NYC: Adirondack & St Lawrence / Beech Creek, Clearfield & Western / Big Four / Boston & Albany / Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw / Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland / Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis / Fall Brook Coal Company / Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville / Hudson River / Kanawha & Michigan / Lake Shore & Michigan Southern / New York Central / New York Central & Hudson River / New York, West Shore & Buffalo / Northern Adirondack / Pittsburgh & Lake Erie / St Lawrence & Adirondack / Toledo & Ohio Central / Wallkill Valley 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1/C-19 (Locobase 15992)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] . Works numbers were 2307-2308 in 1887.

Relatively large boiler for the grate area in these freight engines,which operated on the WV between Montgomery and Livingston. Neither of these engines stayed on the New York Central very long. The 700 went to the South Carolina & Georgia in 1901.


Class 11 (Locobase 11114)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 32-33. See also "Webb's Wilderness Railroad" on the Penney, Vanderbilt and KC Jones: All About Railroads website at https://kenkinlock.com/webbs-wilderness-railroad/, last accessed on 1 January 2019. Works numbers were 3511-3512 in May 1891 and 3513-3514 in July 1891.

Not to be confused with the St Lawrence & Adirondack, this railway was built to exploit the vast timber reserves in the Adirondacks. It also provided a direct route to the St Lawrence valley.

W Seward Webb (named for the New York governor who pardoned Webb's father in an earlier decade), intended the road to run 178 miles (287 miles). Just before it was completed, Webb sold the road to the New York Central in August 1892.


Class 11 / Q-6 (Locobase 11637)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines, 1888, as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 15, p. 142. Works numbers were 10163-10164 in August 1889.

Originally chartered as the Fort Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati, this railroad connected Muncie, Ind to Fort Wayne. In 1901, it was taken over by the Lake Erie & Western, which later rolled into the New York Central system.


Class 13 (Locobase 11106)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 6-7. Works number was 4394 in 1895.


Class 17-A/Q (Locobase 2150)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899). See also "Fast Passenger Engine, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway," Railway Review, Volume 33 (3 June 1893), pp. 343; and "Valves of Locomotives Hauling the 'Exposition Flyer'", Railroad Gazetter, Volume 25 (23 June 1898), 446.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works number was 2256-2260 in March 1893.

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern was a subsidiary of the New York Central. Under the catalogue listing, Brooks claims that during the 1893 Chicago Exposition, this engine pulled the "Exposition Flyer" from New York to Chicago. The catalogue adds "Near Elkhart, Ind, this engine attained a speed of 10.2 miles in less than six minutes, or at the rate of over 102 miles per hour."

In H H Vaughan's 1903 paper on the "Value of Heating Surface" (published in the 1903-1904 Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club (pp 245-246), the Q appears with slightly different heating surface areas: 1,234 sq ft for the tubes, 155 sq ft in the firebox for a total value of 1,389 sq ft.. Vaughan, head of motive power at the Canadian Pacific, also characterizes the class as "very delicate steamers".

Railway Review's report noted the "most striking peculiarity" of the engine's design was the Belpaire firebox mated to a wagon-top boiler. The Review said that the engine was first designed with a crown-bar boiler, "but it was feared that this construction would not give a sufficient heating surface to enable the engine to supply steam for drawing the train at the high speed desired. It was found that the heating surface could be materially increased without increasing the weight of the engine by using the Belpaire firebox."

The journal also celebrated its own foresight in recommending "long valve travel and wide lap" when reporting that the Allen-Richardson slide valves had 6 1/2" (165 mm) travel and outside lap of 1" (25.4 mm) and inside lap of 3/32" (2.4 mm).

Road #94 went to the Houston East & West Texas Railway as their #8 and #598 became that road's #9. The online Handbook of Texas -- [] -- has some choice information about this small railway. Its nickname was the Rabbit and the intials HEWT were said to stand for Hell Either Way Taken. At its greatest length, the HE&WT ran 191 miles (308 km) from Houston to the Sabine River with a further 40 miles (64 km) on the Shreveport & Houston (an affiliated road) to Shreveport.

Even later, 598/9 became Texas & New Orleans #200 when that line took over the HE & WT in 1934. The other 3 were included in the New York Central's roster as 4107-4109.


Class 205/C-36a (Locobase 5713)

Data from "Eight-Wheeled Passenger Locomotives for the Boston & Albany Railroad", American Engineer & Railroad Journal (AERJ), Vol LVIII, No 11 (November 1894), p. 493; and NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 4220 and 4219 in September 1894.

Designed to pull six "Wagner" cars (vestibuled and heavy) over the Berkshires without helpers, The schedule demanded a running time of 183 minutes over 103 miles (33.7 mph average) over a profile that included 8 miles of 1.5% ascent eastbound and a steeper grade for 12 miles westbound.

The design was also limited by a maximum weight on drivers of 74,000 lb and lighter-weight components including a hollow crank pin were designed to meet that requirement. The AERJ also noted that the lower weights would also reduce hammer-blow. AERJ's surmise that the total heating surface was about as large as feasible for an Eight-wheeler was correct for the time and only a series of French designs ever had larger boilers at such adhesion weights.

Renumbered by the New York Central in 1900. In that same period, these engines saw their tubes lengthened by six inches (152 mm), which increased the tube heating surface area to 1,794 sq ft (166.65 sq m). This extension combined with the addition of 15 sq ft of arch tubes, which increased firebox heating surface area to 156 sq ft, to increase evaporative heating surface area to 1,950 sq ft (181.15 sq m).

The 1159 was rebuilt by the Boston & Albany in 1913 and redesignated C-36c.

The 228 went to the scrapyard in March 1919 while the refurbished 229 lasted another seven years before meeting the ferro-knacker in April 1926.


Class 208/C-37 (Locobase 11109)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 10-11. Works numbers were 4410-4413 in 1896.

Virtually identical to the Fitchburg locomotive from the same catalogue and shown in Locobase 11108, this design had somewhat smaller drivers and a 1"smaller cylinder diameter. Adhesion weight also came in slightly lower.


Class 216 (Locobase 15824)

Data from diagram from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966) supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This predecessor to the Big Four was formed in 1866 from several earlier roads--Cincinnati, Dayton & Eastern; Sandusky & Cincinnati; and Sandusky City & Indiana. In 1876, the line consisted of the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad opened in December 1854 (Sandusky to Tiffin, Ohio (34.1 miles/54.9 km)) and the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad (Tiffin to Dayton, Ohio (120.3 miles/193.7 km)) opened in January 1851.

In 1890, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Big Four) leased the CS&C; but the railroad retained its separate identity.


Class 232 (Locobase 10075)

Data from "Report of the Committee on the Best Form of Construction of Locomotives for Fast Passenger Trains", Report of the Proceedings of the ... Annual Convention of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association (American Railway Master Mechanics' Association, 1881), p. 69.

Mr. A B Underhill, the B & A's Superintendent of Motive Power, commented on he found necessary for express trains. As reported, he said "... the average speed of express trains on their road is 40 miles per hour, each train having from 6 to 8 coaches, about one-third of which are drawing-room cars. Average weight of drawing-room car, 68,000 pounds; weight of coach, 46,000 pounds, carrying 70 passengers each. [Underhill]has had no experience with single driver locomotives, and judging from what he has learned of the performance of that class of engines, is not very favorably impressed."

Locobase deduces from an 1884 (with 1887 revisions) roster supplied to Allen Stanley in 2011 by Seth Bransom from the collection of Al Weber that the locomotives to which Underhill referred was a group of home-built Eight-wheelers. All have the same power dimensions and are listed as 34 tonners, which fits closely with the given engine weight.

All were named as shown in the following list:

Year Number Name 1887 Shed

1873 232 Stickney Springfield

1873 233 Denny Springfield

1874 239 Colt Albany

1874 240 Campbell Albany

1874 241 Sargent Albany

1874 242 Crocker Springfield

1875 243 Gillette Albany

1875 244 Kimball Springfield

1876 44 Tobey Albany

1877 32 Barnes Springfield

Most of the class was off the roster before 1893.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class 37/C-64a, Cx (Locobase 15823)

Data from Taunton builder's list compiled by Robert Lehmuth and diagram from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966), both supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This predecessor to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Big Four) was formed in 1866 from several earlier roads--Cincinnati, Dayton & Eastern; Sandusky & Cincinnati; and Sandusky City & Indiana. In 1876, the line consisted of the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad opened in December 1854 (Sandusky to Tiffin, Ohio (34.1 miles/54.9 km)) and the Sandusky City and Indiana Railroad (Tiffin to Dayton, Ohio (120.3 miles/193.7 km)) opened in January 1851.

After the Big Four leased the CS&C in 1890, it rebuilt the 37 in 1898 and placed in class C-64. 38 fell into a variegated group of older 4-4-0s classified as Cx and was renumbered 7006.


Class 6 (Locobase 12990)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 29, p. 137. Works number was 28735 in August 1906.

Admittedly small for a standard-gauge Eight-wheeler of the 19nought decade, the 6 had even a shorter career than might have been expected on this Michigan short line. It was scrapped in September 1924.


Class A / C-15 (Locobase 5236)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Built before many of the other 4-4-0 classes, this anthracite-burning quintet had an unusually shallow firebox with a wide grate. Also, these engines had very small boilers for their cylinder volume.

C-15As (3 of the 5) had 70" drivers.

Many more of this basic design were built with the narrow, deep firebox. See Locobase 5240.


Class A / C-4 (Locobase 5226)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). See also "Passenger Locomotive," Engineering, Volume 41 (28 May 1886), pp. 524-525 (ghost diagram on p. 526. Schenectady built four of the class (works numbers were 2140-2143 in 1886) and West Albany shop produced the fifth.

Engineering described this class as one of "the standard types of passenger engine ...adopted on the New York Central. Noting that they were "employed in running all the fastest trains ...and they perform the work as efficiently and economically as any class locomotive on the American continent."

The article paid particular attention to William Buchanan's "water table" firebox, which is fully described in Locobase 16271. According to Engineering, an extended front end and open stack, together with the firebox design, provided "a thorough preventive against spark-throwing". Locobase 16271 contains a decided dissent against that claim aired five years later.

All of the class were scrapped right at the turn of the century, which suggests they retained the water-table firebox until the end.


Class A-1 / C-5/C-5A (Locobase 5227)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). A successor to the C-4, these continued the line of narrow-grate Americans. Differences included cylinders an inch larger in diameter (18"), more firetubes, but a smaller grate (except for 960, which had a wider grate that amounted to 20 sq ft in area.). Some were built by Schenectady, others by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany.

The single C-5A was identical except for its 73" drivers.


Class A-1x/C-6 (Locobase 5228)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Continuing the line of 70"-drivered Americans, this class reproduced the C-5 dimensions with these differences: a shallower firebox, but larger boiler diameter. Locobase supposes they were going for more steam-making room

Some were built by Schenectady, others by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany. Several had "Rome" as a builder, but I'm not sure if that was Rome shops or the Rome Locomotive Works.


Class A-2 / C-7 (Locobase 5229)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). A smaller American than the 70" mainliners, I suspect these were branch-line engines.

Built by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo, Syracuse, and West Albany.


Class Adirondack (Locobase 13517)

Data from "Trial of Engines on Boston & Albany RR", Locomotive Engineers Journal, Volume IX, No 10 (October 1875), p. 541..

Locobase 13516 describes the trials run between this locomotive and the Mogul named Brown. Most of the trials were run between the Adirondack, which had the same driver diameters and power dimensions, and the Brown. Both of the Eight-wheelers were designed by the B & A's Master Mechanic Wilson Eddy, a well-known locomotive builder of his day. (See Locobase 13519 for a discussion of Eddy's design philosophy, much of which is evident in our description of both Eddy engines here and in Locobase 13517.)

