Delaware, Lackawanna &Western 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives in the USA

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Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 164 (Locobase 9938)

Data from "Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Passenger Engine," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol. X, No 2 (February 1897), page 158. Dickson works numbers 937-939. These were originally delivered to the Morris & Essex (M & E).

Like all camelbacks from the anthracite region, this trio had the wide Wootten firebox that had transformed a coal-mining by-product. As Sinclair observed: "Culm is the fuel to be burned, and judging from the success that has attended its recent use, there is no reason to doubt the outcome in the present case. The problem of successfully utilizing the immense culm piles has been one of no small moment, but it was practically solved when they were made to give up some of their stored energy in hauling freight and passengers."


Class 165 (Locobase 9502)

Data from "Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Anthracite-burning Eight-Wheeler," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, March 1899, page 129; and "Dickson Locomotive for the Lackawanna", The Railway Age, Vol 27 (3 March 1899), p. 155. Works numbers were 1011-1012 in November-December 1898.

This pair from a local (Scranton, PA) builder just preceded the numerous G class (Locobase 102) that entered service three years later. The R&LE noted the particularly difficult nature of the commute on the Morris and Essex division that left from Hoboken and for which these locomotives were designed: "About 7 miles out a grade of about 78 feet to the mile [1.4%] has to be climbed for about three miles." At the time of the design, passenger trains would use helpers, but these Camelback were meant to take the grade on their own.

The later G class adopted larger-diameter drivers and enlarged the boiler to compensate.


Class 19C/G-2/G-3 (Locobase 102)

Featured in Railroad Gazette (3 May 1901) and a table in the June 1906 AERJ. See also DeGolyer, Volume 26, pp. 300 and "Eight-Wheel, Wide Firebox Passenger Locomotives", American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume 75, Number 5 (May 1901), pp. 144-145. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .)

A "camelback" series with relatively low drivers for local passenger works built over a ten-year period, this set had one of the lowest boiler heating surface to grate area ratios possible. At the time, the AERJ article observed that a six-car train ran over the mountain profile at a 40-mph (64 kph) average, performance "so satisfactory as to indicate a successful result." The report adds "...great care was used to simplify in every possible way to avoid breakdowns. The driving journals were 9 x 12 inches [178 x 205 mm], and with 197 lb [89.4 kg] per square inch load, these do not run hot."

Their relatively small drivers gave them a useful tractive effort, but as speeds and weights climbed on the express trains they hauled, this type was relegated to suburban service.

Schenectady supplied the first 27 in 1901-1903 (973-999). Baldwin followed with 15 in 1904 (953-972), then back to Schenectady for 12 in 1905 (944-955) and 11 in 1910-1911 (933-944).

Most of the camelbacks were scrapped before World War II; a few were rebuilt with a single cab.

Many were superheated in the 1916-1921 period and fitted with piston valves; see Locobases 5725-5727. Ten of these were rebuilt in the 20s with a conventional cab, Baker valve gear.


Class G - superheated (Locobase 5725)

Data from set of DL&W locomotive diagrams at http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/el/loco/dlw-127.html (29 October 2003)

When the Lackawanna superheated its camelback 8-wheelers (see Locobase 102), most of them were rebuilt to the specifications shown. This involved substituting "economy chests" with 10' (254 mm) piston valves for the slide valves originally installed. One locomotive, 944 had its boiler tubes lengthened by about 5" (127 mm) over the standard rebuild, which increased total evaporative surface area to 1,637 sq ft.

For some in the group, the upgrade meant continued service through World War II. These were later retrofitted with conventional cabs. In April 2013, Chris Hohl sent a photo of 988 cosmetically "streamlined" in the same style as the N-class Pacifics. See Locobase 3306 for the full details of this makeover. The shorter boiler meant that only three bands were visible on the boiler instead of the Pacifics' six.

Others began retiring in the late 1920s.


Class G-6a (Locobase 5362)

Data from table in June 1906 AERJ. These camelbacks continued the acquisition of a series of 69" passenger engines with wide Wootten fireboxes. According to Drury (1993), the last 3 -- 953-955 -- had experimental superheaters and the last two were delivered with piston valves. The others retrofitted with piston valves when they were superheated in 1916-1921. Retirements began in 1929 and ended in 1937.


Class G-8a (Locobase 5727)

Data from set of DL&W locomotive diagrams at http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/el/loco/dlw-127.html (29 October 2003)

Like the other superheated camelback 8-wheelers (see Locobase 102), the rebuild involved substituting "economy chests" with piston valves for the slide valves originally installed. This one engine had its boiler tubes lengthened by about 5", which accounts for the increased heating surface area.


Class G-8b/G-9b (Locobase 5726)

Data from set of DL&W locomotive diagrams at http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/el/loco/dlw-127.html (29 October 2003).

As delivered by Alco's Schenectady works in 1910, the five G-8s had work numbers 47943-47947. The 1911 engines, class G-9, had works numbers 49977-49982.

Like the other superheated camelback eight-wheelers (see Locobase 102), the rebuild involved substituting "economy chests" with piston valves for the slide valves originally installed. For some reason, these four had fewer flues left after the conversion.


