Gulf & Ship Island / Illinois Central 4-4-2 "Atlantic" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 10 (Locobase 8409)

Data from G & SI 1922 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange and DeGolyer, Volume 27, p. 74. Works numbers were 24432-24433 in June 1904.

The G & SI had a small stud of locomotives, so it's all the more remarkable that that holding included five Atlantics. Sam Lindsey, writing on http://www.samlindsey.com/Logging/GSI/GSI_History ... (accessed 9 October 2005), tells us that the first two were built as a pair and celebrated in August 1904. A note on the Baldwin specifications describes the specs "Gen [erally] as ACL #10" (i.e., essentially copies of the Atlantic Coast Line Atlantics). Their valves originally worked through Stephenson gear, but later were fitted with outside Southern gear.

The two hauled Trains One and Two that had sleeping cars for service from Gulfport to Memphis, Tenn. 11 was scrapped in 1927, 10 sold for scrap in March 1928.


Class 1000 (1) (Locobase 7048)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 24, p. 143. See also "Atlantic Passenger Engine for the Illinois Central", Railway Age, Volume 33, No. 16 (18 April 1902). p. 644-645. Works number was 20016 in January 1902.

John S Ingles (in Drury (1993)) tells us that this locomotive was procured to be compared against a single Prairie delivered by Baldwin in the same year (Locobase 5327). After a year of trials against the IC's standard Ten-wheel passenger engine, the Atlantic layout won, but Rogers produced the batch.

Although a loner, the now-renumbered 1001 was later superheated; see Locobase 16275.


Class 1001 - superheated (Locobase 16275)

Data from IC 9 - 1928 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 7048 described the original 1902 configuration of this locomotive, which won in trials against a Prairie. It remained a loner, however, because Rogers won the contract to build the production design which was a bit bigger. Despite its solitary status, however, 1001 wasn't overlooked when the IC superheated its passenger power. In addition to installing piston valves actuated by outside radial valve gear, the railroad shop's workover added a generous amount of weight as well.

remained in IC service for almost 40 years before being retired in February 1939.


Class 1002 (Locobase 4095)

Data originally taken from a table in Paul T Warner's article on Atlantics in the Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #62 (1943, p 20), but Locobase was supplied the 1913 IC Locomotive Diagram book in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. That data is the information in the specs. Works numbers were 5930-5939 in April 1903; 6115-6119 in February 1904, 6205-6209 in April.

Warner gave a total heating surface of 3,232 sq ft and a grate area of 50.7 sq ft. (Note that the builder's numbers reflect the last entries by Rogers under its own sequence; Alco soon combined all of its works in a single series.)

One of a few 4-4-2 classes to operate west of the Appalachians. For some reason, five more Atlantics had 54 fewer boiler tubes of the same diameter; see Locobase 6551.

Westcott (1960) shows that these were later superheated, fitted with Baker valve gear, 80" drivers, and 21" diameter cylinders; see Locobase 8408.


Class 1002-1026 - superheated (Locobase 8408)

Data from IC 9 -1928 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

When the IC superheated its Atlantics, it took the 20 from the 1002 class (Locobase 4095) and the five from the 1023 class (Locobase 6551) and revamped them according to a common design. In addition to a modest amount of superheat, the shops installed outside Baker valve gear actuating 12" (305 mm) piston valves, and increased the cylinder diameter by an inch.

As evidence for the desperate search for more tractive effort on freight trains after the US entry into World War Two in December 1941, the IC took eleven of the class and mounted them on 63 1/2" drivers in 1942. The shops also raised the boiler pressure to 225 psi (15.5 bar), which Locobase suspects marks a new boiler as well. The combination of higher pressure and smaller drivers raised the tractive effort to 37,190 lb (16,869 kg). These were renumbered 2001-2010.

One ratio suggests the expedient nature of this conversion: an updated factor of adhesion of 3.04. Another indicator was the retirement of nine of the conversions by 1 January 1947.


Class 1022 (Locobase 6551)

Data from the 1913 IC Locomotive Diagram book in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 6233-6237 in 1903-1904.

Locobase 4095 describes the first 20 Atlantics delivered to the IC in 1903-1904. For some reason, the last five had fewer tubes in the boiler and a smaller grate. They were otherwise identical.

Like the 1002s, these five engines were superheated and acquired the same boiler design as the earlier locomotives; see Locobase 8408.


Class 12 (Locobase 8410)

Data from G & SI 1922 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange and DeGolyer, Volume 29, p.139. Works number was 28525 in July 1906.

Two years after the G & SI took delivery of its first Atlantics (Locobase 8409), it added this one with a significantly different extended wagon top boiler profile that had a marked coned section connecting two straight sections. The inside Stephenson link motion was later replaced by outside Southern valve gear.

Otherwise, this medium-weight passenger engine was identical and ran for two decades until it was sold for scrap in 1927.


