International & Great Northern / Missouri Pacific 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

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Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1699 (Locobase 22)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia tables. See also Alfred W Bruce, The Steam Locomotive in America (New York: Bonanza Books, 1952), pp. 201-201, 210. Thanks to Chris Hohl for pointing out in his 10 May 2013 email Alco's licensing of Nigel Gresley's conjugating gear in its three-cylinder locomotives. Works numbers were 66016 in December 1924.

Firebox had thermic syphons. L&N 1699 (Locobase 21) and Wabash K-5 (Locobase 23) were very similar three-cylinder engines, although each had a different number of firetubes. Two outside cylinders had strokes of 32 inches. Inside cylinder had 28-inch stroke. All cylinders used 12" (305 mm) piston valves.

Although trials at Altoona (in the Pennsy's world-famous locomotive-testing facility) showed low fuel consumption and impressive tractive effort, says Drury (1993), "MoPac soon discovered the difficulties of maintaining locomotives that had one -third of their moving parts tucked between the frames. Once their novelty had worn off, the three-cylinder engines became power of last resort rather than first choice."

Had it succeeded, 35 1400-series Mikados--1536-1570--were already on the road with extended wheelbases suitable for fitting the third cylinder; see Locobase 15954.

1699 was converted to a two-cylinder engine in 1937 and renumbered 1571. Now simlar to the other 1400 and 1500-class Mikes (Locobase 24), which also used relatively large 27" x 32"(686 x 813 mm) cylinders, the 1571 operated into the 1950s.


Class M 25/30 208M (Locobase 6902)

Data from IGN 2 - 1923 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 67, pp 432+ and 445+, and W M "Mike" Adams, The MOPAC and its Mikes, Arkansas Railroader, Volume 3, No 7 (July 1972), p. 3 Works numbers were 54953-54956 in August 1921 and 57678-57683 in March 1924.

These were the first and only Mikes to be built for the I&GN and only the first four were delivered to the road before its takeover by Missouri Pacific surrogate New Orleans, Texas & Mexico in 1923.

They were pretty small 2-8-2s in all respects and lacked all supplemental direct heating appliances (i.e., arch tubes, combustion chambers, syphons). Their piston valves measured a relatively modest 14" (356 mm) in diameter.

The MP thought enough of them to retain their services right up to the end of steam. Mike Adams observed that the 1100s were "very popular" with the I-GN crews. He talked "at length" with several "old-head" engineers who were had run every kind of MOPAC Mikado and were "quick to tell you the 1100s were the best engine." When eh pressed them for a reason, "all I could ever get was that they could go farthern on a tank of water!"


Class MK-63 (Locobase 25)

Data from 1936 MP locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Firebox heating surface included 78 sq ft (7.25 sq m) of thermic syphons. These were built for the St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico in two forms -- eight oil-burners and two lignite-fired. All had Worthington BL feedwater heaters.

They ran until 1949-1955.


Class MK-63 - 1201 (Locobase 1370)

Data from 1924 MP locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also W M "Mike" Adams, "The MOPAC and its Mikes", Arkansas Railroader--The Arkansas Railroad Club Newsletter, Vol 3, No 7 (July 1972), pp. 1-5. Works numbers were 50379-50418 in August 1911 and 50430-50439 in September.

First superheated Mikes for the MP. Schenectady built 50 in 1911-1914. Mike Adams reported that the first 30 trailed tenders lettered for the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern subsidiary; the other 20 bore the Missouri Pacific brand. This division of engines conflicts with a StLIM&S 6 - 1913 Locomotive List supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley, which credits the Iron Mountain with the 1231-1235 only. The other 45 locomotives were shown in the Missouri Pacific columns.

The Alcos were delivered with a combustion chamber in a firebox that had a maximum width of 66" (1,676 mm). Put into "fast freight service on the primary main lines of the Missouri Pacific-Iron Mountain," he adds,"[they] became very popular with the enginemen".