Class Southport (Locobase 2555)

Boiler pressure is an estimate. Works number was 98 in February 1857.

Standard 4-4-0 of the time, according to White (1968). Originally built for the Ohio & Mississippi, it was delivered instead to the Delaware, Lackawanna, & Western for $11,500. A good investment it turned out to be, because the engine (renamed WE Dodge in 1865 and Sam Sloan in 1876) ran until 1912.

At the time of its construction, the builder was known as Danforth, Cooke & Co.


Class unknown (Locobase 5422)

Featured in RREJ of July 1891, this anthracite burner had a relatively narrow firebox at 42" inside. It was designed by WH Lewis, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western's Master Mechanic. Boiler pressure is an estimate.

The Journal's comment on its use: "The work done by the passenger engines on this road is excellent and by no means easy. On the through or express trains they must keep up a high speed over a line having numerous curves and som very steep grades, while on the local trains they have to haul frequently 8 and 10 cars, with stops at intervals of one or two miles."

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class16416519C/G-2/G-3G - superheatedG-6a
Locobase ID9938 9502 102 5725 5362
RailroadDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &Western
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class32656512
Road Numbers163-164 / 912, 914-915165-166/971-972973-999, 933-972944-955
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built326512
BuilderDicksonDicksonseveralshopsAlco-Schenectady
Year18961898190119161905
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonBakerStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.96 / 722.92 / 6.9924.40 / 7.4424.41 / 7.4424.42 / 7.44
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.37 0.35 0.35 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49.08 / 14.9648.62 / 14.8250.98 / 15.8551.43 / 15.6851.05 / 15.56
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)79,500 / 36,06185,700 / 38,873100,000 / 45,359106,400 / 48,262100,000 / 45,359
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)117,000 / 53,070124,000 / 56,246151,200 / 68,583159,200 / 72,212151,200 / 68,583
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)120,000 / 54,431115,900 / 52,571110,000 / 49,895
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)271,200 / 123,014275,100 / 124,783261,200 / 118,478
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)36005000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)710 / 9.1010 / 9.1010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)66 / 3371 / 35.5083 / 41.5089 / 44.5083 / 41.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68 / 172765 / 165169 / 175369 / 175369 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11180 / 12.40185 / 12.80185 / 12.80185 / 12.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19.5" x 24" / 495x61020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,252 / 8278.9824,480 / 11103.9523,701 / 10750.6123,701 / 10750.6123,701 / 10750.61
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.36 3.50 4.22 4.49 4.22
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)279.94 / 26.02161.60 / 15.02192 / 17.84165 / 15.33190.30 / 17.69
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)80 / 7.4380 / 7.4387.70 / 8.1587.70 / 8.1587.54 / 8.14
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1720 / 159.851824 / 169.522142 / 1991189 / 110.502140 / 198.88
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)340 / 31.60
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1720 / 159.851824 / 169.522142 / 1991529 / 142.102140 / 198.88
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume207.33192.94226.57125.77226.36
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,80014,40016,22516,22516,195
Same as above plus superheater percentage12,80014,40016,22519,79416,195
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area44,79029,08835,52037,24135,206
Power L168195429698111,4196957
Power MT378.20279.32307.81473.21306.75

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-8aG-8b/G-9bSouthportunknown
Locobase ID5727 5726 2555 5422
RailroadDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &Western
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class141
Road Numbers944934, 937, 940, 943
GaugeStdStd6'Std
Number Built1
BuildershopsshopsDanforth, Cookeshops
Year1916191618571891
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.598 / 2.44
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.41 / 7.4424.41 / 7.4422.37 / 6.82
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.35 0.35 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.80 / 15.7951.80 / 15.7948.33 / 14.7347.54 / 14.49
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)106,400 / 48,262107,200 / 48,62574,455 / 33,772
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)159,200 / 72,212162,400 / 73,66356,000 / 25,401106,000 / 48,081
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)119,900 / 54,386119,900 / 54,386
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)279,100 / 126,598282,300 / 128,049
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5500 / 20.835500 / 20.833200 / 12.12
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.104 / 3.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)89 / 44.5089 / 44.5062 / 31
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175369 / 175366 / 167669 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)185 / 12.80185 / 12.8090 / 6.20175 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66017" x 22" / 432x55918.5" x 24" / 470x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)23,701 / 10750.6123,701 / 10750.617370 / 3342.9817,708 / 8032.22
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.49 4.52 4.20
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)165 / 15.33165 / 15.33105 / 9.76137 / 12.73
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)87.60 / 8.1487.70 / 8.1518.38 / 1.7135 / 3.25
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1637 / 152.141013 / 94.14969 / 90.061337 / 124.26
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)340 / 31.60340 / 31.60
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1977 / 183.741353 / 125.74969 / 90.061337 / 124.26
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume173.16107.15167.66179.06
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,20616,22516546125
Same as above plus superheater percentage18,96120,28116546125
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area35,71438,156945023,975
Power L112,42711,02225595450
Power MT514.98453.35322.75

Photos

Reference