Class 13 (Locobase 8411)

Data from G & SI 1922 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 44153-44154 in August 1907.

Sam Lindsey, writing on http://www.samlindsey.com/Logging/GSI/GSI_History ... (accessed 9 October 2005), gives us the only other information we have on these unusual Atlantics. The Alcos "...were beauties to behold!" when they arrived from the builder. Raising the boiler pressure, increasing the cylinder volume, and tilting the valve chests outboard were among the changes from the earlier Baldwins (Locobase 8409-8410). According to Lindsey, the two engines were "beauties to behold."

According to Lindsey, the IC recoiled in horror when they inherited a train with the unlucky number 13 on its cab. Overnight, the 13 became the 15, but was scrapped in 1927.. 14 was the last Atlantic to go, being sold in July 1928.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class101000 (1)1001 - superheated10021002-1026 - superheated
Locobase ID8409 7048 16,275 4095 8408
RailroadGulf & Ship Island (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class3112026
Road Numbers10-111000/100110011002-10211002, 1004-1026
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built3120
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoICRogersIC
Year1904190219031918
Valve GearStephensonStephensonBakerStephensonBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 6.25 / 1.90 7.25 / 2.21 7.25 / 2.21 7.25 / 2.21 7.25 / 2.21
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.92 / 7.6027.75 / 8.4629 / 8.8427.75 / 8.4629 / 8.84
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.25
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)57.71 / 17.5956.92 / 17.3558.71 / 17.8960.29 / 18.38
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)88,890 / 40,32095,710 / 43,413109,050 / 49,464102,000 / 46,266113,000 / 51,256
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)121,000 / 54,885178,600 / 81,012201,150 / 91,240188,000 / 85,275210,000 / 95,255
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)38,200 / 17,327147,600 / 66,950147,600 / 66,950147,600 / 66,950147,600 / 66,950
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)159,200 / 72,212326,200 / 147,962348,750 / 158,190335,600 / 152,225357,600 / 162,205
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.947000 / 26.527000 / 26.527000 / 26.527000 / 26.52
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.9015 / 13.6015 / 13.6015 / 13.6015 / 13.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)74 / 3780 / 4091 / 45.5085 / 42.5094 / 47
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)72 / 182979 / 200779 / 200779 / 200779 / 2007
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40200 / 13.80185 / 12.80200 / 13.80185 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61020" x 28" / 508x71121" x 28" / 533x71120" x 28" / 508x71121" x 28" / 533x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,411 / 8351.1024,101 / 10932.0424,579 / 11148.8624,101 / 10932.0424,579 / 11148.86
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.83 3.97 4.44 4.23 4.60
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)133.50 / 12.41174.70 / 16.23206.20 / 19.16179.70 / 16.70208.20 / 19.35
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)26.10 / 2.4351 / 4.7452 / 4.8351 / 4.7450.90 / 4.73
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2047 / 190.243192 / 296.542276 / 211.453075 / 285.782525 / 234.67
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)495 / 45.99495 / 46
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2047 / 190.243192 / 296.542771 / 257.443075 / 285.783020 / 280.67
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume259.91313.52202.77302.03224.95
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation469810,200962010,2009417
Same as above plus superheater percentage469810,20011,35210,20010,923
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area24,03034,94045,01335,94044,680
Power L1744510,51516,84410,27717,406
Power MT369.30484.41681.06444.25679.18

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class10221213
Locobase ID6551 8410 8411
RailroadIllinois Central (IC)Gulf & Ship Island (IC)Gulf & Ship Island (IC)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class512
Road Numbers1022-10261213-14
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built512
BuilderRogersBurnham, Williams & CoAlco-Schenectady
Year190419061907
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 7.25 / 2.21 6.33 / 1.93 6.67 / 2.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)27.75 / 8.4624.96 / 7.6127.83 / 8.48
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.26 0.25 0.24
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)58.71 / 17.8958.25 / 17.75
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)101,500 / 46,04094,420 / 42,82892,900 / 42,139
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)187,000 / 84,822125,800 / 57,062140,800 / 63,866
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)147,600 / 66,95047,800 / 21,682 / 25,900
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)334,600 / 151,772173,600 / 78,744 / 89,766
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7000 / 26.525000 / 18.945000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)15 / 13.6011 / 1014 / 12.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)85 / 42.5079 / 39.5077 / 38.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)79 / 200772 / 182972 / 1829
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80180 / 12.40190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 28" / 508x71119" x 24" / 483x61019" x 26" / 483x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)24,101 / 10932.0418,411 / 8351.1021,053 / 9549.49
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.21 5.13 4.41
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)177 / 16.45153.20 / 14.24
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)47.60 / 4.4229.75 / 2.76
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2709 / 251.772340 / 217.47
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2709 / 251.772340 / 217.47
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume266.08297.11
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation95205355
Same as above plus superheater percentage95205355
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area35,40027,576
Power L192968518
Power MT403.83397.77

Reference