Wabash 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

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The Wabash Railroad served a large area, including trackage in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri and Ontario. It connected Buffalo, NY with Chicago, IL, Kansas City, MO, Detroit, MI, Buffalo, NY, St. Louis, MO, Toledo, OH, Fort Wayne, IN, and Omaha, NB. The Wabash's major freight traffic advantage was the direct line from Kansas City to Detroit, without going through St. Louis or Chicago.

At its peak it was only a little over 2,000 miles in length but its bridge line status, markets it served, and high speed freight service made it a quite successful railroad, especially during its latter years. Eventually the Wabash was swept up in the merger mania beginning in the late 1950s and after a long stint of PRR ownership it eventually became part of the sprawling N&W system in the 1960s.

The Wabash bought sixty-three "Mikado" type locomotives in 1912 and designated them as Class K-1. The railroad split the order between the Baldwin Locomotive Works, which delivered twenty-eight (road numbers 2416 through 2443) and the American Locomotive Company, which delivered fifteen (road numbers 2401 through 2415) from its Richmond Locomotive Works and twenty (road numbers 2444 through 2463) from its Pittsburgh Locomotive & Car Works. The K-1, locomotives had 64" diameter drivers, 25 ½" x 30" cylinders, a boiler pressure of 210 psi, they exerted 54,408 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 266,840 pounds. The fire box was 207 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,310 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,050 square feet.

A group of twenty ALCO-built USRA "Mikado-Light" 2-8-2's allocated to the Wabash arrived in 1918. Designated as Class K-2 they were assigned road numbers 2201 through 2220. In 1919, five of these locomotives were transferred to the Pere Marquette and five Baldwin-built 2-8-2 locomotives were moved from the Western Pacific to take their place. USRA 2-8-2's were specified to have 63" diameter drivers. The Wabash listed these locomotives as having 64" diameter drivers because they were refitted with thicker tires. The Class K-2's had 26" x 30" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 54,600 pounds of tractive effort and the locomotive, without a tender, weighed 290,800 pounds. The fire box was 280 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 3,783 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 4,665 square feet.

In 1923, ALCO delivered thirty "Mikado" type locomotives to the Wabash. Five of them were equipped with boosters, which increased the locomotive weight by 10,000 pounds and the tractive effort by 11,836 pounds. The twenty-five without boosters were designated as Class K-3 and assigned road numbers 2250 through 2274 and the five with the boosters were designated Class K-3b and were given road numbers 2275 through 2279. These locomotives had 64" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a boiler pressure of 210 psi, and a tractive effort, without the booster, of 65,063 pounds. The locomotive without a tender weighed 325,000 pounds for numbers 2250 through 2269 and 331,000 pounds for numbers 2270 through 2279. The fire box was 305 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,189 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,240 square feet.

The Wabash received another forty-five ALCO-built "Mikado" locomotives in 1925, with twenty of them equipped with boosters, which were very similar to the boosters furnished on the class K-3b locomotives. The group with the boosters was designated as Class K-4b and assigned road numbers 2700 through 2719. The locomotives without the booster was designated as Class K-4 and assigned numbers 2720 through 2744. These locomotives had 64" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a boiler pressure of 210 psi and a tractive effort of 65,063 lbs without the booster. The fire box was 341 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,225 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,276 square feet. The weight of numbers 2730 through 2744 was 333,730 pounds and numbers 2700 through 2729 weighed 338,580 pounds without a tender or the booster. Number 2743 and 2744 were used to build a pair of Class P-1, 2-4-6 locomotives in 1947 and 1948. These "Hudson" type locomotives were built in the Decatur Shops of the Wabash.

The last 2-8-2s to be added to the Wabash roster were five ALCO-built 3 cylinder "Mikado" type locomotives, which were delivered in 1925, designated as Class K-5 and assigned road numbers 2600 through 2604. They had two 23" x 32" cylinders and one 23" x 28" cylinder, 64" diameter drivers, a 210 psi boiler pressure, a tractive effort of 67,869 pounds and the locomotive without a tender weighed 342,000 pounds. The fire box was 340 square feet, the evaporative heating surface was 4,224 square feet and with the superheater the combined heating surface was 5,303 square feet. These five locomotives did not perform as well as expected and were put into storage shortly after their arrival. In 1943 and 1944 the boiler from these locomotives were used in five Class P-1 "Hudson" locomotives which were built in Decatur Shops and assigned road numbers 700 through 704.

