Detroit & Lima Northern / Detroit, Toledo & Ironton 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives in the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 16 (Locobase 12344)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 53, pp. 249-250 Works number was 41653 in August 1914..

Built for the Midland Pennsylvania, this Eight-wheeler was repossessed by Baldwin and sold to the DT & I. That railroad used the 16 on its Toledo-Detroit Railroad subsidiary.

In 1928 the DT & I donated the 16 to Henry Ford's Edison Institute in Dearborn, where it remained on display for decades. In 1980, the Ford Museum traded the 16 to the Illinois Railway Museum

Class 6 (Locobase 16233)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 21, p. 14. See also "Part One: Number 7 is on Track", archived at the Henry Ford Museum websited, last accessed 2 February 2018 at; and "Curating and Preserving The 1897 Baldwin Steam Locomotive" at (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 20 January 2018 email pointing out the tender's capacities and for providing the link to the Henry Ford Museum's detailed history of the 7.)Works numbers were 15316-15319 in May 1897.

The D&LN was originally chartered as the Lima Northern on 27 March 1895 and opened its first 80 miles of line from Lima to Adrian, Mich and soon extended it to Detroit. It was reorganized as the D&LN very soon afterward, which then combined with Michigan division of the Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw to be called the Detroit, Milwaukee & Toledo.

Just before the bankruptcy described below, Baldwin delivered this quartet of local-traffic Eight-wheelers.

Although building continued and the railroad acquired the Ohio Southern, contractors' suits and an outstanding Ohio Northwestern tab of $18,750 owed to Schenectady for eight locomotives forced the D&LN's foreclosure late in 1897. Again reorganized as the Detroit Southern, the line emerged from bankruptcy in May 1901. Further rearrangement, sale, and stock swaps resulted in the creation of the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton in 1905.

Three of the four were scrapped in 1921, but number 7 did not run from the time it was idled at the Ford Company's River Rouge plant until its complete restoration by the Henry Ford Museum.

Work began on the rebuild in 1897, a project that turned to be far more involved than expected. Actual disassembly started in 2007. Its initial 21st century run occurred on 12 June 2013.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID12344 16233
RailroadDetroit, Toledo & Ironton (DT&I)Detroit & Lima Northern (DT&I)
Number in Class14
Road Numbers166-9
Number Built14
BuilderBaldwinBurnham, Williams & Co
Valve GearStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.58 / 6.8822.75 / 6.93
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49 / 14.94
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)78,000 / 35,38054,000 / 24,494
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)115,000 / 52,16384,000 / 38,102
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)90,000 / 40,82360,000 / 27,216
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)205,000 / 92,986144,000 / 65,318
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.153350 / 12.69
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)6 / 5.507 / 6.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)65 / 32.5045 / 22.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68 / 172762 / 1575
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)190 / 13.10180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 24" / 457x61016" x 24" / 406x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,468 / 8376.9515,162 / 6877.38
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.22 3.56
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)142 / 13.20118.90 / 11.05
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)29.30 / 2.7216.50 / 1.53
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1756 / 163.201157 / 107.49
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1756 / 163.201157 / 107.49
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume248.42207.16
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation55672970
Same as above plus superheater percentage55672970
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area26,98021,402
Power L175125833
Power MT424.64476.28

  • DT&I 7 (October 2018 Greenfield Village, Dearborn, MI photo by Wes Barris)
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Wes Barris