Pere Marquette 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

The Pere Marquette Railway was incorporated in 1900 and operated in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The railroad had trackage in the states of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and the Canadian province of Ontario. Its primary connections included Buffalo, New York, Toledo, Ohio and Chicago.

In the 1920s the Pere Marquette came under the control of Cleveland financiers Oris and Mantis Van Sweringen who also controlled the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, the Erie Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad and planned to merge the four railroads. The ICC did not approve the merger and the Van Sweringen brothers sold their interest in the Pere Marquette to the C&O, with which it formally merged on June 6, 1947.

The Pere Marquette Railway took delivery of its first "Mikado" type locomotives in 1913, with the delivery of ten built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. They were designated as Class MK and were given road numbers 1001 through 1010. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 185 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,888 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 325,000 pounds. The firebox was 272 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,103 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,963 square feet.

In 1920, the Pere Marquette received thirty "Mikado-Light" locomotives that the USRA redistributed from the Indiana Harbor Belt, the Wabash Railroad and the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. Fourteen were built by the Lima Locomotive Works and the other Sixteen were built by the American Locomotive Company. They were designated as Class MK-1 and assigned road numbers 1011 through 1040. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 26" x 30" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,725 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 292,000 pounds. The firebox was 280 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,777 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,659 square feet.

In 1923, ten more "Mikados" were added to the roster. They were built by ALCO and were designated as Class MK-2 and given road numbers 1041 through 1050. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 26" x 30" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,725 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 311,000 pounds. The firebox was 345 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,467 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,459 square feet.

There were five another 2-8-2s on the PM, which it bought from the Erie Railroad in 1929. These locomotives were built in 1913, four by Baldwin and one by ALCO. They were designated as Class MK-6 and assigned road numbers 1095 through 1099

There are no surviving Pere Marquette 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersFrom Other RRYear AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNotes
MK101001-10101913Baldwin1
MK-1141011-1024IHB19201919Lima2
MK-1 51025-1029Wabash19201918ALCO3
MK-1111030-1040NYC&HR19201918ALCO4
MK-2101041-10501927ALCO5
MK-6 11095Erie 19291913Baldwin6
MK-6 11096Erie19291913ALCO7
MK-6 31097-1099Erie19291913Baldwin8
Notes:
  1. Numbers 1001-1010 were scrapped by 1948.
  2. Numbers 1011-1024 were USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives came from the Indiana Harbor Belt after the IHB rejected them. They were transferred in 1920 and were IHB numbers 402, 403, 404, 405, 407, 408, 409, 412, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, and 420. Numbers 1011-1024 were scrapped between 1949 and 1951.
  3. Numbers 1025-1029 were USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives which came from the Wabash Railroad. They were transferred in 1920 and were Wabash numbers 2213, 2214, 2215, 2218 and 2219. Numbers 1025-1029 were scrapped between 1949 and 1951.
  4. Numbers 1030-1040 were USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives which came from the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. They were transferred in 1920 and were NYC&HR numbers 5130-5133 and numbers 5110-5116 in that order. Numbers 1030-1040 were scrapped between 1949 and 1951.
  5. Numbers 1041-1050 were scrapped in 1952.
  6. Bought from the Erie Railroad in 1929. Number 1095 was scrapped in 1949.
  7. Bought from the Erie Railroad in 1929. Number 1096 was scrapped in 1949.
  8. Bought from the Erie Railroad in 1929. Numbers 1097-1099 were scrapped in 1949.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class MK - 1001 (Locobase 9291)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008). See also DeGolyer, Volume 48, p. 151. Works numbers were 40656-40659, 40680-40682 in September 1913 and 40719-40721 in October.

This decade of 2-8-2s were the first of the PM's Mikados and they exemplify the first-generation of Mikado designs in many respects, including boiler size and pressure settings. But they turned 63" drivers and had large grates. Their firebox heating surface area included 31 sq ft of arch tubes. Steam entered the cylinders through 15" (381 mm) piston valves.

The specifications include the admonition to "Give particular attention to design of frames front of the first drivers ...Frames to be 4 1/2" [114 mm] wide. Be careful to make of ample depth. Frame at front splice to be made amply strong ...Frames are to be substantially braced with vertical and horizontal crossties." The supplemental instruction adds that the railroad had had trouble with frame failures between the cylinders and the first drivers on five Consolidations.

A 13 August 1913 PM order added Baldwin power reverse gear to the specs.

NB: For some reason, 1010 was assigned to the earliest locomotive produced by Baldwin under this order.

Six of the ten MK-1000s were scrapped in January 1946. The 1005 also was retired that month, but wasn't scrapped until July 1948. 1007 went under the torch in April 1947, 1008 followed in April 1948, and 1004 finished off the class in July 1948.

The last of the class was retired in 1948.


Class MK 1 - 1011 (Locobase 9292)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

Lima and Alco each produced fifteen USRA Light Mikados that were intended for the Indiana Harbor Belt, the Wabash, and the New York Central in 1918-1919. Of these, thirty wound up instead on the PM, fifteen from the IHB and fifteen from the New York Central.

A minor difference between the two batches was the use of Lewis reverse gear on the Limas, Ragonnet on the Alcos. Otherwise, the 30 engines represent orthodox USRA before the various upgrades and alterations were made.

This class served the PM until 1951.


Class MK 2 (Locobase 33)

Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia, supplement by PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

Firebox heating surface included 67 sq ft (6.2 sq m) of thermic syphons and 14 sq ft (1.3 sq m) of arch tubes. The design retained the USRA Light Mikado's power dimensions and its grate, enlarged the firebox and added thermic syphons, rebalanced the tube and flue layout to boost the percentage of superheated area, and added some weight.

The last of them ran until 1952. At least one extant photograph shows a PM Mike pulling a nine-car passenger train.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassMK - 1001MK 1 - 1011MK 2
Locobase ID9291 9292 33
RailroadPere Marquette (PM)Pere Marquette (PM)Pere Marquette (PM)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class103010
Road Numbers1001-10101011-10401041-1050
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built103010
BuilderBaldwinseveralAlco
Year191319181927
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0316.75 / 5.1116.70 / 5.09
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)35.17 / 10.7236.08 / 1136.90 / 11.25
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.46 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)65.08 / 19.8471.37 / 21.7571.36 / 21.75
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)220,000 / 99,790220,000 / 99,790230,500 / 104,553
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)285,000 / 129,274292,000 / 132,449311,000 / 141,067
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)156,000 / 70,760185,400 / 84,096188,900 / 85,684
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)441,000 / 200,034477,400 / 216,545499,900 / 226,751
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8000 / 30.3010,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)14 / 12.7016 / 14.5016 / 14.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)929296
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)185 / 12.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 30" / 686x76226" x 30" / 660x76226" x 30" / 660x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)54,588 / 24760.7354,724 / 24822.4254,724 / 24822.42
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.03 4.02 4.21
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)272.50 / 25.32280 / 26.02345 / 32.05
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)70 / 6.5066.70 / 6.2066.80 / 6.21
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4103 / 381.183777 / 351.023467 / 322.21
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)880 / 81.75882 / 81.97992 / 92.19
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4983 / 462.934659 / 432.994459 / 414.40
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume206.38204.88188.07
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,95013,34013,360
Same as above plus superheater percentage15,28115,87516,299
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area59,48766,64084,180
Power L113,07914,94016,085
Power MT524.26598.85615.38

Photos

Reference