Both of the Eight-wheelers had straight boilers "...without dome, with perforated pipe, throttle valve in smoke box." The author considered that the "distinctive difference" lay in shorter ports that measured only 10 in long and 1 1/4 in wide. The author also points out that "...the Springfield [i.e., those produced by Eddy in the B & A's Springfield shops] boiler is known to be a free and liberal steamer with ample steam room. The furnace [i.e. firebox] is wider and shorter", according to the report, which gives the dimensions as 65 3/4" long for the Mogul vs 54" for the Eight-wheelers and 35" wide in the Mogul vs 41 1/2" wide in the Eight-wheeler.

The squarer firebox "...brings all parts of it within reach of the fireman, so that he can put the coal where he wants to, without throwing it."

But there was more. The perforated steam pipe (vs the prominent steam dome) "..which takes steam from and directly over the point where it is made, is supposed to have considerable effect upon the dryness of the steam used." Furthermore, bringing the steam forward to the throttle in the firebox, which was "as close as possible to the cylinders" allowed the steam "to accumulate in the pipes and chest to a higher pressure during the interval when both valves are closed."

This convergence of practices in steam-circuit design was "...believed to act favorably on the economic expansion of the steam."

It's not clear if the Catskill (road 223), which was built with the same basic dimensions as the Adirondack, had all of the features mentioned in this entry.


Class B // C-17/C-17A (Locobase 5240)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). See also Matthias Nace Forney, Locomotives and locomotive building: being a brief sketch of the growth of Rogers Locomotive Works, pp. 80-92 and American Machinist, Volume 6, No 49 (1 December 1883), pp 1-2. Rogers works numbers were 3150-3158 in December 1882.

Built to the same dimensions as the anthracite-burning shallow-firebox C-15s (Locobase 5236), this much larger aggregation had the more typical narrow firebox. The American Machinist's report commented on the luxury afforded to the recently deceased Howard Fry, the railroad's chief of motive power:

"It is seldom that the mechanical head of a railroad company enjoys the privilege of having his motive power prepared ahead for heavy traffic. Where railroads increase by annual sections, and the travel augments in like proportion, the locomotives are apt to grow in size just a little behind the business, the consequence being that the trains are habitually too heavy or too fast for the engines that pull them."

What Fry accomplished by thinking ahead unfolds in the next few sentences:

"These engines start out at nearly the maximum weight, which locomotive designers have thus far found practicable for high-speed locomotives. The engines are calculated to take a train of twelve of our heaviest coaches over a level track at a speed of forty-five miles an hour.

"When a demand for higher speed arises, the weight of trains will have to be reduced, and

when they are made light enough the engine can maintain a speed of sixty-five or seventy

miles an hour."

As and Bs were used in July 1885 to set what Chief Train Dispatcher W H Wheatly proclaimed was "...the fastest run ever made in the United States and Canada, and I doubt if it ever has beeen equalled in the world." Wheatly was boasting of a 202-mile run from Buffalo to Frankfort that was made in a running time of 205 miles. The entire 426.6 miles was covered in a little over 9 hours including stops.

When they were renumbered in 1899, the class was divided between 30C-17s, with 69" drivers (62" centers) and the 37 C-17As, which had the alternate 70" wheels (63" centers). (Three of the 70 were sold to the Norfolk Southern Railway before the 1899 renumbering.)


Class B-1 / C-10 (Locobase 5232)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Notice the spread between driving axles as the designers increased the boiler size. Firebox was slightly larger than earlier Americans, but not by much. The Rome works built 4 of the locomotives still in service in 1902, Schenectady the other 12 in the series.


Class B/C-38 (Locobase 14264)

Data from "Eight-Wheel Passenger Locomotive," American Engineer and Railroad Journal Vol , 74, No 4 (April 1900), p.120; and NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 5387-5392 in January 1900.

At a time when most express passenger locomotives with such large boilers were being delivered as Atlantics (4-4-2), this sextet of Eight-wheelers emerged from Schenectady. The AERJ reported that the 289 was intended to pull heavy expresses between Springfield and Boston. Given the constraints of fitting the firebox between the drivers (a limitation the 4-4-2 addressed by moving the drivers ahead of the firebox), the builder pitched the boiler quite high and achieved a depth at the front of nearly 80 inches.

All but 249 were rebuilt by the B&A in 1919 (four) and 1920 (252). 249 was scrapped in December 1926. The others lasted a few years more before being dismantled in May (253) and August (251) 1929, July 1930 (252), May 1931 (250), and September 1934 (254).


Class Buck Mountain/C-X (Locobase 14563)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 345. Works number was 1308 in 1884.


Class C-16/C-16A (Locobase 5237)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). As the NY&HRR moved toward the 20th Century, traffic demands sparked a growth in locomotive size. This class, while not possessing particularly big boilers, saw increases both in grate area and in adhesion weight. The 4 C-16As were identical except for their 70" drivers.

The 1902 guide shows only 7 locomotives, most with building dates that reflect a rebuilding program in the mid-1890s.


Class C-16B/C-16C (Locobase 5238)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). These may be the soft-coal burning equivalents of the C-16s; the former's fireboxes were much deeper and narrower. The 7 C-16Cs were identical except for their 70" drivers.

The 1902 guide shows only 7 locomotives, most with building dates that reflect a rebuilding program in the mid-1890s.


Class C-18/C-18A (Locobase 5239)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Similar to the earlier C-17s, but built a few years later with smaller drivers and slightly smaller boiler. The four C-18As had 64" drivers (57" centers).


Class C-19 (Locobase 5242)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 2148-2152 in 1886 and 2307-2308 in 1887.

Relatively large boiler for the grate area in these freight engines.


Class C-2 (Locobase 2157)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899); built for the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway. Works numbers were 2772-2774 in June 1897

Boiler was improved Belpaire type, firebox had 13.26 sq ft of arch pipes. Slightly different data from the 1902 New York Central guide to locomotives reproduced at [] (visited December 2002). The StL&A engines 6, 10-12 are noted and this design certainly fits the particulars quite closely. Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004 suggests that only 5, 6, and 7 came from Brooks.

Staufer (New York Central's Early Power, 1967) says that #5 had a busy career, going to the Central Vermont as #249, then to the Rutland as #190, and finally coming under the NYC banner as #1000. After its NYC career, the former 5 went back to the Rutland as 80 and finished its career renumbered 61.

6 stayed with the St L & A until 1916, according to Rumary-Lambert, becoming NYC 1002 in that year.

Number 7 went to the Rutland as their 250, was renumbered 191, then was sold to the NYC as 1001. Then back to the Rutland as 81, closing out its career as 66.


Class C-2/C-36 (Locobase 15825)

Data from NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 4242-4245 in January 1895, 4271-4278 in March, 4279-4280 in April.

Locobase 5713 shows the first two of this class and describes the challenging Berkshire mountains profile over which they were intended to pull six heavy Wagner cars. Satisfied with the work of the first two, the B&A took delivery of 14 more a few months later. These had slightly longer tubes and a larger firebox

The New York Central assigned the C-36 class ID to these engines in 1900 and renumbered 1145-1148, 1154-1158, 1160-1164. Thicker driver tires increased outside diameter to 70" (1,778 mm).

In 1912, when the B&A regained its independent status, the class took new numbers again: 224-227, 230-239.


Class C-20 (Locobase 5241)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Similar to the C-18s, but with much smaller drivers (i.e., more emphatically freight engines), a slightly longer set of firetubes and larger grate.


Class C-21 (Locobase 5243)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

A stray one-class engine by a less-well-known builder.


Class C-22 (Locobase 5244)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Typical of the late 19th-Century locomotives built for the NY&HRR. The dome is moving forward along the boiler, which is sharply coned to the 1st course.


Class C-23 (Locobase 5245)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). As the American design reaches its design peak, the dome now sits over the front driving axle, the smokebox is extended, but the grate is still relatively narrow.


Class C-24 (Locobase 5246)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Unusual for NY&HRR Americans was the relatively close spacing of the driving axles. This put the firebox over the rear axle, raising the profile considerably.


Class C-26 (Locobase 5247)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 1865-1867 in April 1884 and 2858 in April 1889.

Early '80s low-pressure design for the Pennsylvania coal road that was leased to the NYC & HR in 1890 and taken over in 1899..


Class C-26A (Locobase 5248)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Apparently based on the earlier design that was later designated C-26, this engine had the same grate but more firetubes.


Class C-51A (Locobase 2848)

Data from "Two Locomotives for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway--Express Locomotives", The Railway Engineer, Vol 10, No 6 (June 1889), pp. 171- 176. Works numbers were 1412-1413 in August 1888.

Designed by GW Stevens, Chief of motive power at the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern. These rangy engines still had the dome just ahead of the cab. The RE report gives many details of the profile and service these locomotives were expected to handle: "...the fast mail trains on the Buffalo and Erie divisions of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern. The heaviest grades are situated on these divisions, which are also most exposed to strong winds from the lake. The line, however, is fairly straight and level. The ruling grades are 53 to 46 ft. per mile, and the average grade for the whole line or sum of the rises and falls is 5.2 ft. per mile. This latter figure is below the average of other lines, showing that the length of the grades bears a small proportion to the total length of the road. Only 12 per cent. of the length of the main line is curved, and the average curvature per mile is 7.8 degrees. This is also considerably below the average, the curvature per mile on the New York Central (Albany to Buffalo) being nearly double that amount (15.1 deg.), while on the middle and western divisions of the Pennsylvania it is 46.8 and 72.5 degrees per mile respectively, while on the Lehigh Valley the amount of curvature rises to 100 degrees per mile.".

A rebuild in 1907-1908 replaced the boiler with a dome that sat over the front driving axle.


Class C-52B (Locobase 9726)

Data from the NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.


Class C-63A to C-63G (Locobase 9719)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The diagram for this class shows a typical deep-firebox American from the late 19th Century. Its steam dome stood over the firebox and behind a sharply tapering boiler course that had a second dome (for sand?) at the front. The slender first course gave a lean look to the design.

The table of engine numbers shows that most of the class were built by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis at various shops over a 6-year period. Locobase notes that the other locomotives in the class were rebuilds of earlier engines. The data in the specs relates to the C-63B; others had an arch tube that added 10 sq ft to the firebox. Some were pressed to 160 psi.


Class C-64, C-64A (Locobase 9720)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

There were two subclasses for this boiler. Two C-64s delivered in 1902 had 69" drivers and weighed about 3 tons more; they and 4 of the C-64As (7077-7081) were built by the Pittsburgh & Erie Railway. The other 4 were built by Rhode Island Locomotive Works.


Class C-69, C-69A (Locobase 9721)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

At least two C-69 series (which included 1 each of the C-69A (67" drivers), C-70, and C-71 classes) received one arch tube that added 10 sq ft to the firebox heating surface.


Class C-71/C-72 (Locobase 9722)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The original quartet of Big Four locomotives were Schenectady products from 1883 (works numbers were 1723-1726); their road numbers were 72-75 until 1889, when the railroad increased each by 100. In the late 1890s, all four were fitted with new boilers with higher pressure settings and the data above apply to that version.

The New York Central numbers were applied in 1905. 7111 retired in December 1923; the other three were scrapped in 1925 (March, April, and August).

The latter two engines - C-72 - had a driver wheelbase of 9 feet.


Class C-73 (Locobase 9723)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 4173-4178 in August 1893.

Like the C-71 and C-72, the C-73 originally entered service after its delivery by Brooks in March 1886 (works number 1097). Its original road number 165 was changed in 1889 to 122.

Its December 1899 upgrade featured a new boiler with higher boiler pressure.