All of the locomotives were modified either to burn oil or to deliver coal through a BK automatic stoker. Oil burners were 1201, 1204, 1209-1210, 1212, 1214, 1217-1227, 1231-1232, 1236-1237, 1239-1242, 1245, 1247-1248. Some were fitted with Elesco feed water heaters.

Baldwin's 30 had bigger grates and longer tubes and flues; they're described in Locobase 6652.

Interestingly, when the firebox was upgraded with 64 sq ft (5.95 sq m) of thermic syphons, the rest of the boiler remained the same. A rise in boiler pressure to 200 psi raised tractive effort to 59,000 lb.

Most continued in service until 1949-1955. Several oil-burners were sent to the St Louis, Brownsville & Mexico: 1204, 1210, 1218-1223, 1225-1225, 1231, 1236-1237, 1239-1242, 1247. The IGN would operate the 1212, 1227, and 1248


Class MK-63 - 1251 (Locobase 6652)

Data from 1924 MP locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Vol 50, pp. 229+ and W M "Mike" Adams, "The MOPAC and its Mikes", Arkansas Railroader--The Arkansas Railroad Club Newsletter, Vol 3, No 7 (July 1972), pp. 1-5. Works numbers were 40002-40006 in June 1913; 41120-41129, 41131-41140 in January 1914; 41174-41178 in February.

The second batch of superheated Mikes for the MP used the same number of tubes and flues as the first (described in Locobase 1370), but extended each one by 3 1/2 feet (1,067 mm). Piston valves measuring 14" (356 mm) in diameter fed the cylinders.

The firebox was shortened by 17" compared to the Alcos, but saw its width increase 9" to 75 1/4" (1.91 m) and grate area grow by 7.5 sq ft. In its original configuration, the firebox heating surface area included 29.1 sq ft (2.7 sq m) of arch tubes. A later revision of the firebox to include 64 sq ft (5.95 sq m) of Nicholson thermic syphons, which increased the heating surface to 273 sq ft (25.4 sq m) was part of an upgrade that raised operating pressure to 200 psi -- this resulted in a tractive effort of 59,000 lb (26,762 kg).

Several of the Baldwins were converted to oil burning, received smaller cylinders, a feed water heater and had their boilers pressed to 200 psi; see Locobase 15953. Those that still burned coal fed their fireboxes through BK automatic stokers; these were 1252-1255, 1261-1262, 1269-1271, 1275, 1277-1278, 1280.

Most continued in service until 1949-1955. Adams notes that the 1200s came to the White River Division near Cotter, Ark. They were "always double-headed between Cotter and Crane, Missouri --they really smoked up the Ozark hills."

In their later years, 1258 went to the St Louis, Brownsville & Mexico and the 1259 operated on the IGN.


Class MK-63 - 1251-oil, fwh (Locobase 15953)

Data from 1956 MP locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also W M "Mike" Adams, "The MOPAC and its Mikes", Arkansas Railroader--The Arkansas Railroad Club Newsletter, Vol 3, No 7 (July 1972), pp. 1-5.

The original delivery of 30 locomotives from Baldwin appears in Locobase 6652. Later in their careers, the MoPac converted to oil burning. The road numbers shown in the specs received a new boiler with a package of improvements that included the oil burner, a Worthington 4S2 feed water heater, 26" x 30" cylinders, and pressure now set to 200 psi. (1274 had the smaller cylinders and burned oil, but was not fitted with a feed water heater.)

The original Cole trailing truck was replaced by a Delta truck that included a 10,465 lb (4,747 kg) booster that raised starting tractive effort to 65,190 lb (29,570 kg). The installation increased the engine wheelbase by 3" (76.2 mm) to an even 35 feet (10.67 m).

Other oil-burning conversions retained their 27" x 30" cylinders and remained without feed water heaters. These were 1258-1260, 1266, 1268, 1272, 1276. The entire class retained its 14" (356 mm) piston valves.


