Keweenaw Central 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 20 (Locobase 13497)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 32, p. 324. See also Horace Jared Stevens and Walter Harvey Weed, The Copper Handbook, Volume 5 for the year 1904 (Houghton, Michigan: Horace J Stevens, 1905), p. 496. