Arizona Eastern / El Paso & Southwestern / Minarets & Western / Southern Pacific / Texas & New Orleans 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

Southern Pacific

The Southern Pacific Lines received its first "Mikado" type locomotives in 1911, when the Pacific Lines received sixteen 2-8-2-type locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. These locomotives were designated as Class MK-2 and were given road numbers 3200 through 3215. They had 57" diameter drivers, 23 ¾" x 30" cylinders, a 210 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 52,990 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 264,800 pounds. The fire box was 235 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,207 and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,065 square feet.

In 1913, thirty more "Mikdos" arrived on the Pacific Lines from Baldwin and were very similar to the ones received in 1911. They were designated as Class MK-4. Twenty-five were assigned road numbers 3216 through 3240. Five of these locomotives were assigned to the Arizona Eastern Line and were given Arizona Eastern numbers 901 through 905. Later, the five Arizona Eastern locomotives were renumbered to 3236 through 3240 and the original locomotives received with these numbers were renumbered to 3271 through 3275.

Also in 1913, Baldwin delivered another thirty-four 2-8-2s to the Southern Pacific. Nine went to the Pacific Lines and given road numbers 3241 through 3249 and twenty-five were delivered to the Atlantic Lines T&NO and were given T&NO road numbers 750 through 774. These locomotives were designated as Class MK-5 and had 57" diameter drivers, 26" x 28" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 51,080 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 280,300 pounds. The fire box was 242 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,215 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,105 square feet.

In 1914, one more Baldwin-built Class MK-5 "Makado" was added to the Pacific Line roster. This locomotive was given road number 3270. In the same year Pacific Lines received twenty 2-8-2s from the Lima Locomotive Works. These locomotives were designated as Class MK-6 and were assigned road numbers 3250 through 3269. They had 63" diameter drivers, 26" x 28" cylinders, a 210 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 53,630 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 280,700 pounds. The fire box was 242 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,215 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,105 square feet.

The Atlantic Lines - T&NO received twenty new Class MK-5 "Mikados" in 1916. These locomotives were built by the American Locomotive Company and were given T&NO road numbers 775 through 794. The Lima Locomotive Works built two more Class MK-5 locomotives for the Pacific Lines Arizona Eastern Line in 1917. The pair was given Arizona Eastern road numbers 906 and 907 and later was renumbered to Southern Pacific Lines numbers 3276 and 3277.

During 1919 through 1921 the Southern Pacific built twelve 2-8-2-type locomotives. They were built to the same specifications as the Class MK-5 locomotives. The group was assigned to the Atlantic Lines T&NO was given T&NO road numbers 738 through 749.

In 1924, the Southern Pacific took over the El Paso & South Western Railroad and as a result added another twenty-five "Mikado" type locomotives to it roster. The locomotives were of three different designs and accordingly were designated as three different classes. The first group of ten was designated as Class MK-7 and given road numbers 3300 through 3309, the second group of five was designated as Class MK-8 and assigned road numbers 3310 through 3314 and the last group was designated as Class MK-9 and assigned road numbers 3315 through 3324.

There were four other "Mikados" on the Southern Pacific roster. Two conveyed with the purchase of the Minaret & Western in 1935 and were given road numbers 3295 and 3296. The other two were bought second hand from the Newaukum Valley Railroad during 1943. The pair was assigned road numbers 3297 and 3298.

There are four surviving Southern Pacific 2-8-2 "Mikados" type locomotives. All four are former T&NO locomotives. Number 745 which is in storage near the Ochsner Hospital in New Orleans, LA; number 771 on display at Grapevine Vintage Railroad in Grapevine, TX, number 786, which is owned by the Austin Steam Train Association and is undergoing restoration on the Austin & Texas Central in Austin, TX; and number 794 on display at Sunset Depot in San Antonio, TX.

El Paso & Southwestern

The El Paso & Southwestern Railroad began in 1889 as the Arizona & Southeastern Railroad a 36-mile railroad, which ran from a copper mine in Bisbee, AZ to a connection with the Arizona & New Mexico Railroad at Fairbank, AZ. It belonged to the Phelps Dodge Corp who built it to carry copper anodes from its smelter in Bisbee to the refinery in El Paso, TX. In 1894, the railroad was extended 19 miles to Benson, AZ connect with the Southern Pacific.

At the turn of the twentieth century, to meet demands for copper, Phelps Dodge replaced the smelter at Bisbee with a new, larger one at the newly formed town of Douglas, AZ. In 1901, the Arizona & Southeastern extended its line 25 miles southeast to Douglas to provide transportation to this new smelter.