Class MK-63 - 1401 - early batch (Locobase 9690)

Data from "Mikado Type Locomotive for the Missouri Pacific Railway", Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol XXXV, No. 1 (January 1922), pp. 11-12. See also F G Lister, "Locomotive Boiler Efficiencey by Proper Circulation of Water", The Boiler Maker, Vol 22, No 9 (September 1922), pp. 256-257 and W M "Mike" Adams, "The MOPAC and its Mikes", Arkansas Railroader--The Arkansas Railroad Club Newsletter, Vol 3, No 7 (July 1972), pp. 1-5. (My thanks to Chris Hohl for his 21 February 2013 inquiry that led to several new entries and updates of several more and for his 10 May ID of the valve gear.) Works numbers were 62935-62959 in February 1921.

When this large class of locomotives originally entered service, the first batches had the lower number of tubes shown in these specifications and 27 sq ft (2.5 sq m) of arch tubes. All had 14" (356 mm)-diameter piston valves, and combustion chambers. The boilers also had Harter circulating plates. Locobase 14956 has a full description of this device. (Briefly, a solid plate laid horizontally among the superheater flues and pierced for 2" (50.8 mm) diameter steam risers sought to encourage circulation from bottom to top.)

None of this first batch was converted to oil burning. 1403, 1409-1413, 1415, 1421-1424 had BK stokers, Duplex stokers appeared on 1401-14-2, 1404-1405, 1408, 1416, 1419, and 1425; and modified Duplex stokers designated LT-1s were fitted to 1406-1407, 1413-1414, and 1420.

1408, 1411, 1418, 1420 were retrofitted with Worthington 4SA feed water heaters. 1419 and 1424 received Elesco EX-INJ SL-30S feed water heaters.

See Locobase 24 for the later batches and an MP update hat had more tubes and thermic syphons.


Class MK-63 - 1426 - with syphons (Locobase 24)

Data from MP 7 - 1956 locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also W M "Mike" Adams, "The MOPAC and its Mikes", Arkansas Railroader--The Arkansas Railroad Club Newsletter, Vol 3, No 7 (July 1972), pp. 1-5. Produced by Alco's Schenectady and Brooks works.

The definitive 2-8-2 on the Missouri Pacific, who took the original locomotives based on the USRA heavy Mike and built from 1921-1926. Mike Adams states that 1400s "hauled an astronomical amount of freight in their day. They could ramble along at good speed and not run out of steam--they could and did take on troop trains, but veteran enginemen of the Mo-Pac tell me they shook the daylights out of you over about 60 mph."

1401-1425 from Brooks shown in Locobase 9690; 1536-1570, which had longer wheelbases in case the three-cylinder engine proved a success, appear in Locobase 15954.

All were delivered with BK, Duplex., or LT-1 (modified Duplex) mechanical stokers and 14"(356-mm)-diameter piston valves. The following were converted to oil burning: 1429-1430, 1432, 1437, 1449, 1453, 1464, 1478, 1482, 1485, 1515, 1519, 1544, 1551, 1555.

Batch Works Work numbers Month & Year

1426-1471 Schenectady 63893-63937 January 1923

63938 March 1923

1472-1486 Brooks 65213-65227 November 1923

Loaded engine weight 331,000 lb (150,139 kg), booster increased starting TE to 68,675 lb (31,150 kg)

1487-1511 Brooks 65228-65252 January 1924

No booster

1512-1524 Schenectady 65998-66009 December 1924

Booster

1525-1535 Schenectady 65992-65997 December 1924

No booster

1536-1555 Schenectady 66229-66248 April 1925

No booster, switch valve gear to Baker-Pilliod. Produced with extra space between

1556-1570 Schenectady 66249-66263 April 1925

As 1536-1555, but fitted with booster.

Some delivered with boosters later had them removed. Feed water heaters were fitted to most; these were Elesco EX LNJ SL-30S and Worthington 4SA.

