St Louis-San Francisco 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

After years of resisting the 2-8-2-wheel arrangement the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway was assigned thirty-three "Mikado-Light" locomotives by the USRA and they arrived in 1919. The SF-SL was assigned thirty that were built by the Lima Locomotive works and three that were built by ALCO's Schenectady Works. The PRR had been assigned thirty-eight USRA "Mikado-light 2-8-2s and it rejected thirty-three of them. The USRA re-assigned the cast-off PRR "Mikados" to the MoPac and SLSF. The MoPac received ten which became MoPac numbers 1316 through 1325 and the SLSF received twenty-three which became SLSF numbers 4000 through 4007 and 4017 through 4031. The additional ten came from the Indiana Harbor Belt Line which became SLSF numbers 4008 through 4016 & 4032. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 26" x 30" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and could exert a tractive effort of 54,725 pounds and each weighed 292,000 pounds. The firebox was 280 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,783 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,665 square feet. All thirty-three of these locomotives were later equipped with a trailing truck booster, which increased the tractive effort to 62,900 pounds.

The next 2-8-2s to arrive were copies of the USRA "Mikado-Heavy" type built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1923. This group was assigned road numbers 4100 through 4134. Two years later another group, numbers 4135 through 4149 came from Baldwin. These fifty locomotives were coal burners and had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, exerted 62,948 pounds of a tractive effort and each weighed 343,500 pounds. The firebox was 380 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,061 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,054 square feet. In 1926, fifteen similar locomotives arrived from Baldwin and were given road numbers 4150 through 4164. These fifteen locomotives were similar to the other "Heavies" delivered in 1923 except they were oil burners and each weighed 341,400 pounds.

In 1928, the SLSF ordered twenty new locomotives that were heavier than any ever used by the Frisco. This group was delivered by Baldwin in 1930 and assigned road numbers 4200 through 4219. These locomotives weighed 375,790 pounds, 36 tons more than the USRA "Mikado-Light" of 1919 and 16 tons more the heavy "Mikados" built by Baldwin in 1923-1926. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a 210 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 66,096 pounds of tractive effort. The firebox was 390 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,384 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 6,304 square feet.

During 1943 through 1946 the West Springfield shops converted seven of the SLSF's 2-8-0 "Consolidated" type locomotives into 2-8-2s. These new "Mikado" locomotives were given road numbers 1350 through 1356. They had 63" diameter drivers, 26" x 30" cylinders, a 195 psi boiler pressure, exerted 53,335 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 322,600 pounds. The firebox was 350 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,248 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,083 square feet.

There are five surviving SL-SF 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives. Two of the USRA allocated locomotives have been saved and are on display. Number 4003, built in 1919 by Lima, is at the Trolley Museum, 100 S. 4th St. in Fort Smith, AR and number 4018, built in 1919 by ALCO, is on Display at the Sloss Furnaces National Historical Landmark in Birmingham, AL. Three of the locomotives built by and for the SL-SF have been saved. Number 1351 is on display at the Memphis Transportation Museum in Collierville, TN, number 1352 is stored at I&M engine house in Taylorville, IL and number 1355 is on display on Garden St. in Pensacola, FL.


Roster by Richard Duley

Qty.Road NumbersFrom Other RRYear AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNotes
54000, 4001, 4004, 4006, 40071919Lima1
34002, 4003 & 40051919ALCO2
104008-4016 & 4032IHB19191919Lima3
154017-40311919Lima4
354100-41341923Baldwin5
154135-41491925Baldwin6
154150-41641926Baldwin7
204200-42191930Baldwin8
113511943SLSF9
21352 & 13531944SLSF9
31354, 1355 & 13501945SLSF9
1 13561946SLSF9
Notes:
  1. Numbers 4000, 4001, 4004, 4006 & 4007. USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives which were rejected by the PRR prior to going onto its roster and were reassigned to the SLSF. They were all scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  2. Numbers 4002, 4003 & 4005. USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives which were rejected by the PRR prior to going onto its roster and were reassigned to the SLSF. Number 4003 is preserved. The others were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  3. Numbers 4008-4016 & 4032. USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives which were allocated and received by the IHB and were transferred to the SFSL in 1919. They were IHB numbers 401, 419, 411, 410, 421, 422, 406, 413, 400 & 432 in that order. All were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  4. Numbers 4017-4031. USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives which were rejected by the PRR prior to going onto its roster and were reassigned to the SLSF. Number 4018 is preserved. The others were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  5. Numbers 4100-4134 were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  6. Numbers 4135-4149 were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  7. Numbers 4150-4164 were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  8. Numbers 4200-4219 were scrapped between 1948 and 1956.
  9. Numbers 1350-1356. Built from SLSF 2-8-0 "Consolidated" type locomotives numbers 1313 (1351), 1321 (1352) 1322 (1353), 1316 (1354), 1318 (1355), 1342 (1350) and 1343 (1356). Numbers 1351, 1352 and 1355 are preserved and the others were scrapped in 1952.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1350 (Locobase 8638)

Data from StLSF 11 1943, StL&SF 1947, and SL&SF All Time Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for the valve gear ID.)