After a later renumbering to 7112, the engine was scrapped in March 1916.


Class C-74 (Locobase 9711)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers was 4169-4172 in July 1893 and 4335 in August 1895.

Delivered in the same year as the C-75s shown in Locobase 9710, these engines had the more traditional deep, narrow fireboxes. Such furnaces had smaller grates but more overall direct heating surface. The C-75s were more like the locomotives that would soon replace these Eight-wheelers.


Class C-75, C-75a (Locobase 9710)

Data from "Passenger Locomotive - Class Y - Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis Railroad", Railroad Gazette, Volume 25 (14 April 1893), CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 4173-4178 in August 1893, 4296-4300 in May 1895, 4301 in June.

These were delivered by the same builder in the same years as the C-74s, but they had longer, shallower, and somewhat wider fireboxes. As a consequence, the C-75s had substantially more grate area because the grate now rode above the driving axles. Overall direct heating surface did not change very much.

Once the class was absorbed by the New York Central, they were reclassified. The earlier engines with the higher Big Four road numbers were redesignated C-75 and renumbered 7118-7123; the others were classed C-75a. By the middle of 1907, the 7119-7123 and the 7125-7129 were sold to the Lake Erie & Western, where they were renumbered 4150-4159. After the LE&W was bought out by the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the 4150-4151 survived the merger and were renumbered 302-303.


Class C-77 (Locobase 3146)

Data from P J Conlon, "Locomotive Lore - Chapter XIV", Machinists Monthly Journal, Volume XIII, No. 10 (October 1901), pp. 743-744. Additional data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

In his 1901 review, Conlon celebrates the 201 as "Perhaps the most successful eight-wheel passenger engine of the present day" and observes that the boiler's heating surface is "greater than has ever before been attained in an eight-wheeled locomotive." Indeed, the pair would ultimately have the largest boiler by a few square feet of any Big Four 4-4-0. Two later batches (Locobases 9724-9725/C-78, C-79) would have similar-sized boilers.

Conlon reported that the engine was designed to haul a 360-ton, 10-car train the 80 miles between Cleveland and Galion in 70 minutes. An elevation difference of 595 feet meant that the 201 had exert a "steady pull" all the way to Galion.

Locobase observes that the intended service explains the relatively small driver diameter for an express engine.

Official name for the railroad was the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, & St. Louis.


Class C-78 (Locobase 9724)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 3146 presents the comments of a Mr P J Conlon on the high worthiness of the C-77 4-4-0, which arrived on the Big Four in 1895. This pair was delivered two years later and was virtually identical except for the reduction by 6 in the count of small tubes in the boiler.


Class C-79 (Locobase 3272)

Data from Railroad Gazette (15 July 1898).

Locobase 3146's description of the C-77 characterized it as the largest 4-4-0 in service in 1901. Certainly that was true on the Big Four and its qualities were sterling enough to encourage a repeat in 1897 (C-78/Locobase 9724) and 1898 (this class).

While the C-78s had 6 fewer tubes, the C-79s were identical except for the significant change in driver diameter in favor of much taller wheels. They also had a longer stroke, which may have been adopted to compensate for the taller drivers, for the tractive effort was about the same. The boiler also may have had a a shallower firebox that had 160 sq ft of heating surface area and a total evaporative heating surface area of 2,157 sq ft.

The 15 July 1898 Railroad Gazette that reports the 1898 buy notes that the four locomotives are to be used to haul the Knickerbocker Special between Cleveland and St. Louis. This train consisted of 1 or 2 day coaches, a "buffet" car, and 3 sleeping cars for a total trailing weight of 250-300 tons. Booked average speed for the run was 40 mph.

The illustration shows a typically upright end-of-century 8-wheeler with conical safety-valve cover, rounded steam dome over the first axle, second dome forward of the boiler taper and just behind a capped stack.

Between that delivery date and the preparation of the diagram in the 1914 diagram book, all 4 engines received arch tubes, installation of which increased heating surface area by 10 sq ft.


Class C-79 (Locobase 9725)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.


Class C-8 (Locobase 5230)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Slightly larger than the branch-line C-7s, but intended for the same duty, one suspect.

Of the 3 remaining in 1902, all were built by NY&HRR shops at East Buffalo.


Class C-9/C-9A/C-9B/C-9C (Locobase 5231)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

A large class, perhaps the largest of all 4-4-0 classes built for the NY&HRR. In fact, the C-9 designation appears to have covered a variety of very similar designs that differed in the number of firetubes or cylinder diameter or tube diameter.

In the 1902 guide the following subtypes are identified:

Lowest

engine

number # in subtype remarks

407 1 16 x 24" cylinders;169 2" tubes,

11.17' long; 48" boiler.

476 5 180 2" tubes; weight 85,800 lb

482 12 198 2" tubes; 11.67' long;

weight 85,800 lb

498 5 138 2 1/4" tubes, 11.33' long;

weight 76,000 lb

The C-9A series had mostly 47 1/2" diameter boilers and 160 2" tubes. Two of the 6 had slightly larger fireboxes. C-9B was one engine built in 1878 with a 15.8-sq ft grate area. C-9C was an 1880 engine with only 134 2" tubes, 15.3-sq ft grate, and 46" diameter boiler. 448 tipped the scales at 69,000 lb.


Class C-95a (Locobase 5207)

Data from [] (visited December 2002). (Thanks to Chris Hohl, who reported a duplicated entry in his 13 March 2019 email. It's been consolidated into this entry.) Works numbers were 1715-1719 in August 1890.

Classic late 19th-Century American with narrow grate, dome just ahead of the cab, slender front boiler course. The Richardson balanced slide valves had 6 1/4" of travel.

At the time these were purchase, the T&OC had been acquired by the Hocking Valley Railway Company.

The quintet was renumbered 468-472 in 1901. When the NYC took control in 1912, all were renumbered again 9550-955.

Of these, 9551-9553 moved to the Zanesville & Western (which had been incorporated in 1902 and taken over by the T&OC in 1903). They then bore NYC Lines system numbers 9719, 9721, 9720, respectively.

9721 and 9720 and T&OC 9554 were "retired" in September 1923 and scrapped at Bucyrus. The New York Central sold the 9719 to Casparis Stone Company in July 1925. Of the original five, the first was the last to be scrapped as 9550 went to the ferro-knacker in August 1933.


Class C-97a (Locobase 5210)

Data from [] (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 29505-29507 in February 1904.

Locomotives in this first trio from Brooks was the only subclass of the T&OC's C-97 group to be superheated. See 5211 for the result.

The 9561 was sold to the Chicago, Indianapolis & Western in October 1924 as their 163. That engine was taken into the Baltimore & Ohio in May 1927 as M-6a 868. It was scrapped in August 1928.


Class C-97a - superheated (Locobase 5211)

Data from [] (visited December 2002).

Superheating the C-97a may have been an attempt to sample the benefits at relatively low cost. In such a small boiler, the gain can't have been very great. Moreover, if the 1917 diagram is accurate, few of the other usual changes -- piston valves, Walschaerts gear, dropping the boiler pressure -- were made.


Class C-97b (Locobase 5208)

Data from [] (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 38652-38655 in 1905.

Somewhat after the fact, these Americans obviously filled branch-line needs. These had Richardson balanced slide valves with 6 1/4" of travel.


Class C-97b (Locobase 16445)

Data from T&OC-Z&W 6 -1920 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. Works numbers were 38652-38655 in 1905.

A mid-size Eight-wheeler design, this quartet joined several Brooks locomotives on the T&OC just after two more went to the Kanawha & Michigan as their P-5 (Locobase ). One key difference from earlier engines was the use of Walschaert outside radial gear.

Three were scrapped or retired by the T&OC in 1924, 1926, and 1927. 9564 took New York Central Lines number 4306, operating as the lone C-97b until its retirement in January 1939. It was scrapped in April 1939.


Class C-97c (Locobase 5209)

Data from [] (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 41157-41158 in 1906.

Identical to the year-earlier C-97b with a few more fire tubes and Walschaerts valve gear moving Richardson balanced slide valves through 5 1/2" of travel. (Could the shorter travel represent a change to the radial valve gear from the Stephenson link motion?).

9567 was one of five C-97 class Eight-wheelers sold to the Chicago, Indiana & Western in 1924. It took the number 164.


Class C-97c (Locobase 16446)

Data from T&OC-Z&W 6 -1920 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. Works numbers were 41157-41158 in October 1906.

Continuing a line of Brooks Eight-wheelers, this pair (and two more for the Kanawha & Michigan; see Locobase 16447) had boilers carrying 29 more small tubes than the earlier batches.

Although placed in a New York Central Lines class and renumbered accordingly in 1911, neither went over to the parent company. Instead, the 9566 was retired in December 1924 and the 9567 was sold in October to the Chicago, Indianapolis & Western as their 164.


Class C-X (Locobase 14547)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 327.

In the 1905 guide, the New York Central assigned the same class ID to several locomotives of different, but relatively ancient, origins. Each variant was different enough that Locobase breaks them out into a series of entries (14544-14546).

Locobase credits the New York Central & Hudson River based on the 1905 description of its origins. He can't say for sure, however, if the 1062's description of having been built in Syracuse in 1872 refers to the original engine or to a rebuilt locomotive of a later time that was based on an 1872 engine.


Class C-X (Locobase 14548)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 327. Works number 2765 in 1889.

In the 1905 guide, the New York Central assigned the same class ID to several locomotives of different, but relatively ancient, origins. Each variant was different enough that Locobase breaks them out into a series of entries (14544-14549).


Class C-X (Locobase 14564)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 346. See also a history of the NY&O at [] . Works numbers were 1431 in September 1881 and 1648 in September 1882..

These two engines were delivered a year apart in 1881-1882. The later engine (which was later given a lower road number) had 64" (1626 mm) drivers, the 787 had 63" (1600 mm) drivers.

In 1892, the NYC sold the pair to the New York & Ottawa. The NY&O was built as a connecting road from Tupper Lake in upper New York State to Cornwall, NY, where it linked with the Ottawa & New York, which ran from Canada's capital city to Cornwall on to Saratoga Springs. At its completion in 1900, the NY&O had already entered receivership and was sold to the New York Central.

Transferred back to the NYC in 1905, the pair very quickly retired.


Class Champlain (Locobase 2548)

Data from John H White, Jr, A History of the American Locomotive: Its Development: 1830-1880 (New York: Dover Publications, 1979 - original publication in 1968).

Mentioned by White as having performed reasonably well for the HRR in its short term of service. In the summer of 1850, the Champlain pulled a 120-ton, 11-car passenger train at an average speed of 44 mph. Although it cost the railroad only 2 1/2 cents per mile for repairs over its 45,111 miles of distance (December 1849 - March 1851), the engine was returned to its builder in 1852. It was rebuilt and sold to the New York and Harlem River as the Seneca.


Class Chicago (Locobase 12428)

Data from "Improved Type of Inspection Locomotive," The Railway Times, Volume 88 (9 September 1905), p. 308. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 3 August 2019 email noting the road number and tender capacity.)

Unlike most inspection engines, the Chicago was built from scratch for the task. Its house extended from stack to footplate and was divided by a partition in front of the cab. The front room measured 12 feet long and had benches along the sides and two raised seats along the back. Especially thick boiler lagging protecting the occupants from the worst of the boiler's heat.

The LS&MS gave a new name to the 24 in 1926, dubbing it Mohawk. It was scrapped in June 1934.


Class Cleveland (Locobase 5386)

Data from "Four-Cylinder Balance Simple Locomotive--Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway", American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume , No 8 (August 1906), p. 291-292. See also "Some Interesting Types of Locomotive Development," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXX, #9 (September 1906), pp. 298-300; and NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 1905 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his extensive research and his 3 December 2018 email, spreadsheet, and article link. Chris particularly cites Ron Goldfeder for his article, "The Inspection Locomotive." Railroad History. Spring-Summer 2012. Number 206. pgs. 20 & 32, and further assistance.)

