Woodward Iron Company 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 14 (Locobase 12693)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 27, p. 14. Works number was 24134 in April 1904..

Alabama's WIC continued its growth, adding a third blast furnace in 1905 and soon increasing its capacity to 250,000 tons annually. This early Mikado represented a jump in power on the WIC's rails.


Class 19 (Locobase 12694)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 30, p. 143 and Vol 35, p. 313. Works numbers were 29383 in November 1906 and 35263 in September 1910.

Steady increases in tonnage demands along the network of roads leading to the blast furnaces from the coal fields eight miles to the south and the iron mines eight miles toward the north. Thus, even the 2-8-2 described in Locobase 12693 wasn't enough Mikado for the new demands.


Class 28 (Locobase 12696)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 47, p. 224. Works number was 38308 in September 1912.

28's boiler almost certainly had the greatest evaporative heating surface area of any saturated-steam Mikado supplied to a US road and consequently the largest of any 2-8-2. In fact, this vessel seems to have contained the greatest EHS of any rigid-wheelbase engine other than four 2-10-4 classes that also had considerable amounts of superheat. A 1920s photo reproduced in the University of Alabama Libraries Digital Collection's holding of Woodward Iron images shows the slide valves, massive construction, and two oversized sandboxes flanking the steam dome.

The Baldwin specification entry is explicit about the destination of this engine. WIC was described as having 80 lb/yard (40 kg/metre) rail and some sections of poor track. This behemoth served the WIC for just over 30 years before being scrapped in 1943.


Class 29 (Locobase 12695)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 47, p. 222. See also Southern Railway's 75th anniversary salute to the WIC in 1959 , archived at http://southern.railfan.net/ties/1959/59-1/wood.html . Works numbers 38438 in October 1912 and 38812-38813 in November.

By 1912, buying Mikados in North America without superheaters was quite rare. But Woodward Iron seems to have happy with its middle-sized, low-drivered, saturated-boiler 2-8-2s (see Locobases 12694-12695) and settled for a slightly higher pressure boiler, more weight on the drivers, and a tweak of the firebox area.

According to the Southern's account, the WIC had recently added complex new capabilities to its traditional mix: "In 1911, another of the company's giant forward steps resulted, upon completion of its first battery of 60 by-product coke ovens (an additional 80 ovens were built the following year) .Where before only coke had been obtained from the old-fashioned beehive ovens, the company could with the new ovens extract and sell coal chemicals such as coke oven tar, ammonium sulphate, toluene, xylene, napthalene, pyridine, benzol and crude heavy solvent. Later, coke oven gas not used in company operations was sold to neighboring industries."

Its 1912 acquisition of Birmingham Coal & Iron opened access to the BC&I's sizable coal reserves.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class14192829
Locobase ID12,693 12,694 12,696 12,695
RailroadWoodward Iron CompanyWoodward Iron CompanyWoodward Iron CompanyWoodward Iron Company
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class1113
Road Numbers1419, 262829-31
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built1113
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBaldwin
Year1904190619121912
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12 / 3.6614.50 / 4.4216 / 4.8814.50 / 4.42
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25.67 / 7.8229 / 8.8435.17 / 10.7229 / 8.84
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.50 0.45 0.50
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.95 / 15.8357.83 / 17.6367.08 / 20.4557.83 / 17.63
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)144,000 / 65,317173,000 / 78,472220,000 / 99,790178,200 / 80,830
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)179,000 / 81,193209,700 / 95,118245,000 / 111,130210,050 / 95,277
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)120,000 / 54,431140,000 / 63,503160,000 / 72,575140,000 / 63,503
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)299,000 / 135,624349,700 / 158,621405,000 / 183,705350,050 / 158,780
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.737000 / 26.528000 / 30.307000 / 26.52
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)11 / 1014 / 12.7011 / 10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)60 / 3072 / 3692 / 4674 / 37
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)46 / 116851 / 129557 / 144851 / 1295
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 11200 / 13.80210 / 14.50210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)21" x 24" / 533x61022" x 28" / 559x71124.5" x 30" / 622x76222" x 28" / 559x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)35,203 / 15967.8345,173 / 20490.1556,392 / 25579.0147,432 / 21514.82
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.09 3.83 3.90 3.76
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)187 / 17.38182.30 / 16.94245 / 22.77185 / 17.19
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)33 / 3.0757 / 5.3075 / 6.9757 / 5.30
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2505 / 232.813300 / 306.696036 / 560.973303 / 306.97
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2505 / 232.813300 / 306.696036 / 560.973303 / 306.97
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume260.36267.88368.74268.12
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation594011,40015,75011,970
Same as above plus superheater percentage594011,40015,75011,970
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area33,66036,46051,45038,850
Power L14934581288496126
Power MT302.16296.26354.70303.15

Photos