Tennessee Central 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

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The Tennessee Central Railroad began in 1892 to haul coal, iron and lumber in Tennessee. The line ran from Harriman, TN west 163.5 miles to Nashville then another 83.5 miles northwest to Hopkinsville, KY passing through Clarksville, TN. Along the line there were several small branches. At Harriman the TC connected with the Southern Railway

In 1968 the TC was liquidated and parts of it were bought by the IC, L&N and the Southern Railway. The Tennessee Central endured for over 80 years in the face of very tough odds, and played a considerable part in the economic development of its service region.

The Tennessee Central purchased most of its motive power second hand. However, it did buy twelve new "Mikados" from the American Locomotive Company, eight in1922 and four more in 1926

The eight "Mikados" ALCO delivered in 1922 were given road numbers 601 through 608. These locomotives had 56" diameter drivers, 22" x 28" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 41,140 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 208,050 pounds. The firebox was 165 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,175 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 3,827.

In 1926, the four 2-8-2s ALCO delivered were assigned road numbers 701 through 704. These locomotives had 57" diameter drivers, 25" x 30" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 55,921 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 283,536 pounds. The firebox was 218 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 2,439 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 3,341.

There were six other Mikados" on the TC that were bought second-hand. Three locomotives were bought in 1937 from the New York Central and assigned road numbers 725 through 727 and three bought from the CCC&StL in 1938 and assigned road numbers 728 through 730.

There are no surviving TC 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

Qty.Road NumbersFrom Other RRYear AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNotes
8601-6081922ALCO1
4701-7041924ALCO2
1 725NYC19371906ALCO3
1726NYC19371905ALCO4
1727NYC19371905ALCO5
1728CCC&StL19381907ALCO6
1729CCC&StL19381907ALCO7
1 730CCC&StL19381906ALCO8
Notes:
  1. Numbers 601-608. All scrapped by 1952
  2. Numbers 701-704. All scrapped by 1952
  3. Ex NYC #3850, renumbered1312 in 1936. Acquired in 1937. Scrapped in the late 1940s
  4. Ex NYC #4122, renumbered 1430 in 1936. Acquired in 1937. Scrapped in the late 1940s
  5. Ex NYC #3777, renumbered1277 in 1936. Acquired in 1937. Scrapped in the late 1940s
  6. Ex CCC&StL #6717. Acquired in 1938. Scrapped in the late 1940s
  7. Ex CCC&StL #6063. Acquired in 1938. Scrapped in the late 1940s
  8. Ex CCC&StL #6057. Acquired from the Alton & Southern in 1939 was A&S #17. Scrapped in the late 1940s

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 601 (Locobase 7348)

Data from TC 1941ca Locomotive Diagrams and Miscellaneous Data supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

One of the key factors in the type of locomotives procured by the TC was the relatively small budget the contractors had when they built the railroad; see Locobase 7344 for a summary of the TC's history. As a result, axle loadings were relatively low. These Mikados (Alco works #63317-63324) show the effects of such constraints. Compared to the mainline 2-8-2s being built to the USRA designs (or variations thereof), these were small locomotives with small drivers. They slogged rather than loped.

Only two years later, however, the railroad went for considerably bigger engines. See Locobase 7349.


Class 701 (Locobase 7349)

Data from TC 1941ca Locomotive Diagrams and Miscellaneous Data supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 29 November 2015 email that included the Builder's Card for this class to correct errors in the Locobase entry.) For some reason, the railroad showed the 704 on a separate page, probably because it pulled a larger, 11,500-gallon tender. Works numbers were 65282-65285 in June 1924.

Although the first and larger class of Mikados delivered to the TC were quite small (Locobase 7348), the next group -- this quartet from Richmond owed a lot to the USRA Light 2-8-2 design (Locobase 40). For one thing, the axle loading increased by 25%, tractive effort followed suit and the result was a relatively large locomotive. Driver diameter still was scaled to the many ups and downs of the TC mainline and measured considerably less than the by-then-standard 63".

The biggest difference from the USRA's Light Mikado was in the impressive increase in the ratio of superheater to overall heating surface -- this was a hot engine, but one with less steam in reserve for long pulls. Firebox heating surface included 27 sq ft (2.51 sq m) in arch tubes. By 1941, the TC recorded the engines loaded weight as 283,536 lb (128,610 kg) and the boiler pressure as 200 psi (13.79 bar).

All but 703 were off the roster by January 1953. 703 was shown as a "standby" engine.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class601701
Locobase ID7348 7349
RailroadTennessee CentralTennessee Central
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-2
Number in Class84
Road Numbers601-608701-704
GaugeStdStd
Number Built84
BuilderAlco-BrooksAlco-Richmond
Year19221924
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15 / 4.5715 / 4.57
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)33 / 10.0633.58 / 10.24
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.45 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)64.92 / 19.7967.60 / 20.60
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)39,500 / 17,917
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)158,000 / 71,668221,000 / 100,244
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)208,050 / 94,370279,000 / 126,552
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)159,300 / 72,257166,800 / 75,659
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)367,350 / 166,627445,800 / 202,211
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8000 / 30.309000 / 34.09
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)14 / 12.7014 / 12.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6692
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56 / 142257 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 28" / 559x71125" x 30" / 635x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)41,140 / 18660.8153,125 / 24097.12
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.84 4.16
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)165 / 15.33245 / 22.76
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)47.80 / 4.4466.80 / 6.21
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3175 / 295.073466 / 322
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)652 / 60.59902 / 83.80
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3827 / 355.664368 / 405.80
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume257.73203.35
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation956012,692
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,18515,357
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area38,61056,326
Power L114,95313,565
Power MT834.57541.28

Photos