Central RR of New Jersey 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 456/P1 (Locobase 12192)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 20, p. 122. See also "New Central of New Jersey Express Locomotive", Railroad and Locomotive Engineering, Volume 9, No 6 (June 1896), p. 454. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his email noting the tender's coal capacity and loaded weight and reported a 1/4" difference in driver diameter.) Works number was 14810 in April 1896.

The CNJ's first Atlantic bucked the trend of camelback Atlantics then coming into use on the anthracite roads against which the railroad competed. Instead of a compound steam system, the CNJ adopted a simple-expansion layout. Piston valve diameter was a healthy 12" (305 mm) with a 6 1/2" (167 mm) travel. Tube diameter fell between the more common 1 1/2" and 2 or 2 1/4" as well.

In May 1905, the CNJ rebuilt this engine with 18" (457 mm) cylinders and in January 1912 mounted 79" drivers. So modified, she and 570 (Locobase 16289) occupied the P1 class beginning in 1919.

503 was scrapped in November 1926.


Class 457/P1 (Locobase 16289)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 20, p. 123. See also "New Baldwin Locomotive for the Central of New Jersey", Railroad Gazette (12 June 1898), p. 407. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 6 June 2017 email and spreadsheet filling in the hole left by the absence of this entry and for a later email adding the tender's coal capacity and weight and for correcting the driver diameter.) Works number was 14825 in May 1896.

After the CNJ accepted its first Atlantic as a simple-expansion engine (see Locobase 12192), it ordered a Vauclain compound twin a month later on 8 April 1896. The two cylinders on each side were supplied by a single 11 1/2" (292 mm) piston valve.

In 1903, the 571's compound days ended when she was converted at Elizabethport in September to simple expansion with two 18 x 24" cylinders. More power in the form of 18 x 26" was installed in July 1912. At the same time, the CNJ shops fitted 79" (2,007 mm) drivers. She and 456 (now 503) served until the 1920s.

571 was scrapped in June 1925.


Class 582/P3a (Locobase 12377)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 22, p. 190. See also "A New Radial Valve Gear", American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume 84, No. 10 (October 1910), pp. 408-409. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 19 July 2017 email noting road number changes, tender capacity, the use of different valve gears on two of the engines, and the pub cite to a key article on the Hobart-Allfree gear.) Works numbers were 17117-17118, 17184-17186 in October 1899; 17246 in November.

As with almost all Vauclain compounds operated in the USA, these Atlantics were rebuilt with simple-expansion cylinders. The conversion to 19" cylinders came in 1904 (5) and 1905 (1 - 585).

Elizabethport fitted the 583 with Baker valve gear in December 1909.

In 1910, the CNJ fitted the 580 (formerly 586) with the Hobart-Allfree radial valve gear. Long in development, this variant of the outside radial valve gear eliminated all sliding links and worked well with the Allfree Hubbell valves. (Fuller description of the valve gear and the valves appear in Locobase 7820, including the adverse effect of delaying valve opening so far into the stroke.)

All but one underwent one more modification when the shops increased cylinder size to 20 1/2"; this occurred over several years beginning in 1914 and ending in 1924. All were reclassified P4s, which suggests that part of the upgrade featured the addtion of a superheater.

By that time, 582, which received its larger cylinders in 1914, had been totalled in a March 1920 wreck. The others were all scrapped in 1928-1929.


Class P-1a (Locobase 10764)

Data from Angus Sinclair, Twentieth Century Locomotives (New York: Railway and Locomotive Engineering, 1904), pp.580-582 . See also DeGolyer, Volume 25, p. 14 and "Fast Engines of the Atlantic Type for the Central Railroad of New Jersey", Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Volume 15, No. 12 (December 1902), p. 529-530. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his email noting the driver diameter.) Works numbers were 20965-20966, 20983 in September 1902.

This set of camelback Atlantics was smaller and lighter than the Brooks sextet that had appeared a year earlier (Locobase 5331). As an anthracite road, the CNJ adopted the Wootten firebox. As the RLE report commented, the Atlantic City Flyer trains they hauled weren't heavy, but "continuous transportation at high speed is what the company sells to that seaside resort."

In 1909-1910 the three were rebuilt with 79" drivers, but as they lacked the sheer size and grate of the P-6s, they were not superheated.

574 was scrapped first in June 1928, with 572 following a month later, and 573 finishing the class in June 1930.


