Chicago Short Line 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1 (Locobase 5304)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 24, p. 180. See also "Compound Ten-wheel Passenger Locomotive", American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume 76, No 3 (March 1902), pp. 72-74; and H Wade Hibbard, "Balanced Compound Locomotive," Sibley Journal of Engineering, Volume 16, No 6 (March 1902), p. 237-242. Works number 20000 in January 1902.

Balanced Vauclain compound Ten-wheeler fitted with the relatively rare Vanderbilt boiler, which featured a cylindrical firebox. This locomotive introduced the Vauclain four-cylinder balanced compounding system, which benefited considerably from Baldwin's experience with the de Glehn compounding system used in France. The de Glehn system featured four cylinders whose HP cylinders drove one axle and the LP drove another.

Vauclain's form of the four-cylinder compound had the two HP cylinders lying between the frames in line with the two outside, LP cylinders, all driving the lead axle. Crank positioning attempted to minimize hammerblow in two ways: The same-size cylinders were set 90 deg from each other, and each LP cylinder crank was 180 deg off from its LP partner.

One 15" (381 mm) valve served both cylinders on a side as it did in the four.-cylinder Vauclain compound system so heavily promoted over the previous 15 years. In the balanced form, however, each cylinder had its own crosshead and crank. Thus, the advantages of compounding were preserved, but the wracking stresses imposed by improper adjustment of the Vauclain system could be avoided.

Another notable feature was the re-adoption of the crank axle inside. American builders had shied away from crank axles because they were prone to breakage. 20th Century metallurgy suggested that that issue had been solved. Another innovation was Plant System's superintendent of motive power Symon's boltless cast-steel tender truck.

Westing's reproduction of Paul Warner's history of Baldwin (1925; printed in Westing, 1966) only notes that production of this, the 20,000th Baldwin locomotive, was celebrated by a big dinner at the Union League.

On the web, (visited 4 January 2003) reproduces a Scientific American article from 7 June 1902, which shows the locomotive as Plant System 119. Connelly's Baldwin list identifies the Plant System component as the SF&W, which refused the engine.

Baldwin reworked the design. The builder increased the boiler's diameter from 62"(1,575 mm) to 80 3/4" (2,051 mm) to the Chicago Short Line as #1. The CSL in turn sold it in 1905 to the Ashland & Western as their #1, but the A&W only operated it for three years before selling it in 1908 to to Southern Iron & Equipment, a locomotive rebuilder/reseller based in Atlanta that renumbered it 686.

Although Locobase isn't sure, it is likely that SI&E removed the corrugated firebox in favor of a more conventional furnace. Four years later, the SI&E sold the 686 to the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, which renumbered it 1. The AB&A renumbered the engine twice more (99, then 39) before scrapping it in 1920.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID5304
RailroadChicago Short Line
Number in Class1
Road Numbers1/319/1/99/39
Number Built1
BuilderBurnham, Williams & Co
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.08
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)28.33
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.50
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)56
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)127,010 / 57,611
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)176,510 / 80,064
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)99,000 / 44,906
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)275,510 / 124,970
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 9.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)71 / 35.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)73 / 1854
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)15" x 26" / 381x660
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)25" x 26" / 635x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)20,034 / 9087.28
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 6.34
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)128 / 11.90
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)27.25 / 2.53
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2793 / 259.57
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2793 / 259.57
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume525.22
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation5450
Same as above plus superheater percentage5450
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,600
Power L15655
Power MT294.48

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