Weights ranged from 232,020 lb (112,491 kg) on the drivers and 312,410 lb (141,707 kg) for a 1400-series oil-burner with no booster or feed water heater to an adhesion weight of 255,925 lb (116,806 kg) and all-up weight of 350,310 lb (158,898 kg) for an engine fitted with a stoker, feed water heater, and trailing truck booster.

The latter is represented by the specifications in our table and reflect the installation of fireboxes that traded two of the arch tubes for 78 sq ft (7.25 sq m) of Nicholson thermic syphons. (Four received 61 sq ft/5.65 sq m of circulators instead of syphons.)

Most continued in service until 1949-1955.


Class MK-63 - 1536 (Locobase 15954)

Data from MP 7 - 1956 locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also Drury (1993), p. 249, and W M "Mike" Adams, "The MOPAC and its Mikes", Arkansas Railroader--The Arkansas Railroad Club Newsletter, Vol 3, No 7 (July 1972), pp. 1-5. Produced by Alco's Schenectady works.

Locobase 24 contains the main description of this class's variations and service, but the change in valve gear and an interesting reason for extending the wheelbase prompts this entry. Switching to Baker-Pilliod valve gear wasn't unusual; it was a common alternative to the Walschaert outside radial gear in use for decades. The extension of the spacing between axles stemmed from the imminent arrival of a trial horse. Locobase 22 describes 1699, one of the few three-cylinder engines turned out by Alco in the 1920s to an attempt to provide more power in a smoother cycle. As noted in Locobase 22, the experiment proved unsuccessful.

Had it not encountered maintenance and other snags, however, this set of 35 Mikes was ready to accept the third cylinder and its crank, which would have driven the third axle. In the earlier engines, all three intervals between axles measured 66" (1,676 mm) for a total distance of 16 1/2 feet (5.03 m). In the lengthened frames, the first and fourth axles were moved 1" further out and the second and third axles were now 80" (2,032 mm) apart.

Otherwise the engines were identical to the most recent short-wheelbase, Walschaert gear 1400s. Like the 1400-1535, all of these engines were delivered with BK, Duplex., or LT-1 (modified Duplex) mechanical stokers and 14"(356-mm)-diameter piston valves. Only three were converted to oil burning: 1544, 1551, 1555.

Batch Works Work numbers Month & Year

1536-1555 Schenectady 66229-66248 April 1925

No booster, switch valve gear to Baker-Pilliod.

1556-1570 Schenectady 66249-66263 April 1925

As 1536-1555, but fitted with booster.

Some delivered with boosters later had them removed. Feed water heaters were fitted to most; these were Elesco EX LNJ SL-30S and Worthington 4SA.

Our entry, like that of Locobase 24, reflects the installation of fireboxes that traded two of the arch tubes for 78 sq ft (7.25 sq m) of Nicholson thermic syphons. (Four received 61 sq ft/5.65 sq m of circulators instead of syphons.)