This intriguingly named locomotive had some odd features for an American American -- not least the four small HP cylinders.The AERJ photo reveals an inspection engine of relatively generous proportions, its most physically striking feature being the long gallery that extended forward from the cab along the boiler nearly to the smokebox. Spiral staircases leading up from either side of the pilot gave access to this well-heated space.

Four easy chairs were placed on each side of the boiler. The chairs were set on a floor that was raised from 6" above the running board for the first two chairs on each side and 12" for the rear two chairs. In addition to heavy lagging on the boiler barrel, the underside of the seat and sides over the boiler.

The cylinders were arranged en banc (sometimes called "in battery"), that is, side by side. Each outside cylinder and its nearest inside mate used a common, 10" (254 mm) piston valve, arranged in a trefoil casting. The AERJ report goes into considerable detail about this unusual setup, but a key observation is that the two 12 1/2" (318 mm) cylinders were about equal in area as that of a single 17 3/4" cylinder (451 mm) and a single piston valve of the given size would be ample.

Indeed, when the four-cylinder quickly proved to be unnecessarily fussy in maintenance, the four small cylinders were replaced by two 17" x 24" cylinders in 1908 and continued as an inspection engine until 1930. The tender's coal capacity decreased to 9 tons and its loaded weight shrank as well to 104,900 lb (47,582 kg).

The shops removed the cabin in 1930, restoring the 1 to standard 4-4-0 configuration and renumbering it 1101. Six years later, the NYC dismantled 1101 except for the boiler that was used until the late 1940s to heat the the New York Central's Dunkirk roundhouse.


Class Columbia (Locobase 2550)

Data from John H White, Jr, A History of the American Locomotive: Its Development: 1830-1880 (New York: Dover Publications, 1979 - original publication in 1968).

Designed by Walter McQueen, this was one of the first engines in the US to sport drivers of such height. White comments that they are "at once the most impressive and frightening feature of the Columbia." He observes that they were made of cast iron in the "old-fashioned T pattern. Although quite successful for the usual 60" wheel, it was hardly proper for the larger wheel meant for hard use in express service." He acknowledged that no record of a disaster from the collapse of these large drivers has come to light, but smaller wheels and a spread leading truck seem likely to have been adopted soon after service entry.

Like the earlier and smaller Croton, the Columbia had a Radley and Hunter spark-arresting stack, which was more elongated than the typical diamond stack.


Class Croton (Locobase 2549)

Data from John H White, Jr, A History of the American Locomotive: Its Development: 1830-1880 (New York: Dover Publications, 1979 - original publication in 1968)

Designed by Walter McQueen for light local service between New York and Poughkeepsie, which this engine performed ably enough for at least 26 years.

Mentioned by White (,who gave the names of the other five engines in the class: Spuyten Duyvil, Kinderhook, Matteawan, Sing Sing, and Peeksill. The engine was distinguished by its Radley and Hunter spark-arresting stack, which was more elongated than the typical diamond stack.

See also Railroad Gazette 15 February 1901.


Class D-4/C-103 (Locobase 7069)

Data from P&LE-PMcK&Y 3 1-26 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 2272

2273 in May 1901, 2274 in June, and 2340-2341 in October.

Relatively high-drivered Americans for this western Pennsylvania industrial road. Compared to the parent railroad's contemporaneous C class, these were about the same size but had a smaller grate and larger firebox as well as taller drivers. The high wheels reflect the design's use in express service.

The 9257 was sold in 1913 to the Middletown & Unionville as their #1. The 9253-9254 were withdrawn in 1925 with the 9255-9256 leaving by 1927.


Class D-8, C-4g /C-104, C-105 (Locobase 7068)

Data from P&LE 1-1908 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 30896-30899 in July 1905, 30900 in August 1905, and 39453-39457 in April 1906.

Slightly larger than their C-103 predecessors, these were medium-traffic passenger engines for this western Pennsylvania subsidiary of the New York Central. Compared to their contemporaries in the system, they had bigger boilers and slightly more firebox area.

The C-105 class had cylinders fitted with Alfree-Hubbell valves, an unusual design described in much more detail in Locobase 5344. Their cylinders would later be bored out to 19 1/2" (495 mm).

9258-9259 were sold to the Monongahela in June 1911 as their 152-153 (renumbered 303-304 in 1918). The 303 went to the Scotts Run not long after it was renumbered. The 304 remained with the Monongahela for decades. The P&LE sold the 9261 to the Montour as their #2 in July 1917; the MRR scrapped the 2 in 1928.


Class F / C-11 (Locobase 5233)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). These are higher-drivered C-10s with more boiler tubes, a deeper firebox (which accounts for all the increase in firebox heating area), and a higher boiler pressure.

Rome and Schenectady shared the production of the first 10 in March 1889. 1004-1007 (built by Rome in 1890) originally were included in the C-6 class, but as their only difference from the C-11s was a lower boiler pressure (145 psi), they were moved to the C-11s.


Class F/C-19 (Locobase 15993)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (first seen in December 2002). Works numbers were 2148-2152 in August 1886.

Relatively large boiler for the grate area in these freight engines.


Class G // C-12/C-12A (Locobase 5234)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Also from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 30-31

Locobase had thought these might be freight-oriented Americans because of the emphasis on tractive power shown in the higher boiler pressure and short-stroke cylinders. But the 1897 Schenectady Catalogue said this class operated the "...suburban trains ...out of New York City."

The C-12s had a large and relatively shallow firebox. C-12A was one locomotive (1049) that had 18" x 22" cylinders.


Class H / C-13 (Locobase 5235)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Very similar to the C-8s of the same vintage, but with slightly more distance between the tube sheets and a larger grate. (Curiously, the grate was much shallower, hence the lower total firebox heating surface.)


Class I / C (Locobase 5225)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Although delivered originally in 1890, this class was rebuilt with extended wagon top boilers in 1901-1904. Given the date of the guide, it's likely that the data refer to that latter version.


Class I-1 / CB (Locobase 3937)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

A Railroad Gazette article of 26 October 1900 traced the evolution of the American-type locomotive used on the Empire State Express. RG comments about all three classes: "The engines are not intended to world beaters, but to perform the special work to which they are assigned in pulling the Empire State ExPress and to do it readily with always a safe steam reserve."

These were soon redesignated as CB. The first five were delivered in 1896, the other 6 in 1898. One of the latter was credited in the guide to the West Albany shops.


Class I-2 // CC / CD (Locobase 3938)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

A Railroad Gazette article of 26 October 1900 traced the evolution of the American-type locomotive used on the Empire State Express. The I-2 is simply the I-1 with smaller drivers. These were soon redesignated as CC (Schenectady engines) and 2 CD (from the shops). The first five were delivered in 1896, the others in 1898.

RG comments about all three classes: "The engines are not intended to world beaters, but to perform the special work to which they are assigned in pulling the Empire State Express and to do it readily with always a safe steam reserve." Designed by the Central's prolific and well-known Superintendent of Motive Power William Buchanan.


Class I-3/C-3 (Locobase 3939)

Data from Railroad Gazette (26 October 1900) and NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Built at the New York Central's Depew shops in August 1900 and January 1901.

The RG report traced the evolution of the American-type locomotive used on the Empire State Express. RG comments about all three classes: "The engines are not intended to world beaters, but to perform the special work to which they are assigned in pulling the Empire State Exress and to do it readily with always a safe steam reserve."

It notes that the I-3s were substantially different from the earlier classes in the boiler is considerably larger and has a straighter top line. It was a radial stay boiler instead of the earlier crown bar type. There's plenty of steam available as a result.

Most data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). This is the source of the 12' 1" tube sheet distance used in the specs, rather than RG's 11' 6".


Class Inspection Engine C-100 (Locobase 14450)

Data from P&LE 1 - 1908 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This inspection engine was originally delivered by Pittsburgh Locomotive Works in March 1893 as the first of three Eight-wheelers (works numbers 1412-1414; road 96-98)). The other two were sold off by 1905 with 97 going to the Annapolis, Washington & Baltimore as their #10 and 98 to Chesapeake Beach Railroad as their #6.

The 96 was simply converted into an inspection vehicle by adding a long cab to the existing boiler and frame. It seems likely therefore that the data above also serve for the other two locomotives.

The engineer and fireman operated the engine at the back of the cab while the inspection team boarded via a winding stair at the front that admitted the boarder through doors located just behind the stack and cylinders.. Locobase's view is only from the right-hand side, so he can't say for sure if another such stair was on the left side. Other locomotives with similar arrangements had boarding stairs on each side and the boiler would have blocked crosswise movement.


Class N/C-14 (Locobase 1116)

Data from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Similar data found in Hollingsworth (1982) and "The Boiler of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Engine, No. 999", Railway Engineer, Volume 14, No 7 (July 1893), pp. 207- and Matthais Nace Forney, Catechism of the Locomotive, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged (New York: Railroad Gazette, 1890), pp. 576-579. See also Robert Tufnell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Railway Locomotives (London: Quarto Publishing Ltd, 1986) and "The Fastest Locomotive in the World", Locomotive Engineering, Volume 56, No 6 (June 1893), p. 242. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his May 2018 email noting the changing fuel and water capacities in the tenders.)

Tufnell gives cylinder dimensions of 18 1/2 x 26, heating surface of 1,895 sq ft (176 sq m) and a grate area of 32.3 sq ft.

Given either set of specifications, with one exception the numbers are just average and don't suggest a locomotive that could hit 112 mph [180 kph] as was claimed in 1893.

Perhaps the source of 999's magical run was in the firebox area, which hit an impressive 12% of total evaporative heating surface and thus may have steamed more freely than its contemporaries. The Railway Engineer report referred especially to Superintendent of Machinery William Buchanan's firebox (see Locobase 16271 for a full description), which had a "water arch ...formed of two inclined plates joined at the sides and ends to the firebox plates." Just how well the design compared to other boilers wasn't certain, said RE, but observers believed "that the Buchanana firebox adds materially to the total steaming capacity of the boiler and probably something to the efficiency." As an added bonus, "results in repairs have been very satisfactory."

Regardless of boiler efficiency, the rate at which the 999's cylinders would have needed to be served steam casts a dark cloud over the claim. At a 2 ft (610 mm) stroke and the 29.17 ft/sec (8.89 metres/sec) piston speed this locomotive would have attained at 112 mph, however, each piston reversed direction more than 7 times every second. It's far more likely that the observers were mistaken and that 999 didn't come close to such a speed.

Certainly the LE report expressed skepticism, pointing out that such claims "of terrific speed are not official and we do not believe that the engine ran 100 miles per hour." Still, LE continued, the 999 had "probably made the highest speed of any locomotive in the world." And, "The engine rides like a drawing-room coach and steams remarkably well."

Driver diameter was later reduced to 78" (1,981 mm), then to 70" (1,778 mm). Chris Hohl notes that reported tender capacities varied significantly. The 1893 report claimed 3,587 US gallons (13.577 litres) and 6 1/2 tons (5.9 metric tons). By 1902, when the engine rolled on 70" drivers, a tender held 4,000 gallons (15,140 litres) and 7 tons (6.36 metric tons).


Class P-4/C-97a (Locobase 16444)

Data from T&OC-Z&W 6 -1920 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. Works numbers were 29508-29510 in 1904.

Brooks built six of this relatively large Eight-wheeler design in one batch. Three went to the Toledo & Ohio Central (Locobase 5210) and this set worked for the K&M. When the two merged in 1924, the K&M locomotives took T&OC class IDs and road numbers 9573-9574.