In 1901, the Phelps Dodge Corp. formed El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Co., and transferred over the properties of its Arizona & Southeastern Railroad to it. The EP&SW laid rail and purchased the El Paso & Northeastern Railroad. Additional branches were acquired and a branch to Tombstone, AZ was built in 1903. The mainline was extended from Benson to Tucson in 1912. Another branch line was constructed to Tyrone in 1921. A merger with the Arizona & New Mexico Railroad was finalized on January 1, 1922, including the old Lordsburg& Hachita Railroad.

After WW I, the price of copper began to drop, mines in the area to cease or reduce their operations. Traffic on the El Paso & Southwestern was drastically reduced andPhelps Dodge Corp made the decision to sell the El Paso & Southwestern Railroad. By this time it consisting of over 1,200 miles of track. The Southern Pacific bought the El Paso & Southwestern on November 1, 1924.

The first "Mikado" type locomotives on the El Paso & Southwestern arrived in 1913 with the arrival of the first batch of the ten that the American Locomotive Company would build between 1913 and 1916. These ten locomotives would carry road numbers 363 through 372. They had 63" diameter drivers, 29" x 30" cylinders, a176 psi boiler pressure, exerted 59,910 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 323,000 pounds.

In 1918, the USRA allocated five "Mikado-Heavy" type locomotives to the EP&SW which were built by ALCO. They were given road numbers 373 through 377. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a190 psi boiler pressure, exerted 59,802 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 325,000 pounds.

A final group of "Mikados" were delivered from ALCO in 1920. They were assigned road numbers 378 through 387. These locomotives were close copies of the ones delivered in 1916.

There are no surviving EP&SW 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

Southern Pacific

ClassQty.Road NumbersLinesFrom Other RRYear AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNotes
MK-2163200-3215Pacific Lines1911Baldwin1
MK-4253216-3240Pacific Lines1913Baldwin2
MK-5 9 3241-3249Pacific Lines1913Baldwin3
MK-5 13270Pacific Lines1914Baldwin4
MK-4 53271-3275Pacific Lines1913Baldwin5
MK-5 23276-3277Pacific Lines1917Lima6
MK-512738-749Atlantic Lines - T&NO1919-1921SP7
MK-525750-774Atlantic Lines - T&NO1913Baldwin8
MK-520775-794Atlantic Lines - T&NO1916ALCO9
MK-620 3250-3269Pacific Lines1914Lima10
MK-7103300-3309Pacific LinesEP&SW19241913,1916ALCO11
MK-8 53310-3314Pacific LinesEP&SW19241918ALCO12
MK-9103315-3324Pacific LinesEP&SW19241920ALCO13
MK-10 23295- 3296Pacific LinesM&W10351923ALCO14
Mk-11 23297- 3298Pacific LinesNVRR19431914ALCO15
Notes:
  1. Numbers 3211 and 3214 served on the Southern Pacific of Mexico and assigned road numbers 850 and 851 in 1934. These locomotive returned to Pacific Lines in 1941. Numbers 3200-3215 scrapped between 1934 and 1956.
  2. Numbers 3218 and 3229 served on the Southern Pacific of Mexico and assigned road numbers 852 and 853 in 1934. These locomotive returned to Pacific Lines in 1941. Numbers 3216-3240 scrapped between 1934 and 1956.
  3. Numbers 3241-3249 scrapped between 1951 and 1956.
  4. Number 3270 scrapped by 1956.
  5. Numbers 3236-3240 first on the roster as Arizona Eastern numbers 901-905. In 1917 they were renumbered 3236-3240 and the original 3236-3240 were renumbered as 3271-3275. Numbers 3271-3275 scrapped between 1952 and 1956.
  6. Numbers 3276-3277 first on the roster as Arizona Eastern numbers 906-907. Numbers 3276-3277 scrapped between 1952 and 1956.
  7. Numbers 738-749. The Algiers shops built eleven of these locomotives numbers 738, 740-749 between 1919 and 1921. Number 739 was built by the Houston shops in 1921. Numbers 738-749 scrapped between 1953 and 1957.
  8. Numbers 750-774 scrapped between 1953 and 1957.
  9. Numbers 775-794 scrapped between 1953 and 1957.
  10. Numbers 3250-3269 scrapped between 1951 and 1957.
  11. Came with the purchase of the EP&SW in 1924. Numbers 3300-3309 scrapped between 1950 and 1954
  12. Came with the purchase of the EP&SW in 1924. Numbers 3310-3314 sold to the Great Northern and became Class O-3 numbers 3204-3208.
  13. Came with the purchase of the EP&SW in 1924. Numbers 3315-3324 scrapped between 1950 and 1955.
  14. Conveyed with purchase of the Minarets & Western in 1935. Numbers 3295 and 3296 scrapped in 1953.
  15. Purchased from the Newaukum Valley Railroad in 1943. Number 3297 scrapped in 1953. Number 3298 scrapped in 1954.