Most continued in service until 1949-1955.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1699M 25/30 208MMK-63MK-63 - 1201MK-63 - 1251
Locobase ID22 6902 25 1370 6652
RailroadMissouri Pacific (MP)International & Great Northern (MP)Missouri Pacific (MP)Missouri Pacific (MP)Missouri Pacific (MP)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class110105030
Road Numbers1699/1571501-510 / 1101-11101111-11201201-12501251-1280
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built110105030
BuilderAlco-SchenectadyBaldwinAlco-BrooksAlco-SchenectadyBaldwin
Year19251921192619111913
Valve GearBakerWalschaertBakerWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)17.80 / 5.4316.75 / 5.1117.80 / 5.4316.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)37.40 / 11.4035 / 10.6737.40 / 11.4034.75 / 10.5934.75 / 10.59
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)72.28 / 22.0370.19 / 21.3972.27 / 22.0366.35 / 20.2266.35 / 20.22
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)62,400 / 28,304
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)244,500 / 110,903208,390 / 94,524248,500 / 112,718209,500 / 95,028209,600 / 95,073
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)340,000 / 154,222274,900 / 124,693333,000 / 151,046275,500 / 124,965276,200 / 125,282
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)190,000 / 86,183154,300 / 69,989217,300 / 98,566159,000 / 72,121159,000 / 72,121
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)530,000 / 240,405429,200 / 194,682550,300 / 249,612434,500 / 197,086435,200 / 197,403
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.888000 / 30.308000 / 30.30
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)16 / 14.503360 / 12.704000 / 15.2014 / 12.7014 / 12.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)102871048787
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160063 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80190 / 13.10170 / 11.70170 / 11.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)23" x 32" / 584x81325" x 30" / 635x76227" x 32" / 686x81327" x 30" / 686x76227" x 30" / 686x762
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)23" x 28" / 584x711 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)65,663 / 29784.2750,595 / 22949.5359,801 / 27125.3150,162 / 22753.1350,162 / 22753.13
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.72 4.12 4.16 4.18 4.18
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)349 / 32.42202 / 18.77360 / 33.45262 / 24.35239.10 / 22.21
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)66.80 / 6.2156.50 / 5.2566.80 / 6.2149.50 / 4.5556.50 / 5.25
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3786 / 351.863663 / 340.434087 / 379.832852 / 265.063443 / 319.86
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1051 / 97.68882 / 81.971051 / 97.68573 / 53.25770 / 71.53
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4837 / 449.544545 / 422.405138 / 477.513425 / 318.314213 / 391.39
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume246.04214.91192.73143.46173.19
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation13,36011,30012,69284159605
Same as above plus superheater percentage16,29913,44715,230984611,334
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area85,15648,07682,08052,11247,963
Power L114,23115,53814,437836710,387
Power MT513.28657.52512.32352.19437.01

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassMK-63 - 1251-oil, fwhMK-63 - 1401 - early batchMK-63 - 1426 - with syphonsMK-63 - 1536
Locobase ID15,953 9690 24 15,954
RailroadMissouri Pacific (MP)Missouri Pacific (MP)Missouri Pacific (MP)Missouri Pacific (MP)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class92513535
Road Numbers1251, 1256-1257, 1264-1265, 1267, 1273-1274, 12791401-14251426-15351536-1570
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built2511035
BuilderMPAlcoAlcoAlco-Schenectady
Year1913192119231924
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.0317.83 / 5.43
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)34.75 / 10.5936.25 / 11.0536.25 / 11.0537.42 / 11.41
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.48
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)66.35 / 20.2271.12 / 21.6866.54 / 20.2875.21 / 22.92
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)222,500 / 100,924237,500 / 107,728255,925 / 116,086261,465 / 118,599
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)298,000 / 135,171327,000 / 148,325350,310 / 158,898348,823 / 158,224
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)196,500 / 89,131191,000195,600 / 88,723195,600 / 88,723
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)494,500 / 224,302518,000545,910 / 247,621544,423 / 246,947
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)4250 / 16.1016 / 14.5019 / 17.3019 / 17.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)9399107109
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80190 / 13.10200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)26" x 30" / 660x76227" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)54,724 / 24822.4259,801 / 27125.3162,949 / 28553.2262,949 / 28553.22
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.07 3.97 4.07 4.15
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)271 / 25.18290 / 26.95337 / 31.31337 / 31.31
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)56.50 / 5.2567 / 6.2366.70 / 6.2066.70 / 6.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3521 / 327.113727 / 346.384065 / 377.794065 / 377.65
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)770 / 71.531051 / 97.681051 / 97.681051 / 97.64
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4291 / 398.644778 / 444.065116 / 475.475116 / 475.29
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume190.99175.75191.69191.69
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation11,30012,73013,34013,340
Same as above plus superheater percentage13,33415,53116,14116,141
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area63,95667,22281,55481,554
Power L113,44913,76915,06115,061
Power MT533.03511.25518.96507.97

Reference