2-8-8-4 "Yellowstone" Locomotives in the USA

Only 72 Yellowstones were built (in five different classes). Each class of Yellowstone was a different design (except for the two classes owned by the DM&IR). The design was usually dictated by the specific needs of the railroad that received them. The first to have a Yellowstone built was the Northern Pacific who named the wheel arrangment after Yellowstone Park (a region serviced by the Northern Pacific).

RailroadClassQuantityYear BuiltBuilder
NPZ-5121928ALCO(1), Baldwin(11)
SPAC-9121939Lima
DM&IRM-3/4181941Baldwin
B&OEM-1301944Baldwin

A Dimensional Comparison of Large Locomotives

Books and magazines will often state that the Big Boy was the largest steam locomotive ever built. But, what do they mean by "largest"? When comparing steam locomotives, many different quantities can be considered. For example, weight, length, horsepower, and tractive effort are all characteristics of how "large" a steam locomotive is. In many of these categories, a locomotive "larger" than a Big Boy can be found. Does this mean that all of those books and magazines are wrong?

If you were to ignore all of the unsuccessful and experimental locomotives, then look at the overall ratings of the remaining steam locomotives in the above categories, it would become clear that there were many large locomotives. One could argue that the Big Boys were the largest and maybe they were. But the NP Z-5, the DM&IR M-3/4, the C&O H-8, and the N&W Y6b were all examples of the largest of all successful steam locomotives.

RailroadWPN&WGNNPSPDM&IRB&OSPUPUPC&ON&WPRRPRRSouth African Railways
ClassM-137Y6bR-2Z-5AC-9M-3/M-4EM-1AC-10/11/12Big Boy (4884-2)4664-5H-8 - 1645AQ2S1GL
Wheel Arrangement2-8-8-22-8-8-22-8-8-22-8-8-42-8-8-42-8-8-42-8-8-44-8-8-24-8-8-44-6-6-42-6-6-62-6-6-44-4-6-46-4-4-64-8-2+2-8-4
Series251-2602171-22002044-20595001-50113800-3811220-2377600-76294205-42944020-40243930-39491645-16591200-12426175+61002350-2357
Cyl:Dia x Stroke26x3225x3228x3226x3224x3226x3224x3224x3223.75x3221x3222.5x3324x3019.75x2822x2622x26
Driver Diameter6358636363.5636463.568696770698448
Boiler Pressure235300240250250240235250300280260300300300200
Grate Area145106.2126182139.5125117.5139150132135122121.713275
Evaporative Heating Surface6,8114,9157,8697,6736,9186,7825,2986,4705,7554,6426,7956,6396,7255,6613,396
Superheater Heating Surface2,1521,4783,5153,2192,8312,7702,1182,6162,0431,7412,9222,7032,9302,085835
Weight on Drivers552,700548,500544,000558,900531,200560,257485,000531,700545,200404,200504,010432,350393,000281,450324,464
Total Engine Weight665,100611,520630,750723,400689,900695,040628,700657,900772,250634,500751,830573,000619,100608,170
Maximum Axle Weight69,08868,00070,90066,40062,10069,10067,80085,48072,00079,78040,992
Tender Weight408,250378,600372,780402,000400,700438,000382,000393,300436,500434,500431,710378,600422,000451,840
Total Engine and Tender Weight1,073,350990,1201,003,5301,125,4001,090,6001,133,0401,010,7001,051,2001,208,7501,069,0001,183,540951,6001,041,1001,060,010472,864
Overall Wheelbase108114.87106.02110.08112.99113.49112.5112.17117.58106.67112.92108.27107.62123.7683.58
Tractive Effort137,174124,644162,475145,930123,364140,093115,056123,364135,37597,352110,211125,897100,81676,40389,137
Tractive Effort Booster13,90013,40015,000
Maximum Speed5063807060100
Drawbar Horsepower5,600@256,000@406,345@41.57,498@465,300@437,200

Railroads that used 2-8-8-4 "Yellowstone" Locomotives in the USA (data provided by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media)

Surviving Examples of 2-8-8-4 "Yellowstone" Locomotives in the USA

No.ClassF.M. WhyteGaugeRailroad LineLocationStatusBuilder InfoNotes
227M-32-8-8-44'-8½"DM&IR Lake Superior Railroad Museum, Duluth, MNdisplayBaldwin #62533, 1941
225M-32-8-8-44'-8½"DM&IR US 2, Proctor, MNdisplayBaldwin #62531, 1941
229M-42-8-8-44'-8½"DM&IR D&IR Depot, Two Harbors, MNdisplayBaldwin #64708, 1943

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