Locobase isn't sure why the Frisco felt the need to convert seven of its 1306-series Consolidations to Mikados, but the demands of World War II traffic undoubtedly had the greatest influence. So 142 went under the knife and wrench first in August 1943, followed by 1313 (November 1943, emerging as 1351), 1321 (June 1944 - 1352), 1322 (September 1944 - 1353), 1316 (May 1945 - 1316), 1342 (August 1945 - 1350), 1318 (October 1945 - 1355), and 1343 (March 1946 - 1356).

And in a sense the shops put everything they could fit into this small, light design. The firebox heating surface now included a combustion chamber (53 sq ft/4.9 sq m) and two Nicholson thermic syphons (86 sq ft/8 sq m). A Coffin feedwater collar now embraced the smokebox and the Ragonnet power reverser lay under the right-hand running board.

As reconstituted, the class carried on for several years before being "dismissed from service" as a group in May 1952.


Class 4100 (Locobase 16150)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 74, pp. 278+ and 295+. (Chris Hohl's comments on tender capacity in his 4 August 2015 email led to a good deal of Locobase research that resulted in two new entries and revisions to two others.) Works numbers were 55889-55893 in December 1922; 56016-56022, 56084-56087 in January 1923; 56224-56242 in March.

Based on the USRA heavy Mikado but heavier and possessing a slightly different boiler layout. The firebox had a short combustion chamber that contributed 51 sq ft (4.74 sq m) to direct heating surface area. This entry deals with the first 35, fitted with Baker valve gear, that arrived in 1923, the rest - operating Walschaert gear - came in 1925 (see Locobase 16151). All had 14" (356 mm) piston valves. The class's specification described the oil burners, but the design was to be easily converted to coal burning. The specs requested that "the engine deck be so arranged that [mechanical] stoker could be applied and the water tank to have the U sections so shaped tht the stoker could be applied in the future."

4132-4134 were delivered with trailing-truck boosters; the others were delivered with Delta trucks and Commonwealth cradles capable of accepting boosters.

A set of fifteen that followed in 1926 went further in elaborating the basic USRA design; see Locobase 37.

Time Magazine's 26 August 1929 issue recounted a record set by 4113 in July and August of that year, but described the engine as a 2-8-4. It was an interesting test of the ability of a typical locomotive to run continuously on the same fire for hundreds of hours and thousands of miles. The Great Northern had run a locomotive for 3,500 miles (5,635 km) in 1927. Frisco's Mike smashed the old standard by covering 7,350 miles (11,836 km) in 24+ days. The route consisted of five round-trips between St Louis and Birmingham, Alabama that generated 13,780,749 gross ton-miles (20,127,737 tonne-km).

"No vain stunt was this record," Time affirmed, "because every mile produced revenue. Only a standing rule of the Interstate Commerce Commission that every 30 days a locomotive must be unfired, have its boilers blown, its brasses checked, prevented No. 4113 from continuing its endurance test .... On its last run into Kansas City, No. 4113, pulling perishable freight, clipped 3+ hours off its running schedule. "

What impresses the 21st-Century reader are the consumption numbers: 937 tons (850 metric tons) of coal and 1 1/2 million gallons (5,677,500 litres) of water. That's 265 lb (120.2 kg) of coal and 204 gallons per mile (1,243 litres/km) of revenue movement. Or, another way to look at, the engine evaporated an average of 2,555 gallons (9,671 litres) per steaming hour and consumed 3,300 lb (1,497 kg) of coal.

Time's search for color turned up this tidbit: "While 60 different engine crews were operating No. 4113 to make the record, David L. Forsythe, Frisco's equipment foreman, rode every mile. Every five days he would leave his smooth-breathing charge, go back to the caboose, snatch eight hours' sleep. Now 65, Foreman Forsythe began with the Frisco at 14, was a "hoghead" (engineer) for 41 years."

Later upgrades to the entire class involved the addition of syphons; see Locobase 8651.