Almost immediately all three were sent to the Chicago, Indianapolis & Western as their 160-162. The CI&W merged with the Baltimore & Ohio in 1927 and the C-97s were grouped in class M-5 with road numbers 865-867. 865 was retired a year later with 866-867 following a year after that in 1929.


Class P-5/C-97b (Locobase 2078)

William D Edson and Edward L May, Steam and Electric Locomotives of the New York Central Lines (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Edson-May Publication, 1966), , p. 82. See alsoAlvin F Staufer & Lawrence W Sagle, B & O Power (1964). Works numbers were 38650-38651, 38658, 38657 in 1905.


Class Q-4 (Locobase 8570)

Data from In H H Vaughan's 1903 paper on the "Value of Heating Surface" (published in the 1903-1904 Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club (pp 245-246). Schenectady works numbers were 1361, 1364-1365, 1367, 1369 in May 1881; 1376-1378, 1380-1381, 1385, 1388-1390 in June; 1393-1394, 1397-1399 in July. Grant supplied road numbers 522-536 in the same year.

Vaughan gives a passing salute to this class "...a good eight-wheeled freight engine, the class that is seldom heard from." The data suggest a design from the early 1880s, a Locobase guess that is borne out by roster compilations.


Class R (Locobase 8569)

Data from In H H Vaughan's 1903 paper on the "Value of Heating Surface" (published in the 1903-1904 Official Proceedings of the Western Railway Club (pp 245-246). Works numbers were 1441-1442, 1456, 1459, 1461, 1473-1481, 1483

Vaughan comments on the design, which was only adequate: "...an 18-inch passenger engine, a fair engine but not remarkably good." He is speaking in particular of the locomotive's steaming qualities.


Class Santa Clara/C-X (Locobase 14565)

Data from Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives of the NYC&HR et al, September 1905, p. 346. Works numbers were 1373 (#3), 1378 (#6) in 1884 and 1578 (#5) in 1885.

This trio of Rhody Eight-wheelers (Buck Mountain, Tupper Lake, and Bay Head) was delivered in 1884-1885. The 1885 locomotive-- later numbered 789--put another ton on the driver, which raised its adhesion and overall weights to 66,000 lb (29,937 kg) and 109,000 lb (49,442 kg) , respectively.

The NA was reorganized in 1895 as the Northern New York and again in 1897 as the New York & Ottawa. The New York Central took control of the once-again bankrupt company in 1900.


Class Superior (Locobase 2551)

Data from John H White, Jr, A History of the American Locomotive: Its Development: 1830-1880 (New York: Dover Publications, 1979 - original publication in 1968).

Stuffing this many tubes into so small a boiler (46" in diameter) was a common weakness of Breese-Kneeland engines (of which these were the first), wrote White (1968). The practice led to "too small a space between the tubes [which] weakened the tube sheets and produced a dangerous boiler." The engine was built on a slab frame and rode on wrought-iron wheels with unusually slender spokes.

Despite the boiler design, the Superior and her sister, the Baltic, were relatively advanced, according to White, especially in their adoption of the Stephenson link motion. They were, he says, "heavy and powerful machines for the time. Their excellent performance won an enviable reputation for their builder."


Class Virginia (Locobase 13518)

Data from "Trial of Engines on Boston & Albany RR", Locomotive Engineers Journal, Volume IX, No 10 (October 1875), p. 541.

Locobase 13516 describes the trials run between this locomotive and the Mogul named Brown in which the Virginia proved more economical (as did its older sister, Adirondack). Both of the Eight-wheelers were designed by the B & A's Master Mechanic Wilson Eddy, a well-known locomotive builder of his day. (See Locobase 13519 for a discussion of Eddy's design philosophy, much of which is evident in our description of both Eddy engines here and in Locobase 13517.)

Both of the Eight-wheelers had straight boilers "...without dome, with perforated pipe, throttle valve in smoke box." The author considered that the "distinctive difference" lay in shorter ports that measured only 10 in long and 1 1/4 in wide. shorter ports that measured only 10 in long and 1 1/4 in wide.

See Locobase 13517 for further discussion of these two engines.


Class William H Vanderbilt (Locobase 16271)

Data from Railway Service Magazine [later Railway Age], Volume 1, No12 (December 1880), p. 767; and Matthais Nace Forney, Cathecism of the Locomotive, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged (New York: Railroad Gazette, 1890), pp. 576-579. See also "Buchanan's Smoke Prevention Fire-Box", American Machinist, Volume 7, No 42 (18 October 1884), p. 6; and "The Steam-Jet [sic] as a Means of Preventing Smoke from Boiler Furnaces," Engineering News, Volume 25, No. 14 (4 April 1891). Works numbers were 1290-1291 in October 1880.

William Buchanan and John M Toucey first sought and obtained a patent (63,167) for their "Improvement in Steam Generators" on 26 March 1867. Although the details often changed, the basic idea of the "water table" and its intended effects remained the same. Improvements to the design for "Coal Burning Locomotives" were awarded to Buchanan, Toucey, and Henry I Hoyt as patent # 224,640 on 17 February 1880. According to the 1884 American Machinist report, Buchanan's design had also "proved eminently successful in preventing smoke and in producing an economical fuel record."

Schenectady constructed the engines whose fragmentary data comprises this entry according to this later patent. Forney's explanation appeared almost a decade later, but gives a clear idea. In a firebox that was typically deep and narrow for the time, Buchanan installed a divider composed of two plates separated by a water space that were raked upward from front tubesheet to backhead. This water table completely divided the upper and lower parts of the firebox save for an opening and about a third of the way forward from the backhead. (Forney describes the hole as circular and "about 18" (457 mm) in diameter". Patent diagrams and diagrams in several accounts show oval or rectangular openings. In an 1877 locomotive, the opening was an 17" x 22"oval.)

Like the brick arch, the water table lengthened the path of burning fuel to permit more complete. To encourage all of the gases in the lower firebox to migrate to the hole, steam jets induced a flow intended to entrain the gases. These came in for criticism in the 1891 Engineering review, which remarked "it seems unreasonable to expect very much." and declared that rather than helping to suppress smoke generated by a "considerable charge" of fresh fuel, "it is difficult to see how the steam jet can do anything but make matters worse." As far as fuel economy, Engineering reported, "careful trials of steam jet blowers have, so far as we know, shown a loss instead of a gain ...[due] partly [to] the loss of heat by the escaping time."


Class Y/B-3/C-76 (Locobase 16378)

Data from "Passenger Locomotive - Class Y - Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis Railroad", Railroad Gazette, Volume 25 (14 April 1893), pp. 274, 332, and 390. Works numbers were 3952-3961 in January 1893.

Produced by the upstate New York builder and designed by E P Lord, former Superintendent of Motive Power of the Big Four, this seems to have been an one-off. Its role was to take over the Columbus Division previously hauled by the Class N 4-6-0s. RG featured this locomotive in three separate reports in 1893, reporting on p. 390 that compared the N's difficulty in meeting schedule time, the Y could "make the schedule time with 10 to 12 cars, and they often make up several minutes when necessary".

Diving deep into the design, RG noted the carefully thought through configuration of the inside link motion that sought to provide a nearly constant lead to the valve motion. (Lead distance was the point at which a valve opened in front of the moving piston to begin slowing it, then reversing its direction.). Lord's layout resorted to "setting the back gear eccentric so that there was negative lead in back gear." Or, to translate more directly, the RG adds "[t]hat is, in back motion, the valve was given no lead, and in fact does not open until the crank [on the axle] has passed the dead centre."

Although the report on 274 goes into considerable detail about the boiler, including staying and equalizing cross stays, it doesn't note that the firebox is a square-shouldered Belpaire design.

In 1907, the Big Four's parent New York Central assigned the entire class to the Lake Erie & Western as their class C-76. 134 and 193 were configured as 4-4-2s for a time, but the trailing axle seems not have had any radial swing and may have simply been an attempt to reduce the load on the rear driving axle.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1/C-191111 / Q-61317-A/Q
Locobase ID15,992 11,114 11,637 11,106 2150
RailroadWallkill Valley (NYC)Adirondack & St Lawrence (NYC)Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville (NYC)St Lawrence & Adirondack (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class24215
Road Numbers1-2/700-70111-1411-1213/218594, 160, 597-599
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built24215
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadyBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoSchenectadyBrooks
Year18871891188918951893
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)8 / 2.449 / 2.74 8.83 / 2.69 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.74
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.46 / 6.8523.92 / 7.2922.75 / 6.9323.92 / 7.2923.75 / 7.24
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.38 0.39 0.36 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)43.28 / 13.1946.12 / 14.0650.54 / 15.4045.67 / 13.92
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)33,100 / 15,014
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)52,500 / 23,81470,000 / 31,75256,000 / 25,40184,500 / 38,32965,100 / 29,529
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)82,700 / 37,512104,000 / 47,17485,000 / 38,555131,000 / 59,421104,600 / 47,446
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)56,800 / 25,76470,000 / 31,752
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)139,500 / 63,276174,600 / 79,198
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2700 / 10.233600 / 13.643000 / 11.364500 / 17.053100 / 11.74
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 4.50 / 4.107 / 6.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)44 / 2258 / 2947 / 23.5070 / 3554 / 27
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)64 / 162670 / 177862 / 157567 / 170272 / 1829
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)140 / 9.70160 / 11130 / 9190 / 13.10180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)16" x 24" / 406x61018" x 24" / 457x61017" x 24" / 432x61020" x 24" / 508x61017" x 24" / 432x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)11,424 / 5181.8515,108 / 6852.8812,362 / 5607.3223,140 / 10496.1414,739 / 6685.51
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.60 4.63 4.53 3.65 4.42
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)119 / 11.06148.80 / 13.83126 / 11.71171.70 / 15.96155 / 13.01
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)16.30 / 1.5118.20 / 1.6918 / 1.6730.80 / 2.8618.40 / 1.71
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1273 / 118.311709 / 158.831277 / 118.682168 / 201.491413 / 129.88
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1273 / 118.311709 / 158.831277 / 118.682168 / 201.491413 / 129.88
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume227.93241.77202.54248.43224.11
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation22822912234058523312
Same as above plus superheater percentage22822912234058523312
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,66023,80816,38032,62327,900
Power L149956478406373587496
Power MT419.51408.04319.91383.94507.71

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class205/C-36a208/C-3721623237/C-64a, Cx
Locobase ID5713 11,109 15,824 10,075 15,823
RailroadBoston & Albany (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class245102
Road Numbers205, 230/1153, 1159/228-229208, 210-212/1149-1152/240-243216-220232-233, 239-244, 44, 3237-38/201-202/7006
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built245102
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadyCS&CB&ATaunton
Year18941896186918731881
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.75 / 2.67 7.75 / 2.36 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.92 / 6.9923.42 / 7.1423.16 / 7.06
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.36 0.33
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)45.92 / 1447.25 / 14.4044.92 / 13.6936.33 / 11.0745.58 / 13.89
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)74,000 / 33,56674,500 / 33,79346,200 / 20,95644,250 / 20,07150,000 / 22,680
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)114,700 / 52,027119,000 / 53,97873,000 / 33,11269,400 / 31,47980,000 / 36,287
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)66,100 / 29,98263,654 / 28,873
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)139,100 / 63,094143,654 / 65,160
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.154000 / 15.153000 / 11.362880 / 10.91
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)8 / 7.306 / 5.506 / 5.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)62 / 3162 / 3139 / 19.5037 / 18.5042 / 21
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175369 / 175362 / 157566 / 167662 / 1575
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40190 / 13.10140 / 9.70150 / 10.30140 / 9.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61016" x 24" / 406x61018" x 22" / 457x55916" x 24" / 406x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,211 / 8713.9720,279 / 9198.4111,793 / 5349.2213,770 / 6245.9711,793 / 5349.22
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.85 3.67 3.92 3.21 4.24
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)141.40 / 13.14155 / 14.41121 / 11.25
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)25.29 / 2.3526.96 / 2.5117.62 / 1.6416.50 / 1.5317.62 / 1.64
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1845 / 171.472067 / 192.101143 / 106.23
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1845 / 171.472067 / 192.101143 / 106.23
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume234.26262.45176.40
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation45525122246724752467
Same as above plus superheater percentage45525122246724752467
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,45229,45018,150
Power L1670778854451
Power MT399.63466.67443.51