El Paso & Southwestern

Qty.Road NumbersSP ClassSP NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
10363-372MK-73300-33091913,1916ALCO1
5373-377MK-83310-33141918ALCO2
10378-387MK-93315-33241920ALCO3
Notes:
  1. Conveyed to the Southern Pacific in 1924 and became Class MK-7 numbers 3300-3309.
  2. USRA allocated "Mikado-Heavy" locomotives. Sold to the Great Northern and became Class O-3 numbers 3204-3208.
  3. Conveyed to the Southern Pacific in 1924 and became Class MK-9 numbers 3315-3324.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class E-4 / Mk-10 (Locobase 8727)

Data from SP Menke All Time Steam Locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also http://basslakeca.com/history.html, accessed 9 September 2007.

One could have figured these Mikados were intended for a logging road - their low drivers and short wheelbase suggest as much. The San Joaquin Valley's river system promised to support a lot of hydro-electric power and the San Joaquin Electric Company was formed in 1902 in northern California. They created the Crane Valley Reservoir, which was later renamed Bass Lake when it was restocked after all of the existing fish died from SJEC actions.

In the 1920s, the M&W was created by the Sugar Pine Lumber Company. A common carrier, the M& served a 53-mile right-of-way from the Fresno vicinity to Wishon, CA, which lay at the western end of Bass Lake. Its primary role was to bring logs to a big sawmill at Pinedale, but that venture failed after 8 years.


Class Mk-2/Mk-4 (Locobase 8725)

Data from SP Menke All Time Steam Locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 37, pp. 170+. Works numbers were 36282-36286, 36307-36311 in March 1911; 36396-36400, 36430 in April.

Although shown with superheaters, which were fitted very shortly after their introduction, these Mikados nevertheless typify the Associated Lines standard Mikado. The first ten SP engines were part of a an order that included 30 locomotives for the Union Pacific and 40 for the Oregon -Washington Railroad and Navigation Company.

Note that these engines, like other early Mikes, rode on 57" drivers. Also, the cylinder dimensions were slightly smaller than what would become the norm. Firebox heating surface area was supplemented by 32 sq ft (2.97 sq m) of arch tubes. 12" (305 mm) admitted steam to the cylinders.


Class Mk-4 (Locobase 14094)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 47, pp. 62+. Works numbers were 40212-40213, 40263-40264, 40268 in July 1913.

Essentially repeats of the 1911 Mk-4s sold to the Southern Pacific (Locobase 8725), this class had its boilers set to 180 psi. Like the other Mk-4s, these served the SP for decades. 3238 was scrapped in December 1951. 3236 went last in August 1956.


Class Mk-5 (T & NO) (Locobase 2458)

Boiler had Worthington S or SA feedwater heater and Nathan Simplex Lifting Injector. A classic Mike built in several batches. The first 25 (750-774) came from Baldwin in April-May 1913; these were originally lettered for the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio and had Baldwin works numbers 39678-39686; 39714-39727 in April 1913; 39769-39770 in May. Alco-Brooks delivered 20 more (775-794) in August-September 1916. SP's Algiers shop built 11 (738, 740-749) in August 1919-October 1921 with the Houston shop adding the 739 in August 1921.

See http://www.main.org/flyer/786.html, the source of the information in this entry, for more information on number 786 which operated as a freight engine from 1916 to 1956. She'd been delivered with an extended smokebox that was removed in the 1920s. Boiler pressure increased 200 psi to 210 psi in 1930 and the superheater and feedwater heater were added in November 1941. After 15 years more service, 786 went on static display in Austin. Beginning in June 1990 the engine was restored for passenger excursions, making its first trip in July 1992. (The website for this organization -- http://www.atcrr.com/786.htm -- provided additional data.)

All but five of the 57 were scrapped in 1952-1957.


Class Mk-5/Mk-6 (Locobase 5440)

Data from table in May 1916 issue of RME and SP Menke All Time Steam Locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Very similar to the T & NO MK-5s that entered service in the same period. Baldwin and Lima built this class. They differed from the earlier MK-2 & MK-4 Mikados (Locobase 8725) in having more cylinder volume and taller drivers, but were otherwise nearly identical.


Class Mk-7/Mk-8 (Locobase 5438)

Data from table in May 1916 issue of Railway Mechanical Engineer and from

Data from SP Menke All Time Steam Locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Five of these heavy Mikes were taken into Southern Pacific service when the EP & SW was absorbed in 1924. Espee engineers didn't like the rough ride this class gave them.