Class 4100-syphons (Locobase 8651)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia, additional data from StLSF 1947 and SL&SF All Time Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Chris Hohl's comments on tender capacity in his 4 August 2015 email led to a good deal of Locobase research that resulted in two new entries and revisions to two others.)

Later upgrades to the entire class involved modifying the firebox to include Nicholson thermic syphons that contributed 94 sq ft (8.75 sq m) to the heating surface area, bringing the total to the 380 sq ft shown in the specs. The first 35 still used Baker gear to operate the 14" (356 mm) piston valves and the last 15 still used Walschaert gear. Driver diameter increased by an inch (25.4 mm).

By that time, the division in the class regarding fuel and firing system had stabilized.

Coal burners: 4100-4102, 4104-4108, 4112-4113, 4120, 4123-4124, 4126-4134, 4136-4139, 4141-4143, 4145, 4148. These hauled through freight trains from Kansas City to Birmingham, Ala and from Fort Scott, Kan to Afton, Okla.

Oil burners trailing tenders with 4,500 US gallons of fuel: 4103, 4109-4111, 4114-4119, 4121-4122, 4125, 4135, 4140, 4144, 4146, 4149. These worked in the Southwestern Division on trains between Oklahoma City and Monett and between Tulsa and Sherman.

4115 was the only one fitted with a Worthington feed water heater. 4137 and 4143 used a Coffin feed water heaters.

The class was "dismissed from service" by the Frisco between 27 June 1951 and 2 October 1952


Class 4135 (Locobase 16151)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 74, pp. 278+ and 295+. (Chris Hohl's comments on tender capacity in his 4 August 2015 email led to a good deal of Locobase research that resulted in two new entries and revisions to two others.) Works numbers were 58466-58467 in June 1925, 58535-58536 in July; and 58593-58601 in August.

Locobase 16150 describes the first 35 of these Mikados, which were delivered with Baker valve gear and oil burners. When the Frisco bought fifteen more with the same power dimensions and boiler layout, they made several changes that included the adoption of firebox appliances that added heating surface area and a change to Walschaert gear to actuate the 14" (356 mm). All had combustion chambers that added 51 sq ft (4.74 sq m) to the firebox's heating surface area, but the first two (4135-4136) had five arch tubes adding another 36 sq ft (3.44 sq m). 4137-4149 fireboxes had only two arch tubes (14 sq ft /1.3 sq m), dropping the other three in favor of 84 sq ft (7.8 sq m) of Nicholson thermic syphons.

All were coal burners consuming, according to the spec, Alabama coal; Duplex D-1 mechanical stokers delivered the fuel. The 4135s used Franklin C-2 trailing-truck boosters to add 12,400 lb (5,625 kg) to the starting tractive effort.

Later upgrades to the entire class involved the addition of syphons to all engines and a reduction in superheater area; see Locobase 8651.


Class 4150 (Locobase 37)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia, additional data from StLSF 1947 and SL&SF All Time Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange and DeGolyer, Volume 74, pp. 317+. (Chris Hohl's comments on tender capacity in his 4 August 2015 email led to a good deal of Locobase research that resulted in two new entries and revisions to two others.) Works numbers were 59122-59125, 59145-59146 in April 1926; 59187-59195 in May.

When the Frisco went back to Baldwin for a follow-up order of USRA-like Mikes, the builder increased the heating surface area in the boiler. This was especially true of the firebox and the superheater. Direct heating surface area included a variety of aids: 51 sq ft (4.75 sq m) in the combustion chamber, 14 sq ft (1.3 sq m) of arch tubes, and 84 sq ft (7.8 sq m) of two thermic syphons. The arch tubes and the thermic syphons supported the firebrick arch. Five fewer small tubes and three more flues further enhanced the boiler's dry heat capability.

Delivered as coal burners (12,000 US gallons water, 17 tons coal), all but 4156 and 4164 had been converted to oil firing by 1930 and their conversions followed shortly.

They were "dismissed from service" by the Frisco between 27 June 1951 and 2 October 1952


Class T-74 (Locobase 34)

Additional data from StLSF 1947 and SL&SF All Time Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 82, pp. 468+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 24 April 2015 email correcting the valve gear ID and for correcting the tender's water capacity .) Works numbers were 61279-61290 in March 1930 and 61326-61333 in May.

After the 65 Mikes delivered in 1926-1926 (see Locobase 8651 & 37), these 20 engines showed larger boilers pressed to 235 psi, larger grates, and a significantly higher superheater ratio. (The tractive effort shown in the specs, however, suggests that the locomotive's working pressure actually registered 210 psi.) They were delivered with Coffin feed water heaters (from the J S Coffin Jr Company) and B-K automatic stokers. As delivered, the tenders weighed 7,000 lb (3,175 kg) less than Baldwin's estimate of 240,000 lb. By 1943, tenders of the same capacity weighed 249,000 lb (112,945 kg).