There are no surviving Wabash 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
K-1152401-24151912ALCO1
K-1282416-24431912Baldwin2
K-1202444-24631912ALCO3
K-2202201-22201918ALCO4
K-2 52213-15,2218-191918Baldwin 5
K-3252250-22741923ALCO6
K-3b 52275-22791923ALCO7
K-4252720-27441925ALCO8
K-4b202700-27191925ALCO9
K-5 52600-26041925ALCO10
Notes
  1. Numbers 2412 sold to the Algoma Central in 1942 and became Algoma Central number 61. Numbers 2403, 2405, 2407, 2409 and 2410 sold to the Alton & Southern 1940-1942 and became A&S numbers 21, 23, 25, 22 and 24 in that order. Numbers 2414 and 2415 sold to the Seaboard Air Lines in 1942 and became SAL numbers 480 and 481. All the others scrapped between 1951 and 1954.
  2. Number 2426 sold to the Algoma Central in 1942 and became Algoma Central number 60. Number 2430 sold to the Alton & Southern in 1940-1942 and became A&S number 19. Numbers 2424, 2427, 2434, 2437, 2439, and 2440 sold to the Seaboard Air Lines in 1942 and became SAL numbers 482-487. Number 2419 was sold to the Algers, Winslow & Western in 1941. Number 2418 scrapped in 1939. All the others scrapped between 1951 and 1954.
  3. Numbers 2455, 2457, 2458, 2460 and 2463 sold to the Algoma Central in 1942 and became Algoma Central numbers 63, 64, 66, 62 and 65 in that order. Numbers 2447 and 2448 sold to the Alton & Southern 1940-1942 and became A&S numbers 20 and 18 in that order. Number 2456 wrecked in 1942 and scrapped in 1943. All the others scrapped between 1951 and 1954.
  4. USRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotive. Five of these class K-2 locomotives, numbers: 2213, 2214, 2215, 2218 & 2219 were transferred to the Pere Marquette and were assigned PM numbers 1025, 1026, 1027, 1028 & 1029. Number 2202 scrapped in 1949. All the others scrapped between 1951 and 1953.
  5. These five Mikado locomotives, built by Baldwin, were received from the Western Pacific. Former WP Numbers 321, 322, 323, 324 & 325 were given the same Wabash numbers as the five that had been transferred to the Pere Marquette, 2213, 2214, 2215, 2218 and 2219. They were scrapped in 1951.
  6. Number 2254 was scrapped in 1944. All the others scrapped between 1950 and 1955.
  7. These locomotives were built with boosters. Scrapped in 1951-1952.
  8. Numbers 2743 and 2744 were rebuilt into 4-6-4s between 1943 and 1947 and were reclassified as Class P-1 and renumbered 705 and 706. Numbers 705 and 706 scrapped in 1956. All the others scrapped between 1951 and 1953.
  9. These locomotives were built with boosters. Numbers 2700-2719 scrapped between 1951 and 1953.
  10. All five of the Class K-5 locomotives as delivered in 1925 had three cylinders. Numbers 2600-2604 rebuilt into 4-6-4s between 1943 and 1947 and reclassified as Class P-1 and renumbered 700-704. All five locomotives scrapped in 1956.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class K1 (Locobase 473)

Data from WAB 1 - 1917 Locomotive Diagrams book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Alco's Richmond Works supplied the first 15 in 1912, Baldwin followed with road number 2416-24 ( works numbers 37757, 37763, 37771-37779 in May 1912; 37854-37858, 37867-37873, 3787-37882, 37922-37923 in June), and Alco's Pittsburgh Works finished off the last 15 in 1913.

Mentioned briefly in 7 December 1917 Railway Age Gazette article that described its 2-10-2 successor. Said at the time to pull an average train load of 3,500 tons. The design featured a good amount of cylinder volume served by 14" piston valves. The firebox included 26 sq ft of arch tubes.

Retired over a 15 year period from 1939 to 1954.


Class K3 (Locobase 8319)

Data from WAB 1 -1946 Loco Crane & Marine diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

These Mikados were based on the USRA lights, but were substantially bigger and heavier. The specs give weights for locomotives fitted with a feedwater heater. They also had taller drivers. Firebox heating surface included 32 sq ft in 4 arch tubes. Schenectady delivered 12 in 1923, 18 in 1924.

Over time the class acquired a Worthington feedwater heater and Duplex D1 stoker. The last 5 sported a Franklin C1 booster that added 11,836 lb to starting tractive effort; these were originally designated K-3b and 5 tons heavier overall.


