area included 32.2 sq ft (2.99 sq m) from four arch tubes. Fifteen inch (381 mm) piston valves supplied steam to the cylinders. The IC claimed that in replacing saturated-boiler 2-8-0s on freight trains, they were hauling 30% more tonnage per train with "no increase in actual coal consumption per trip." Four two-inch tubes penetrated each water leg in the firebox to bring more air to the grate.
The basic design would be repeated for twelve years and ultimately comprise 517 locomotives all told.
Some of the class later exchanged two of the arch tubes for 64 sq ft (5.95 sq m) of thermic syphons, which increased direct heating surface area to 307.2 sq ft (28..54 sq m). With the tube count decreasing by six, the evaporative heating surface area increased to 4,093 sq ft (380.25 sq m). Others gave up all the arch tube area in favor of 60 sq m (5.57 sq m) in circulators. Firebox heating surface area increased to 290 sq ft (26.94 sq m) and EHS increased to 4,128 sq ft (383.50 sq m).
A few decades later in the late 1930s and early 1940s, many of this class were converted to heavy 0-8-2 switchers by removing the leading truck.
A few more mated the chassis of one 2-8-2 with the boiler of another and had the rear truck deleted in favor of a fifth driven axle, thus becoming 2-10-0s.
May 36577-36581; July 36641-36660, 36714-36716; August 36745-36746, 36757-36761, 36810-36814; October 37030-37039; November 37176-37180, 37254-37258; December 37402-37405.
January 37443-37467, 37482-37490; February 37502-37503, 37507-37508; October 38563-38573; November 38664, 38724-38859.
Design by Edward C. Harriman. These were built by Baldwin and Lima. Baldwin delivered the first 150 in 1911-1912. As delivered, their fireboxes were initially bare of supplemental devices, but even before delivery, the spec had been changed to add 32 sq ft (2.97 sq m).
Also the initial superheater area calculation of 1,093 sq ft revised in ink to 886 sq ft (82.31 sq m), which changed the superheater percentage to 18%. This change brought the balance much closer to the average of several dozen other Schmidt Type A installations. Even though all later Illinois Central diagrams show the original figure. Locobase chose the lower number as being much more in keeping with practice and in recognition of the change in the figure shown in ink in the 1912 specs.
All of the Mikes in this long run (517 locomotives all told) had 15" (381 mm) piston valves. Some in this large stud of 2-8-2s were later fitted with 60 sq ft (5.6 sq m) of circulators, which increased firebox heating surface to 293.2 sq ft (27.2 sq m).
The Baldwin specs contain an interesting way to view the dimensions of a typical US locomotive of the time. Supplemental paragraph 47 says that the 36 5 3/8" tubes in each engine measured a total lineal distance of 782 ft 2 in (Locobase converts that to 238.4 metres or 0.129 nautical miles). Add to that 262 2" tubes that, laid end to end, extended more than a statute mile (5,742 ft 9 in or 1.75 km).
So large a class went through many variations. One significant sub-group was a large set of 0-8-2 heavy switchers (created by removing the leading truck). Others made up part of the 3600 class of 2-10-0s, often made up of the chassis of one 2-8-2 and the boiler of another.
All of the Mikes in this long run of 2-8-2s delivered to the IC had 15" piston valves. This one apparently differed initially in the use of a Gaines combustion chamber. Later modifications would lead to a very different boiler.
The IC had a lot of Mikados to work with when it began investigating such boiler updates as thermic syphons in the firebox and increased superheater area. For its guinea pig, it seems to have chosen the odd-ball 1600, which was completed in 1912 with a Gaines combustion chamber that shortened tubes by almost 3 feet. In the 1920s, the shops fitted this locomotive with a new boiler that had 64 sq ft of syphons adding to the firebox heating surface.
Lima works numbers were 5005-5014 delivered in 1915, 5162-5208 in 1916.