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class6A / C-15A / C-4A-1 / C-5/C-5AA-1x/C-6
Locobase ID12,990 5236 5226 5227 5228
RailroadChicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw (NYC)New York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class1551719
Road Numbers6570-571, 558, 577-578790-793, 811/1102-1105, 1111960961-964, 966-974, 978-982
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built15
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoRogersseveralseveralseveral
Year19061883188218861888
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23 / 7.0122.78 / 6.9422.96 / 722.96 / 722.96 / 7
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)47.38 / 14.4443.27 / 13.1945.02 / 13.7245.02 / 13.72
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)64,000 / 29,03064,000 / 29,03055,000 / 24,94857,300 / 25,99165,500 / 29,710
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)95,000 / 43,09195,000 / 43,09188,000 / 39,91690,300 / 40,95998,500 / 44,679
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)70,000 / 31,75280,000 / 36,28762,600 / 28,39570,400 / 31,93370,700 / 32,069
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)165,000 / 74,843175,000 / 79,378150,600 / 68,311160,700 / 72,892169,200 / 76,748
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3500 / 13.264500 / 17.052800 / 10.612800 / 10.613000 / 11.36
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.406 / 5.506 / 5.506 / 5.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)53 / 26.5053 / 26.5046 / 2348 / 2455 / 27.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157569 / 175370 / 177870 / 177870 / 1778
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11140 / 9.70145 / 10145 / 10145 / 10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17.5" x 24" / 445x61018" x 24" / 457x61017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)16,123 / 7313.2813,411 / 6083.1312,212 / 5539.2813,691 / 6210.1413,691 / 6210.14
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.97 4.77 4.50 4.19 4.78
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)136 / 12.64128 / 11.90153 / 14.22160 / 14.87144.50 / 13.43
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)16.90 / 1.5734 / 3.1618 / 1.6717.50 / 1.6317.80 / 1.65
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1379 / 128.161212 / 112.641353 / 125.741615 / 150.091598 / 148.51
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1379 / 128.161212 / 112.641353 / 125.741615 / 150.091598 / 148.51
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume206.40171.46214.59228.48226.07
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation27044760261025382581
Same as above plus superheater percentage27044760261025382581
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,76017,92022,18523,20020,953
Power L150954218568357805553
Power MT351.02290.60455.59444.77373.81

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassA-2 / C-7AdirondackB // C-17/C-17AB-1 / C-10B/C-38
Locobase ID5229 13,517 5240 5232 14,264
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)New York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class7170206
Road Numbers1129-1136224586-654680-699285-290/1139-1144/249-254
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built7170206
BuildershopsB&ARogersseveralSchenectady
Year18851873188218881899
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)8 / 2.44 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.74 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)21.79 / 6.6422.45 / 6.8423.46 / 7.1524.71 / 7.53
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.38 0.38 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)42.37 / 12.9146.62 / 14.2146.59 / 14.20
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)49,700 / 22,54443,000 / 19,50462,500 / 28,35063,300 / 28,71288,500 / 40,143
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)78,100 / 35,42667,150 / 30,45994,500 / 42,86596,000 / 43,545136,400 / 61,870
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)56,000 / 25,40164,000 / 29,03074,800 / 33,929106,200 / 48,172
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)134,100 / 60,827158,500 / 71,895170,800 / 77,474242,600 / 110,042
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2500 / 9.473000 / 11.363000 / 11.365200 / 19.70
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)5 / 4.505 / 4.508 / 7.308 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)41 / 20.5036 / 1852 / 2653 / 26.5074 / 37
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)64 / 162654 / 137269 / 175364 / 162675 / 1905
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)145 / 10130 / 9140 / 9.70145 / 10190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 20" / 432x50818" x 26" / 457x66018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x61020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)11,131 / 5048.9417,238 / 7819.0313,411 / 6083.1314,975 / 6792.5522,395 / 10158.21
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.47 2.49 4.66 4.23 3.95
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)143 / 13.29128 / 11.90123.30 / 11.46178.74 / 16.61
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)16.30 / 1.5115.50 / 1.4417 / 1.5819.50 / 1.8130.33 / 2.82
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1260 / 117.101212 / 112.641563 / 145.262521 / 234.21
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1260 / 117.101212 / 112.641563 / 145.262521 / 234.21
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume239.81171.46221.12266.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation23642015238028285763
Same as above plus superheater percentage23642015238028285763
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area20,73517,92017,87933,961
Power L15814421847698578
Power MT515.80297.57332.19427.37

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassBuck Mountain/C-XC-16/C-16AC-16B/C-16CC-18/C-18AC-19
Locobase ID14,563 5237 5238 5239 5242
RailroadNorthern Adirondack (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class1711206
Road Numbers4/785555+556660-679655-659, 701
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1206
BuilderRhode IslandRogersRogersRogersSchenectady
Year18841890188818851886
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)8 / 2.44 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.598 / 2.44
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.33 / 6.8122.81 / 6.9522.81 / 6.9522.81 / 6.9522.46 / 6.85
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)44 / 13.4147.40 / 14.4546.86 / 14.2846.53 / 14.1843.28 / 13.19
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)52,000 / 23,58773,800 / 33,47574,300 / 33,70260,000 / 27,21652,500 / 23,814
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)95,000 / 43,091108,300 / 49,124109,100 / 49,48792,000 / 41,73182,700 / 37,512
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)63,000 / 28,57664,000 / 29,03064,000 / 29,03072,400 / 32,84056,800 / 25,764
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)158,000 / 71,667172,300 / 78,154173,100 / 78,517164,400 / 74,571139,500 / 63,276
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2200 / 8.333000 / 11.363000 / 11.363000 / 11.362700 / 10.23
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.405 / 4.505 / 4.505 / 4.50 4.50 / 4.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)43 / 21.5062 / 3162 / 3150 / 2544 / 22
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157569 / 175369 / 175363 / 160064 / 1626
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)150 / 10.30150 / 10.30150 / 10.30140 / 9.70140 / 9.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)16" x 24" / 406x61018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x61017" x 24" / 432x61016" x 24" / 406x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)12,635 / 5731.1514,369 / 6517.6814,369 / 6517.6813,101 / 5942.5211,424 / 5181.85
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.12 5.14 5.17 4.58 4.60
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)111 / 10.31155 / 14.41150 / 13.94128 / 11.90119 / 11.06
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18 / 1.6732 / 2.9717.25 / 1.6017 / 1.5816.30 / 1.51
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)995 / 92.441504 / 139.781505 / 139.871200 / 111.521273 / 118.31
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)995 / 92.441504 / 139.781505 / 139.871200 / 111.521273 / 118.31
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume178.15212.77212.91190.33227.93
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation27004800258823802282
Same as above plus superheater percentage27004800258823802282
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,65023,25022,50017,92016,660
Power L143025562550342904995
Power MT364.78332.31326.57315.26419.51

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-2C-2/C-36C-20C-21C-22
Locobase ID2157 15,825 5241 5243 5244
RailroadSt Lawrence & Adirondack (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Fall Brook Coal Company (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class314412
Road Numbers5-7206-207, 209, 215-218, 230-2394061083709, 711
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built3142
BuilderBrooksSchenectadySchenectadyNew York (Rome)Schenectady
Year18971895188418861894
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.59 / 7.1922.92 / 6.9923.42 / 7.14
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.37 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49.33 / 15.0446.12 / 14.0647.58 / 14.50
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)80,000 / 36,28776,000 / 34,47357,700 / 26,17258,000 / 26,30875,000 / 34,019
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)122,300 / 55,474120,000 / 54,43187,900 / 39,87190,000 / 40,823119,000 / 53,978
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)89,000 / 40,37088,500 / 40,14366,000 / 29,93770,000 / 31,75286,100 / 39,054
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)211,300 / 95,844208,500 / 94,574153,900 / 69,808160,000 / 72,575205,100 / 93,032
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4200 / 15.914000 / 15.152900 / 10.984200 / 15.91
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 8.50 / 7.708 / 7.305 / 4.5010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)67 / 33.5063 / 31.5048 / 2448 / 2463 / 31.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)64 / 162669 / 175357 / 144864 / 162669 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80180 / 12.40140 / 9.70140 / 9.70155 / 10.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 26" / 457x66019" x 24" / 483x61017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x61019" x 24" / 483x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)22,376 / 10149.5919,211 / 8713.9714,480 / 6568.0314,459 / 6558.5016,543 / 7503.79
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.58 3.96 3.98 4.01 4.53
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)167.46 / 15.56156 / 14.49118.20 / 10.99118 / 10.97131.50 / 12.22
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30.40 / 2.8325.20 / 2.3417.50 / 1.6317.20 / 1.6025 / 2.32
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1814 / 168.591950 / 181.161216 / 113.011328 / 123.421903 / 176.86
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1814 / 168.591950 / 181.161216 / 113.011328 / 123.421903 / 176.86
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume236.89247.59192.86187.87241.63
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation60804536245024083875
Same as above plus superheater percentage60804536245024083875
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area33,49228,08016,54816,52020,383
Power L173867175381240525795
Power MT407.08416.27291.30308.04340.69

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-23C-24C-26C-26AC-51A
Locobase ID5245 5246 5247 5248 2848
RailroadFall Brook Coal Company (NYC)Fall Brook Coal Company (NYC)Beech Creek, Clearfield & Western (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class22412
Road Numbers710, 712706-70741-44/702-705705220-221/4103-4104/4173-4174
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2242
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadySchenectadySchenectadyBrooks
Year18971893188418891888
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 7.17 / 2.19 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.74
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.42 / 7.1421.67 / 6.6123.08 / 7.0322.91 / 6.9823.92 / 7.29
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)47.42 / 14.4547 / 14.3344.25 / 13.4945.62 / 13.90
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)37,500 / 17,010
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)81,000 / 36,74172,800 / 33,02252,000 / 23,58757,000 / 25,8557400 / 3357
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)124,000 / 56,246104,800 / 47,53780,000 / 36,28785,000 / 38,555111,000 / 50,349
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)86,100 / 39,05476,000 / 34,47365,600 / 29,75665,600 / 29,75674,000 / 33,566
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)210,100 / 95,300180,800 / 82,010145,600 / 66,043150,600 / 68,311185,000 / 83,915
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4500 / 17.053500 / 13.262700 / 10.232700 / 10.233500 / 13.26
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.40 7.50 / 6.806 / 5.506 / 5.508 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)68 / 3461 / 30.5043 / 21.5048 / 246 / 3
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)70 / 177869 / 175364 / 162663 / 160069 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)155 / 10.70155 / 10.70125 / 8.60125 / 8.60180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 24" / 508x61018" x 24" / 457x61017" x 24" / 432x61017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,069 / 8195.9714,848 / 6734.9511,515 / 5223.1211,698 / 5306.1317,242 / 7820.85
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.48 4.90 4.52 4.87 0.43
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)160 / 14.87129.60 / 12.04117 / 10.87117 / 10.87175 / 16.26
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)26.60 / 2.4728 / 2.6017.39 / 1.6217.39 / 1.6218.75 / 1.74
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2083 / 193.591568 / 145.721249 / 116.081604 / 149.071645 / 152.82
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2083 / 193.591568 / 145.721249 / 116.081604 / 149.071645 / 152.82
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume238.69221.83198.10254.40232.72
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation41234340217421743375
Same as above plus superheater percentage41234340217421743375
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area24,80020,08814,62514,62531,500
Power L159745588387845577380
Power MT325.20338.45328.83352.514397.32