Class K4 (Locobase 8488)

Data from WAB 1 -1946 Loco Crane & Marine diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 8319 describes the first set of post-USRA Mikados to come to the Wabash. The current entry shows the second wave. While the boiler didn't change much, the firebox grew, although it still had 4 arch tubes of 32 sq ft total contributing to the firebox heating surface. The weights shown reflect the installation of a Worthington feedwater heater.

Twenty additional locomotives came equipped with trailing-truck bosters and these would received Nicholson thermic syphons; see Locobase 8489.


Class K4b (Locobase 8489)

Data from WAB 1 -1946 Loco Crane & Marine diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

More than half of the Wabash's 45-locomotive order from Schenectady in 1925 consisted of locomotives without a trailing-truck booster; these are shown in Locobase 8488.

In this entry, we see heavier locomotives from the same order delivered with Franklin C1 boosters and later fitted with 4 Nicholson thermic syphons. Although fitting the latter meant eliminating 2 arch tubes of 16 sq ft total area, the 4 syphons more than made up for the loss in quality heating surface measuring 79 sq ft in all. It's also noteworthy to notice the increase in weight on the latter three axles of the locomotive.


Class K5 (Locobase 23)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia tables. Thanks to Chris Hohl for pointing out in his 10 May 2013 email Alco's licensing of Nigel Gresley's conjugating gear in its three-cylinder locomotives. Works numbers were 66158-66162 in February 1925.

L&N 1999 (Locobase 21) and MP 1699 (Locobase 22) were very similar three-cylinder engines. Stroke on two outside cylinders was 32 inches, inside cylinder had 28-inch stroke; all cylinders were served by 12" (305 mm) piston valves. Arch tubes contributed 32 sq ft (3 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area.

Put into storage soon after delivery, where they languished until their boilers were used to make 4-6-4s.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassK1K3K4K4bK5
Locobase ID473 8319 8488 8489 23
RailroadWabashWabashWabashWabashWabash
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class633025205
Road Numbers2401-24632250-22792720-27442700-27192600-2604
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built633025205
BuilderseveralAlco-SchenectadyAlco-SchenectadyAlco-SchenectadyAlco-Schenectady
Year19161923192519251925
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert & Gresley
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.75 / 5.1116.75 / 5.1116.75 / 5.1116.75 / 5.1117.80 / 5.43
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)34.50 / 10.5237.17 / 11.3339.08 / 11.9139.08 / 11.9137.40 / 11.40
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.49 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.48
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)66.67 / 20.3271.87 / 21.9173.79 / 22.4973.79 / 22.4973.78 / 22.49
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)54,260 / 24,61261,400 / 27,85165,840 / 29,86568,500 / 31,07165,220 / 29,583
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)207,140 / 93,957242,000 / 109,769251,870 / 114,246257,660 / 116,873252,000 / 114,305
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)266,840 / 121,037331,000 / 150,139338,580 / 153,577346,480 / 157,161342,000 / 155,129
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)158,300 / 71,804196,200 / 88,995194,500 / 88,224194,500 / 88,224194,500 / 88,224
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)425,140 / 192,841527,200 / 239,134533,080 / 241,801540,980 / 245,385536,500 / 243,353
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8900 / 33.7110,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)11.50 / 10.5022 / 2018 / 16.4018 / 16.4018 / 16.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)86101105107105
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)64 / 162664 / 162664 / 162664 / 162664 / 1626
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)190 / 13.10210 / 14.50210 / 14.50210 / 14.50200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)26" x 30" / 660x76227" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x81327" x 32" / 686x81323" x 32" / 584x813
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)23" x 28" / 584x711 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)51,175 / 23212.6265,063 / 29512.1265,063 / 29512.1265,063 / 29512.1264,637 / 29318.88
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.05 3.72 3.87 3.96 3.90
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)207 / 19.24305 / 28.35341 / 31.69404 / 37.55340 / 31.59
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)63 / 5.8666.70 / 6.2070.90 / 6.5970.90 / 6.5970.30 / 6.53
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3310 / 307.624189 / 389.314225 / 392.664288 / 398.514224 / 392.57
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)740 / 68.771051 / 97.681051 / 97.681051 / 97.681079 / 100.28
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4050 / 376.395240 / 486.995276 / 490.345339 / 496.195303 / 492.85
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume179.55197.54199.24202.21274.50
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation11,97014,00714,88914,88914,060
Same as above plus superheater percentage14,12516,80817,86717,86716,872
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area46,40976,86085,932101,80881,600
Power L112,09816,02816,25616,65515,079
Power MT515.04584.06569.16570.02527.67

Photos

Reference