Class P-6 (Locobase 5331)

Data from table in AERJ July 1903. Like all the other Atlantics on the CNJ, these were camelbacks with very tall drivers. Apparently successful, they endured until 1946-1947.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works #3951-3953 in August 1901 and numbered 588-590, renumbered 591-593 soon thereafter. Locoba e Cannot tell about the other two.

http://www.insighting.co.uk/homauchchunk/steam_class.htm for photos and further comments.


Class P-6 superheated (Locobase 9447)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 5331 shows the sextet of Atlantics as they entered service in 1901. Unlike many of the other American railroads that operated 4-4-2s or Camelbacks, the CNJ held onto their doubly unusual P-6s until the end of steam. But the engines were quite different after a substantial makeover that included increasing piston diameter by 1 1/2" in cylinders supplied by 12" piston valves and reducing the driver diameter by 6 inches. At the same time, adhesion weight went up by more than 15 tons to handle the higher tractive effort. A reconfigured boiler substituted 24 flues (and their superheater elements) for 155 small tubes. Finally, the tender held more water and coal and weighed almost 15 tons more than its older counterpart.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class456/P1457/P1582/P3aP-1aP-6
Locobase ID12,192 16,289 12,377 10,764 5331
RailroadCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New Jersey
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class21636
Road Numbers456/573/570457/581/571582-586/582-585, 580597-599 / 573-574590-595
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built11636
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBrooks
Year18961896189919021901
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 7.25 / 2.21 7.25 / 2.21 7.25 / 2.21 7.25 / 2.21 7.67 / 2.34
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26.42 / 8.0526.42 / 8.0526.58 / 8.1026.42 / 8.0529.83 / 9.09
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)53.17 / 16.2153.17 / 16.2153.67 / 16.36
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)80,000 / 36,28780,000 / 36,28788,000 / 39,91684,100 / 38,14799,400 / 45,087
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)141,000 / 63,957141,000 / 63,957167,000 / 75,750151,000 / 68,493191,000 / 86,636
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)82,000 / 37,195120,000 / 54,431100,000 / 45,35999,000 / 44,906124,000 / 56,246
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)223,000 / 101,152261,000 / 118,388267,000 / 121,109250,000 / 113,399315,000 / 142,882
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3500 / 13.263500 / 13.265000 / 18.945000 / 18.946000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.407 / 6.40812
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)67 / 33.5067 / 33.5073 / 36.5070 / 3583 / 41.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)84.25 / 214084.25 / 214084.25 / 214084.25 / 214085 / 2159
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18.75" x 26" / 476x66013" x 26" / 330x66014" x 26" / 356x66018" x 26" / 457x66020.5" x 26" / 521x660
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 26" / 559x66024" x 26" / 610x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,444 / 8366.0713,143 / 5961.5715,344 / 6959.9316,998 / 7710.1722,946 / 10408.14
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.34 6.09 5.74 4.95 4.33
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)189.80 / 17.63189.80 / 17.63185.37 / 17.23170.70 / 15.86174 / 16.17
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)76 / 7.0676 / 7.0676 / 7.0673 / 6.7882 / 7.62
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1835 / 170.481835 / 170.482669 / 248.052174 / 201.972967 / 275.74
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1835 / 170.481835 / 170.482669 / 248.052174 / 201.972967 / 275.74
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume220.84459.41576.16283.90298.72
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,20015,20015,20014,60017,220
Same as above plus superheater percentage15,20015,20015,20014,60017,220
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area37,96037,96037,07434,14036,540
Power L194096835741811,10311,493
Power MT518.58376.71371.68582.11509.81

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP-6 superheated
Locobase ID9447
RailroadCentral RR of New Jersey
CountryUSA
Whyte4-4-2
Number in Class6
Road Numbers590-595
GaugeStd
Number Built
BuilderCNJ
Year1917
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 7.67 / 2.34
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)29.92 / 9.12
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)58.54 / 17.84
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)127,800 / 57,969
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)215,700 / 97,840
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)153,800 / 69,763
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)369,500 / 167,603
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7500 / 28.41
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)13 / 11.80
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)107 / 53.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)79 / 2007
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 26" / 559x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)28,433 / 12897.01
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)173.90 / 16.16
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)81.63 / 7.59
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2188 / 203.35
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)460 / 42.75
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2648 / 246.10
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume191.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation17,142
Same as above plus superheater percentage20,056
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area42,727
Power L117,397
Power MT600.22