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-52BC-63A to C-63GC-64, C-64AC-69, C-69AC-71/C-72
Locobase ID9726 9719 9720 9721 9722
RailroadLake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class125874
Road Numbers41757101-7107170-173/7108-7111
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built12587
BuilderSchenectadyBig FourseveralSchenectadySchenectady
Year18861889189518881897
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)9 / 2.74 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.749 / 2.74 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.83 / 7.2622.87 / 6.9723.08 / 7.0323.93 / 7.29
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.37 0.39 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)45.38 / 13.8344.18 / 13.4745.04 / 13.7345.75 / 13.94
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)64,000 / 29,03060,000 / 27,21660,800 / 27,57865,000 / 29,48469,000 / 31,298
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)94,000 / 42,63892,000 / 41,73193,400 / 42,366100,000 / 45,359107,000 / 48,534
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)83,000 / 37,64882,000 / 37,19572,500 / 32,88572,500 / 32,885
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)177,000 / 80,286174,000 / 78,926165,900 / 75,251172,500 / 78,244
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3500 / 13.264000 / 15.154000 / 15.154000 / 15.156000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.908 / 7.306 / 5.506 / 5.5010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)53 / 26.5050 / 2551 / 25.5054 / 2758 / 29
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175367 / 170263 / 160069 / 175369 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40145 / 10150 / 10.30160 / 11180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 24" / 432x61017" x 24" / 432x61017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)15,380 / 6976.2612,759 / 5787.3914,037 / 6367.0815,327 / 6952.2217,242 / 7820.85
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.16 4.70 4.33 4.24 4.00
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)154 / 14.31116 / 10.78146 / 13.57163 / 15.15144 / 13.38
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18.50 / 1.7217.90 / 1.6619.90 / 1.8518.60 / 1.7318.10 / 1.68
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1306 / 121.381223 / 113.661420 / 131.971611 / 149.721603 / 148.98
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1306 / 121.381223 / 113.661420 / 131.971611 / 149.721603 / 148.98
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume207.14193.97225.22227.91226.78
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation33302596298529763258
Same as above plus superheater percentage33302596298529763258
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area27,72016,82021,90026,08025,920
Power L168164630537163156803
Power MT469.58340.25389.51428.37434.73

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-73C-74C-75, C-75aC-77C-78
Locobase ID9723 9711 9710 3146 9724
RailroadBig Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class151222
Road Numbers122/7112551-552, 554-555, 550194-199, 188-193/7124-7129 / 7140-71417142-7143
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built51222
BuilderBrooksSchenectadySchenectadySchenectadySchenectady
Year18991893189318951897
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)9 / 2.749 / 2.748 / 2.44 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.92 / 7.2922.75 / 6.9323.87 / 7.2823.87 / 7.28
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.38 0.35 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)45.96 / 14.0146.10 / 14.0549.31 / 15.0349.04 / 14.95
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)69,000 / 31,29868,600 / 31,11679,700 / 36,15186,000 / 39,00984,000 / 38,102
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)107,000 / 48,534106,800 / 48,444119,600 / 54,250129,000 / 58,513128,600 / 58,332
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)97,000 / 43,999108,000 / 48,988108,000 / 48,988108,000 / 48,988
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)203,800 / 92,443227,600 / 103,238237,000 / 107,501236,600 / 107,320
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.155000 / 18.946000 / 22.736000 / 22.736000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.4010 / 9.1012 / 10.9012 / 10.9012 / 10.90
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)58 / 2957 / 28.5066 / 3372 / 3670 / 35
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175369 / 175369 / 175373 / 182973 / 1854
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x61018.5" x 24" / 470x61020" x 24" / 508x61020" x 24" / 508x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)16,763 / 7603.5817,242 / 7820.8518,214 / 8261.7420,121 / 9126.7421,238 / 9633.41
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.12 3.98 4.38 4.27 3.96
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)144 / 13.38144 / 13.38138.10 / 12.83179 / 15.80170 / 15.80
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18.10 / 1.6818.10 / 1.6828 / 2.6030.75 / 2.8630.60 / 2.84
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1647 / 153.071704 / 158.361726 / 160.412175 / 201.392130 / 197.96
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1647 / 153.071704 / 158.361726 / 160.412175 / 201.392130 / 197.96
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume233.00241.07231.16249.24244.08
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation31683258504055355814
Same as above plus superheater percentage31683258504055355814
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,20025,92024,85832,22032,300
Power L167397099669977047894
Power MT430.64456.29370.61394.99414.36

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-79C-79C-8C-9/C-9A/C-9B/C-9CC-95a
Locobase ID3272 9725 5230 5231 5207
RailroadCleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (NYC)Big Four (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class445855
Road Numbers201-204 / 7144-7147201-204 / 7144-71451053-105753-57/468-472/9550-9554/9719-9721
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built445
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadyshopsSchenectadyBrooks
Year18981898188818811890
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.598 / 2.44 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.74
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.87 / 7.2823.87 / 7.2821.79 / 6.6422.96 / 723.12 / 7.05
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.39
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49.29 / 15.0249.50 / 15.0942.37 / 12.9143.67 / 13.3144.29 / 13.50
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)86,000 / 39,00986,000 / 39,00951,500 / 23,36052,200 / 23,67859,400 / 26,943
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)130,000 / 58,967130,000 / 58,96782,000 / 37,19579,800 / 36,19791,000 / 41,277
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)108,000 / 48,988108,000 / 48,98859,000 / 26,76264,000 / 29,03086,000 / 39,009
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)238,000 / 107,955238,000 / 107,955141,000 / 63,957143,800 / 65,227177,000 / 80,286
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.733000 / 11.364400 / 16.67
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.904 / 3.6010.30 / 9.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)72 / 3672 / 3643 / 21.5044 / 2250 / 25
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)78 / 198173 / 185464 / 162664 / 162666 / 1676
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40190 / 13.10145 / 10140 / 9.70145 / 10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 24" / 508x61018" x 20" / 457x50817" x 20" / 432x50817" x 24" / 432x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)20,400 / 9253.3021,238 / 9633.4112,479 / 5660.3910,747 / 4874.7612,952 / 5874.94
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.22 4.05 4.13 4.86 4.59
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)170 / 15.80160 / 14.87149 / 13.85117.82 / 10.95131.52 / 12.22
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30.60 / 2.8430.80 / 2.8616.40 / 1.5217.50 / 1.6317.38 / 1.61
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2167 / 200.562157 / 200.461307 / 121.471074 / 99.811309 / 121.61
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2167 / 200.562157 / 200.461307 / 121.471074 / 99.811309 / 121.61
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume229.22247.17221.88204.41207.61
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation55085852237824502520
Same as above plus superheater percentage55085852237824502520
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area30,60030,40021,60516,49519,070
Power L174687833538847274975
Power MT382.89401.60461.30399.28369.29

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-97aC-97a - superheatedC-97bC-97bC-97c
Locobase ID5210 5211 5208 16,445 5209
RailroadToledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class33442
Road Numbers458-460/9559-9561458-460/9559-9561461-464/9562-9565461-464/8562-9565/4306465-466/9566-9567
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built3442
BuilderAlco-BrooksNYCAlco-BrooksAlco-BrooksAlco-Brooks
Year19041904190519051906
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.75 / 2.67 8.75 / 2.67 8.75 / 2.679 / 2.74 8.75 / 2.67
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24 / 7.3224 / 7.3224 / 7.3217.50 / 5.3324 / 7.32
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.51 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)59.10 / 18.0159.10 / 18.0159.10 / 18.0149.71 / 15.1559.06 / 18
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)87,000 / 39,46389,000 / 40,37087,000 / 39,46387,000 / 39,46392,500 / 41,957
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)135,700 / 61,553138,500 / 62,823135,200 / 61,326135,200 / 61,326138,500 / 62,823
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)108,100 / 49,033108,100 / 49,033107,200 / 48,625107,200 / 48,625112,600 / 51,075
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)243,800 / 110,586246,600 / 111,856242,400 / 109,951242,400 / 109,951251,100 / 113,898
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.1010 / 9.1010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)73 / 36.5074 / 3773 / 36.5073 / 36.5077 / 38.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)66 / 167666 / 167666 / 167667 / 170266 / 1676
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 26" / 457x66018" x 26" / 457x66018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 26" / 457x66018" x 24" / 457x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,528 / 8857.7619,528 / 8857.7618,026 / 8176.4719,237 / 8725.7718,026 / 8176.47
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.46 4.56 4.83 4.52 5.13
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)166.54 / 15.48166.54 / 15.48167.71 / 15.59167.71 / 15.58167.71 / 15.59
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)28.82 / 2.6828.82 / 2.6828.82 / 2.6828.80 / 2.6828.82 / 2.68
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1941 / 180.391390 / 129.181619 / 150.461631 / 151.521793 / 166.64
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)237 / 22.03
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1941 / 180.391627 / 151.211619 / 150.461631 / 151.521793 / 166.64
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume253.47181.52229.04212.99253.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation51885188518851845188
Same as above plus superheater percentage51885966518851845188
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area29,97734,47430,18830,18830,188
Power L1717211,262688464827371
Power MT363.48557.94348.89328.51351.36

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassC-97cC-XC-XC-XChamplain
Locobase ID16,446 14,547 14,548 14,564 2548
RailroadToledo & Ohio Central (NYC)New York CentralNew York Central (NYC)/RutlandNew York Central & Hudson River (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class4112
Road Numbers465-466/9566-9567/43061062106314, 156/395, 445/787, 786
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built4112
BuilderAlco-BrooksNYCSchenectadySchenectadyTaunton
Year19051872188918811849
Valve GearWalschaertStephensonStephensonStephensonV-hook
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.75 / 2.67 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.748 / 2.44
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24 / 7.3222.83 / 6.9624.33 / 7.4223 / 7.01
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)42.67 / 13.0143.42 / 13.2347.25 / 14.4043 / 13.11
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)92,500 / 41,95749,000 / 22,22664,700 / 29,34756,000 / 25,401
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)138,500 / 62,82381,600 / 37,01399,600 / 45,17891,000 / 41,27747,000 / 21,319
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)112,600 / 51,07552,000 / 23,58768,600 / 31,11668,000 / 30,844
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)251,100 / 113,898133,600 / 60,600168,200 / 76,294159,000 / 72,121
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.942600 / 9.853000 / 11.362200 / 8.331500 / 5.68
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.106 / 5.507 / 6.407 / 6.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)77 / 38.5041 / 20.5054 / 2747 / 23.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)67 / 170270 / 177864 / 162664 / 162666 / 1676
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40140 / 9.70160 / 11140 / 9.70100 / 6.90
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 26" / 457x66017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x61017" x 24" / 432x61015" x 20" / 381x508
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,237 / 8725.7711,791 / 5348.3116,524 / 7495.1712,897 / 5849.995795 / 2628.57
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.81 4.16 3.92 4.34
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)167.71 / 15.58116 / 10.78140 / 13.01104 / 9.6679.43 / 7.38
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)28.82 / 2.6816.21 / 1.5119.50 / 1.8116.60 / 1.5411.34 / 1.05
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1793 / 166.571292 / 120.031586 / 147.341008 / 93.65904 / 84.01
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1793 / 166.571292 / 120.031586 / 147.341008 / 93.65904 / 84.01
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume234.15204.92224.37159.87220.99
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation51882269312023241134
Same as above plus superheater percentage51882269312023241134
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area30,18816,24022,40014,5607943
Power L169074849551936193499
Power MT329.24436.33376.11284.95