Baldwin added 48739 in May 1918; 48892, 48952, 49000 in June; 49156-49157, 49236, 49303, 49353, 49403-49404, 49476, 49552, 49641 in August; 49921-49922 in September; 50550, 50736 in November; 50876 in December; 51086, 51120-51121, 51165-51167, 51191 in January 1919; 51258, 51342-51343, 51387-51388 in February; 51517-51518, 51564, 51590 in March. Lima added to the stud with fifty more, works numbers 5696-5745, in 1919
As noted in Locobase 1354, the run of Mikado production for the IC was long and relatively unvaried (517 locomotives all told). But different builders managed to alter the specs just slightly. All of the Mikes had 15" (381 mm) piston valves.
Note: The Baldwin specifications credit the superheater with 887 sq ft (82.4 sq m) of area, while the IC diagrams consistently show 1,093-1,099 sq ft (102.4 sq m). Reviewing the more than three dozen 2-8-2 entries that show superheater flue counts of 36, outside flue diameters of 5 3/8" and 20-21 feet of tube lengths indicates that most stated areas in the upper 800s, but that the IC's values clustered around the higher number.
The most likely reason was a difference in the way that the IC calculated superheater area (measuring the outside diameter of the element, e.g.). Locobase does not believe the diagrams were showing "equivalent heating surface area." That figure, which multiplied each square foot of superheater area by 1.5 to try to express its greater effect on power, would be 1,331 sq ft (123.65 sq m).
It's possible that the elements in the IC engine were a bit bigger than those in earlier Mikados of the same configuration.
The Locobase reader should not take the count of engines as gospel - few lists are more confusing than the IC's rebuilds. Take, for example, this group of 21 engines neatly grouped under one set of road numbers. There are Baldwins (12), Limas (8) and an Alco-Schenectady (1) ranging in birth date from 1914 to 1923.
Also observe that on the single diagram, three different boilers are shown. All have 60 sq ft (5.55 sq m) of security circulators in addition to the combustion chamber; one version (shown in the specs) has 203 tubes, the other 199. The third variant didn't have a combustion chamber, which meant it retained the 20-ft, 6-in (6.25 m) tube length, as well as 256 fire tubes.
Although following the general lines of the big Mikado program that supplied over 500 2-8-2s to the IC between 1911 and 1923 (517 locomotives all told), this small batch of Schenectady engines is shown with more than 200 sq ft (18.58 sq m) less superheater area. Locobase doesn't know why there would be such a difference. The last batches procured later the same year (Locobase 20) reverted to the larger superheat area. This may be an instance of a combustion chamber taking up space in the boiler, but the evaporative heating surface was unchanged. So was the firebox heating surface, which included 31.6 sq ft (2.94 sq m) of arch tubes. All of the Mikes in this long run had 15" (381 mm) piston valves.
The last 110 of a series of 517 locomotives that began in 1911 as a design by Edward C. Harriman. hese were built by Baldwin, Alco-Schenectady, and Lima. Firebox heating surface included 15.8 sq ft (1.45 sq m) of arch tubes, 64 sq ft (5.95 sq m) of Nicholson thermic syphons. All of the Mikes in this long run had 15" (381 mm) piston valves.
Many of the earlier Mikados were rebuilt using similar boiler pressures and firebox changes. See Wes Barris's entry on IC Mikados at http://www.steamlocomotive.com/mikado/ic.shtml (accessed 20 March 2006).
These two Mikados repeated the power dimensions found in the earlier I-class Mikes of the A&V and the VS&P (Locobase 6082). Like those engines, they used Young valve gear to actuate similar-sized 13" (331 mm) piston valves. The boiler was restructured for more superheat with the addition of two more superheater flues and 21 fewer tubes. They also had two Nicholson thermic syphons that added 52 sq ft (4.8 sq m) to the direct heating surface.
At that time the A&V still used 75 lb/yard (37.5 kg/metre) rail.
Small Mikados for both the A& anVd Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific. The A & V locomotives were produced separately: 460 (BLW works number 51644) in March 1919, 461 (55487) in June 1922. The firebox had a patented Gaines combustion chamber.