Class Mk-9 (Locobase 8726)

Data from SP Menke All Time Steam Locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Essentially identical to the MK-7/MK-8 Mikados delivered before the USRA era, this class replaced the earlier classes' Baker valve gear with Walschaert gear to actuate its 14" piston valves. The only other difference was the apparently inevitable growth in weight.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE-4 / Mk-10Mk-2/Mk-4Mk-4Mk-5 (T & NO)Mk-5/Mk-6
Locobase ID8727 8725 14,094 2458 5440
RailroadMinarets & Western (SP)Southern Pacific (SP)Arizona Eastern (SP)Texas & New Orleans (SP)Southern Pacific (SP)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class21655737
Road Numbers102-103 / 3295-32963200-32353237-2340, 3236738-7903241-3249, 3250-3277
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built21655737
BuilderAlco-BrooksBaldwinBaldwinseveralseveral
Year19231911191319131913
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.58 / 4.4416 / 4.8816 / 4.8816.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)33.25 / 10.1334.67 / 10.5734.67 / 10.5735.17 / 10.7235.17 / 10.72
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.47
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)67.96 / 20.7164.58 / 19.6869.26 / 21.1180.17 / 24.4469.76 / 21.26
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)54,300 / 24,630
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)207,800 / 94,257221,800 / 100,607206,200 / 93,531213,380 / 96,788214,020 / 97,078
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)258,800 / 117,390286,800 / 130,090265,600 / 120,474285,980 / 129,719280,960 / 127,441
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)172,000 / 78,018170,040 / 77,129170,040 / 77,129156,100 / 70,806170,040 / 77,129
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)430,800 / 195,408456,840 / 207,219435,640 / 197,603442,080 / 200,525451,000 / 204,570
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,000 / 37.889000 / 34.099000 / 34.099000 / 34.099000 / 34.09
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.102940 / 11.102940 / 11.102940 / 11.102940 / 11.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)8792868989
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)52 / 132157 / 144857 / 144863 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80210 / 14.50180 / 12.40210 / 14.50200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)24.5" x 28" / 622x71123.5" x 30" / 597x76223.5" x 30" / 597x76226" x 28" / 660x71126" x 28" / 660x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)54,946 / 24923.1251,882 / 23533.3144,471 / 20171.7353,629 / 24325.7351,076 / 23167.71
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.78 4.28 4.64 3.98 4.19
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)286 / 26.58235 / 21.83242 / 22.48235 / 21.84242 / 22.49
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)63.30 / 5.8870.40 / 6.5470.40 / 6.5470.40 / 6.5470.40 / 6.54
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3550 / 329.934207 / 390.844215 / 391.583974 / 369.334215 / 391.73
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)862 / 80.11858 / 79.71890 / 82.68865 / 80.39890 / 82.71
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4412 / 410.045065 / 470.555105 / 474.264839 / 449.725105 / 474.44
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume232.36279.34279.88230.97244.97
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,66014,78412,67214,78414,080
Same as above plus superheater percentage15,19217,29714,82617,44516,474
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area68,64057,74050,96558,23356,628
Power L114,45217,35915,25516,57516,397
Power MT613.30690.17652.41685.00675.62

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassMk-7/Mk-8Mk-9
Locobase ID5438 8726
RailroadEl Paso & Southwestern (SP)El Paso & Southwestern (SP)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-2
Number in Class1510
Road Numbers363-3773315-3324
GaugeStdStd
Number Built1510
BuilderAlcoAlco-Schenectady
Year19141920
Valve GearBakerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)35.25 / 10.7435.25 / 10.74
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.47
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)68.39 / 20.8568.39 / 20.85
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)242,000 / 109,769246,800 / 111,947
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)321,000 / 145,603323,000 / 146,511
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)180,000 / 81,647186,000 / 84,368
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)501,000 / 227,250509,000 / 230,879
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)9000 / 34.099000 / 34.09
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)18 / 16.4018 / 16.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)101103
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10175 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)29" x 30" / 737x76229" x 30" / 737x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)59,571 / 27020.9859,571 / 27020.98
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.06 4.14
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)254.70 / 23.67254.70 / 23.67
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)70.30 / 6.5370.40 / 6.54
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4183 / 388.754183 / 388.75
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1031 / 95.821031 / 95.82
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5214 / 484.575214 / 484.57
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume182.39182.39
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,30312,320
Same as above plus superheater percentage14,76314,784
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area53,48753,487
Power L111,80611,806
Power MT430.21421.84

Photos

Reference