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassChicagoClevelandColumbiaCrotonD-4/C-103
Locobase ID12,428 5386 2550 2549 7069
RailroadLake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class1167
Road Numbers243091-93, 89-90/9255-9257, 9253-9254
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1167
BuilderAlco-SchenectadyshopsLowell Machine ShopLowell Machine ShopPittsburgh
Year19061906185218511901
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertCroton V-hookCroton V-hookStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)8 / 2.449 / 2.74 7.25 / 2.21 5.50 / 1.68 8.67 / 2.64
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.67 / 6.9125.08 / 7.6624.33 / 7.42
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.35 0.36 0.36
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)46.19 / 14.0848.39 / 14.7549.28 / 15.02
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)66,500 / 30,16485,100 / 38,60179,000 / 35,834
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)99,500 / 45,132126,600 / 57,42536,000 / 16,32936,000 / 16,329130,000 / 58,967
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)83,200 / 37,739105,200 / 47,718112,000 / 50,802
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)182,700 / 82,871231,800 / 105,143242,000 / 109,769
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3500 / 13.264300 / 16.292300 / 8.711300 / 4.925000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)6 / 5.5010 / 9.1012 / 10.90
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)55 / 27.5071 / 35.5066 / 33
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157563 / 160084 / 213466 / 167676 / 1930
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80180 / 12.4080 / 5.5080 / 5.50200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)15" x 24" / 381x61012.5" x 20" / 318x508 (4)16.5" x 22" / 419x55912.5" x 20" / 318x50819" x 26" / 483x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,806 / 6715.9015,179 / 6885.094849 / 2199.473220 / 1460.5720,995 / 9523.18
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.49 5.61 3.76
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)93.37 / 8.67140 / 13.0163.39 / 5.89148 / 13.75
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)15.72 / 1.4621 / 1.9512.80 / 1.1911.08 / 1.0319 / 1.77
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1045 / 97.081466 / 136.25914 / 84.94612 / 56.881813 / 168.49
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1045 / 97.081466 / 136.25914 / 84.94612 / 56.881813 / 168.49
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume212.89258.03167.87215.44212.49
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation3144378010248863800
Same as above plus superheater percentage3144378010248863800
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area18,67425,200507129,600
Power L16365720528787580
Power MT422.03373.31423.06

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD-8, C-4g /C-104, C-105F / C-11F/C-19G // C-12/C-12AH / C-13
Locobase ID7068 5233 15,993 5234 5235
RailroadPittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class10142315
Road Numbers9258-9267983-992, 1004-1007124-125, 130, 135, 140/655-6591008-10381106-1110
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built10102315
BuilderAlco-PittsburghseveralSchenectadySchenectadyseveral
Year19061889188618921890
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.599 / 2.748 / 2.44 8.42 / 2.579 / 2.74
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.58 / 7.1923.46 / 7.1522.46 / 6.8523.08 / 7.0323.46 / 7.15
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.38 0.36 0.36 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)54.23 / 16.5345.46 / 13.8643.28 / 13.1946.67 / 14.2344.67 / 13.62
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)102,300 / 46,40370,200 / 31,84252,500 / 23,81477,000 / 34,92755,000 / 24,948
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)151,900 / 68,901104,200 / 47,26482,700 / 37,512110,000 / 49,89585,000 / 38,555
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)142,000 / 64,41070,700 / 32,06956,800 / 25,76481,400 / 36,92262,000 / 28,123
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)293,900 / 133,311174,900 / 79,333139,500 / 63,276191,400 / 86,817147,000 / 66,678
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8400 / 31.823000 / 11.362700 / 10.233500 / 13.263000 / 11.36
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.106 / 5.50 4.50 / 4.107 / 6.405 / 4.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)85 / 42.5059 / 29.5044 / 2264 / 3246 / 23
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)72 / 182970 / 177864 / 162664 / 162664 / 1626
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80145 / 10140 / 9.70170 / 11.70140 / 9.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 26" / 495x66018" x 24" / 457x61016" x 24" / 406x61018.5" x 22" / 470x55917" x 24" / 432x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)22,161 / 10052.0713,691 / 6210.1411,424 / 5181.8517,000 / 7711.0812,897 / 5849.99
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.62 5.13 4.60 4.53 4.26
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)172.40 / 16.02182 / 16.91119 / 11.06145.20 / 13.49114.50 / 10.64
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30 / 2.7919.20 / 1.7816.30 / 1.5132.60 / 3.0319.50 / 1.81
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2307 / 214.411746 / 162.271273 / 118.311713 / 159.201320 / 122.68
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2307 / 214.411746 / 162.271273 / 118.311713 / 159.201320 / 122.68
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume270.39247.01227.93250.27209.36
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation60002784228255422730
Same as above plus superheater percentage60002784228255422730
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area34,48026,39016,66024,68416,030
Power L189146356499564624482
Power MT384.20399.22419.51370.03359.31

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassI / CI-1 / CBI-2 // CC / CDI-3/C-3Inspection Engine C-100
Locobase ID5225 3937 3938 3939 14,450
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class40111221
Road Numbers873-892, 899-902, 909-923924-928, 934-938, 870929-933, 939-943, 945-946947-94823
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built11122
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadySchenectadyNYC-DepewP&LE
Year19011896189619001906
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.67 / 2.64
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.93 / 7.2923.93 / 7.2923.93 / 7.2923.67 / 7.2122.75 / 6.93
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.38
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.01 / 14.6348.83 / 14.8849.50 / 15.0945.58 / 13.89
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)48,550 / 22,022
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)80,000 / 36,28790,000 / 40,82386,500 / 39,23694,400 / 42,81967,800 / 30,754
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)120,000 / 54,431134,500 / 61,008131,000 / 59,421146,400 / 66,406109,400 / 49,623
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)80,000 / 36,28793,600 / 42,45689,350 / 40,529108,000 / 48,988112,000 / 50,802
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)200,000 / 90,718228,100 / 103,464220,350 / 99,950254,400 / 115,394221,400 / 100,425
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.944500 / 17.054500 / 17.055000 / 18.943500 / 13.26
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.107 / 6.407 / 6.4010 / 9.106 / 5.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)67 / 33.5075 / 37.5072 / 3679 / 39.5057 / 28.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)70 / 177878 / 198170 / 177877 / 195668 / 1727
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40180 / 12.40190 / 13.10190 / 13.10155 / 10.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61017" x 24" / 432x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,937 / 8589.6916,995 / 7708.8119,989 / 9066.8718,172 / 8242.6913,439 / 6095.84
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.22 5.30 4.33 5.19 5.05
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)137.70 / 12.80164.40 / 15.28164.40 / 15.28180.10 / 16.73121 / 11.24
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)27.30 / 2.5430.70 / 2.8530.70 / 2.8530.70 / 2.8517.20 / 1.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1822 / 169.331974 / 183.461974 / 183.462404 / 223.341150 / 106.84
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1822 / 169.331974 / 183.461974 / 183.462404 / 223.341150 / 106.84
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume231.34250.64250.64305.24182.39
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation49145526583358332666
Same as above plus superheater percentage49145526583358332666
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area24,78629,59231,23634,21918,755
Power L166948307786910,2314890
Power MT368.94406.97401.11477.87318.01

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassN/C-14P-4/C-97aP-5/C-97bQ-4R
Locobase ID1116 16,444 2078 8570 8569
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)Kanawha & Michigan (NYC)Kanawha & Michigan (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class1343615
Road Numbers999573-575576-579501-536173-176, 180, 184-187, 193-194
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1343615
BuilderWest Albany shopsAlco-BrooksAlco-BrooksseveralSchenectady
Year18931904190518811881
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.75 / 2.679 / 2.74
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24 / 7.3224 / 7.3217.50 / 5.33
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.35 0.36 0.51
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)57.83 / 17.6359.10 / 18.0149.71 / 15.15
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)42,000 / 19,051
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)84,000 / 38,10287,000 / 39,46387,000 / 39,46348,000 / 21,77271,000 / 32,205
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)124,000 / 56,246135,700 / 61,553135,200 / 61,32674,000 / 33,566107,000 / 48,534
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)80,000 / 36,287108,100 / 49,033107,200 / 48,625
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)204,000 / 92,533243,800 / 110,586242,400 / 109,951
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3500 / 13.265000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 7.70 / 710 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)70 / 3573 / 36.5073 / 36.5040 / 2059 / 29.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)86 / 218466 / 167667 / 170262 / 157568 / 1727
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40135 / 9.30180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61018" x 26" / 457x66018" x 26" / 457x66017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)15,414 / 6991.6819,528 / 8857.7619,237 / 8725.7712,837 / 5822.7717,496 / 7936.06
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.45 4.46 4.52 3.74 4.06
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)232.92 / 21.64166.54 / 15.47167.71 / 15.58142 / 13.20154 / 14.31
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30.76 / 2.8628.82 / 2.6828.80 / 2.6815.10 / 1.4027.30 / 2.54
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1930 / 179.301941 / 180.321631 / 151.521215 / 112.921425 / 132.43
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1930 / 179.301941 / 180.321631 / 151.521215 / 112.921425 / 132.43
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume245.05253.47212.99192.70201.60
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation55375188518420394914
Same as above plus superheater percentage55375188518420394914
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area41,92629,97730,18819,17027,720
Power L110,1377172648242596335
Power MT532.10363.48328.51391.23393.42

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassSanta Clara/C-XSuperiorVirginiaWilliam H VanderbiltY/B-3/C-76
Locobase ID14,565 2551 13,518 16,271 16,378
RailroadNorthern Adirondack (NYC)Hudson River (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class321210
Road Numbers788-79011600-601100, 105, 134, 148-149, 160, 193, 195, 201, 205
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built321210
BuilderRhode IslandBreese-KneelandB&ASchenectadySchenectady
Year18841854187618801893
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.58 / 2.62 6.67 / 2.03 / 2.59 7.75 / 2.36
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.25 / 7.09 / 7.3222.71 / 6.92
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.34
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)44 / 13.41 / 17.63
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg) / 19,051
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)64,000 / 29,03043,000 / 19,504 / 38,10286,500 / 39,236
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)107,000 / 48,53458,000 / 26,30867,150 / 30,45976,000 / 56,246129,280 / 58,640
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)64,000 / 29,030 / 36,28785,280 / 38,682
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)171,000 / 77,564 / 92,533214,560 / 97,322
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2400 / 9.092300 / 8.71 / 13.264000 / 15.15
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.40 / 77 / 6.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)53 / 26.5036 / 1872 / 36
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160078 / 198160 / 152475 / 218469 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)150 / 10.30110 / 7.60130 / 9140 / 12.40180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 24" / 432x61016" x 22" / 406x55918" x 26" / 457x66018" x 24" / 483x61018.5" x 24" / 470x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,037 / 6367.086751 / 3062.2115,514 / 7037.0412,338 / 5596.4318,214 / 8261.74
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.56 2.77 4.75
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)124 / 11.52232.92 / 21.64143.74 / 13.35
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18 / 1.6713.68 / 1.2715.50 / 1.44 / 2.8631.30 / 2.91
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1114 / 103.491049 / 97.49 / 179.301570 / 145.86
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1114 / 103.491049 / 97.49 / 179.301570 / 145.86
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume176.69204.90210.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation2700150520155634
Same as above plus superheater percentage2700150520155634
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area18,60032,60925,873
Power L143326345
Power MT298.45323.43

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