Two later 2-8-2s had two more superheater flues and 21 fewer tubes. They also had Nicholson thermic syphons. See Locobase 15199 for that pair.
The VS&P locomotives were more closely spaced. 360-363 (BLW works numbers 42739-42742) were turned out in December 1915. 364 (51675) followed in April 1919, while 365-368 (53059-60 in February and 53091, 53119 in April) finished the class in 1920.
For a detailed description of the Young gear, see Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen's Magazine, Volume 63, No 7 (July 1917), pp. 52. The biggest difference in the mechanism from the Walschaert gear was the absence of an eccentric on the driver. Instead, the Young used a rock shaft to communicate the movement of a crank arm on one side to the crank arm on the other side.
In response to a question about its configuration and advantages, the BLF replied in part:
"The principal advantages claimed for the Young valve, valve gear and reverse gear, a combination that usually goes together (although the valve gear can be used with any type of valve, or the reverse gear can be used with any type of valve gear), are an improved distribution of steam, and saving all loss from leakage; more effective valve lubrication, resulting in a reduction in friction, and a more accurate valve adjustment for prolonged periods.
It's clear from other commentaries that a big advantage lay in the increased valve travel: "With this type of gear a longer valve travel can be obtained than with either the Walschaert or the Baker, and, on account of the increased valve travel, a greater port opening is possible, thereby allowing for the reduction in the diameter of the valve. In other words, it is claimed that in early cut-offs a Young valve gear, with 11-inch valves, will supply as great a volume of steam to the cylinders as 10-inch valves are capable of with the Walschaert gear."
Impressive. See Locobase 6591 for a report by "4-12-2" on Union Pacific trials that appeared to substantiate the claims.
The BLF respondent concluded his assessment as follows:
"The gear has many good features to commend it, in that it is possible to obtain longer valve travel, as stated before; that all movement is in direct lines, with the wearing parts consisting of pins and bushings; that the valve can be made much lighter, and, owing to the difference in construction, that is, having the packing rings fit into the valve chamber, instead of into the valve itself, the valve rings can always be maintained a much better fit in this way, keeping them always steam tight, doing away with the possibilities of steam leakage, something very hard to control in this day of superheated steam."
All were taken into the Illinois Central and renumbered 3960-3972.
|Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Class||1501||1551||1600||1600 - with syphons||1701|
|Railroad||Illinois Central (IC)||Illinois Central (IC)||Illinois Central (IC)||Illinois Central (IC)||Illinois Central (IC)|
|Number in Class||50||150||1||1||182|
|Road Numbers||1501-1550||1551-1700||1600||1600||1701-1882 / 1200-1370|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||35.17 / 10.72||35.17 / 10.72||35.17 / 10.72||35.17 / 10.72||35.17 / 10.72|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.47||0.47||0.47||0.47||0.47|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||65.52 / 19.97||65.60 / 19.99||65.60 / 19.99||65.62 / 20||65.62 / 20|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)||63,700 / 28,894||56,400 / 25,583|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||217,000 / 98,430||218,200 / 98,974||217,000 / 98,430||230,000 / 104,326||218,300 / 99,019|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||280,000 / 127,006||283,850 / 128,752||280,000 / 127,006||298,000 / 135,171||282,700 / 128,231|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||185,000 / 83,915||185,000 / 83,915||185,000 / 83,915||167,500 / 75,977||167,500 / 75,977|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||465,000 / 210,921||468,850 / 212,667||465,000 / 210,921||465,500 / 211,148||450,200 / 204,208|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||15 / 13.60||15 / 13.60||15 / 13.60||15 / 13.60||15 / 13.60|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||90 / 45||91 / 45.50||90 / 45||96 / 48||91 / 45.50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||63 / 1600||63.50 / 1613||63.50 / 1613||63.50 / 1613||63.50 / 1613|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||175 / 12.10||185 / 12.80||175 / 12.10||185 / 12.80||185 / 12.80|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||27" x 30" / 686x762||27" x 30" / 686x762||27" x 