In fact, as data from an American multiple-throttle catalog of the time (reproduced on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/slsf/slsf-mike.html, 17 Nov 2003) show, this is a superpower reworking of the basic Mike. The tube and flue ratio is turned upside down and there's plenty of grate and boiler for long runs at speed. The firebox heating surface includes 86 sq ft (8 sq m) in two Nicholson thermic syphons and 14 sq ft (1.3 sq m) of arch tubes. A Coffin feed water heater was fitted under the front end of the firebox on the left side of the boiler.

These were the last of the Frisco's Mikes to retire, being "dismissed from service" between 5 March 1952 and 21 May 1956.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class135041004100-syphons41354150
Locobase ID8638 16,150 8651 16,151 37
RailroadSt Louis-San Francisco (Frisco/(SLSF)St Louis-San Francisco (Frisco/(SLSF)St Louis-San Francisco (Frisco/(SLSF)St Louis-San Francisco (Frisco/(SLSF)St Louis-San Francisco (Frisco/(SLSF)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class735351515
Road Numbers1350-13564100-41344100-41494135-41494150-4164
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built351515
BuilderFriscoBaldwinSLSFBaldwinBaldwin
Year19431923192919251926
Valve GearWalschaertBakerBaker or WalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)17 / 5.1816.75 / 5.1116.80 / 5.1216.75 / 5.1116.80 / 5.12
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)36.90 / 11.2536.92 / 11.2536.92 / 11.2536.92 / 11.2536.92 / 11.25
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.46
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)74.16 / 22.6073.32 / 22.3574.16 / 22.6073.42 / 22.3874.16 / 22.60
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)58,100 / 26,354
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)225,600 / 102,331240,000 / 108,862261,780 / 118,742244,700 / 110,994266,050 / 120,678
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)322,600 / 146,329313,000 / 141,975344,600 / 156,308320,400 / 145,331349,660 / 158,603
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)207,500 / 94,121237,000 / 107,502236,200 / 107,139240,500 / 109,089233,120 / 105,742
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)530,100 / 240,450550,000 / 249,477580,800 / 263,447560,900 / 254,420582,780 / 264,345
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,700 / 40.5312,000 / 45.4512,000 / 45.4512,000 / 45.4511,700 / 44.32
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)18 / 16.404500 / 1717 / 15.5017 / 15.504500 / 17
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)94100109102111
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160064 / 162663 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)195 / 13.40190 / 13.10200 / 13.80190 / 13.10200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)26" x 30" / 660x76227" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)53,356 / 24201.9059,801 / 27125.3161,965 / 28106.8859,801 / 27125.3162,949 / 28553.22
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.23 4.01 4.22 4.09 4.23
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)350 / 32.53286 / 26.57380 / 35.30381 / 35.40381 / 35.40
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)50.30 / 4.6770.30 / 6.5370.30 / 6.5370.30 / 6.5370.30 / 6.53
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3248 / 301.863952 / 367.154061 / 377.284047 / 375.984073 / 378.53
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)835 / 77.601048 / 97.36993 / 92.251063 / 98.761126 / 104.65
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4083 / 379.465000 / 464.515054 / 469.535110 / 474.745199 / 483.18
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume176.19186.36191.50190.84192.07
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation980913,35714,06013,35714,060
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,77016,16216,87216,16217,153
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area81,90065,75191,20087,59292,964
Power L113,89813,93714,98814,60015,956
Power MT543.26512.10504.89526.15528.88

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassT-74
Locobase ID34
RailroadSt Louis-San Francisco (Frisco/(SLSF)
CountryUSA
Whyte2-8-2
Number in Class20
Road Numbers4200-4219
GaugeStd
Number Built20
BuilderBaldwin
Year1930
Valve GearBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.80 / 5.12
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)37.60 / 11.46
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)274,690 / 124,597
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)375,790 / 170,456
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)233,000 / 105,687
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)608,790 / 276,143
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)12,000 / 45.45
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)17 / 15.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)114
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 32" / 686x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)66,096 / 29980.68
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.16
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)390 / 36.23
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)80.30 / 7.46
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4384 / 407.43
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1920 / 178.44
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)6304 / 585.87
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume206.74
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,863
Same as above plus superheater percentage21,922
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area106,470
Power L124,554
Power MT788.27

Photos

Reference