30" / 686x762||27" x 30" / 686x762||27" x 30" / 686x762|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||51,638 / 23422.63||54,158 / 24565.68||51,231 / 23238.02||54,158 / 24565.68||54,158 / 24565.68|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.20||4.03||4.24||4.25||4.03|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||272.20 / 25.29||267 / 24.80||254 / 23.61||307.20 / 28.55||266.60 / 24.78|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||70.40 / 6.54||70 / 6.50||68 / 6.32||70.40 / 6.54||70.40 / 6.54|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4074 / 378.48||4070 / 378.11||3666 / 340.71||4093 / 380.39||4102 / 381.23|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||887 / 82.40||886 / 82.31||785 / 72.96||1099 / 102.14||1099 / 102.14|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4961 / 460.88||4956 / 460.42||4451 / 413.67||5192 / 482.53||5201 / 483.37|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||204.93||204.72||184.40||205.88||206.33|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||12,320||12,950||11,900||13,024||13,024|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||14,538||15,281||14,042||15,759||15,759|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||56,209||58,286||52,451||68,767||59,678|
|Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Railroad||Illinois Central (IC)||Illinois Central (IC)||Illinois Central (IC)||Alabama & Vicksburg (IC)||Alabama & Vicksburg (IC)|
|Number in Class||21||25||110||2||11|
|Road Numbers||1800-1820||1883-1907||1908-2017||462-463 / 3971-3972 / 3498-3499||460-461, 360-368|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03||16.50 / 5.03||15 / 4.57||15 / 4.57|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||36.11 / 11.01||35.17 / 10.72||35.17 / 10.72||33.50 / 10.21||24 / 7.32|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.46||0.47||0.47||0.45||0.62|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||77.50 / 23.62||65.96 / 20.10||65.09 / 19.84||68.15 / 20.77||67.58 / 20.60|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)||63,700 / 28,894||63,700 / 28,894|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||235,400 / 106,776||230,000 / 104,326||230,000 / 104,326||168,900 / 76,612||169,000 / 76,657|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||308,500||298,000 / 135,171||298,000 / 135,171||227,000 / 102,966||217,500 / 98,656|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||216,500 / 98,203||169,900 / 77,065||169,900 / 77,065||198,000 / 89,811||154,000 / 69,853|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||525,000||467,900 / 212,236||467,900 / 212,236||425,000 / 192,777||371,500 / 168,509|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||13,000 / 49.24||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09||10,000 / 37.88||7500 / 28.41|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||16 / 14.50||15 / 13.60||15 / 13.60||16 / 14.50||14 / 12.70|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||98 / 49||96 / 48||96 / 48||70 / 35||70 / 35|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||63.50 / 1613||63.50 / 1613||64 / 1626||57 / 1448||57 / 1448|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||225 / 15.50||185 / 12.80||225 / 15.50||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||28" x 30" / 711x762||27" x 30" / 686x762||27" x 30" / 686x762||22" x 28" / 559x711||22" x 28" / 559x711|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||70,838 / 32131.61||54,158 / 24565.68||65,354 / 29644.11||40,418 / 18333.32||40,418 / 18333.32|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||3.32||4.25||3.52||4.18||4.18|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||341.40 / 31.73||266.60 / 24.78||307.20 / 28.54||220 / 20.44||210 / 19.51|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||70.40 / 6.54||70.40 / 6.54||70.40 / 6.54||56.20 / 5.22||46 / 4.27|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||3111 / 289.13||4102 / 381.23||4093 / 380.39||2436 / 226.31||2573 / 239.04|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||969 / 90.06||860 / 79.93||1099 / 102.14||582 / 54.07||546 / 50.72|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4080 / 379.19||4962 / 461.16||5192 / 482.53||3018 / 280.38||3119 / 289.76|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||145.51||206.33||205.88||197.74||208.86|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||15,840||13,024||15,840||11,240||9200|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||19,642||15,238||19,166||13,376||10,856|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||95,251||57,706||83,635||52,360||49,560|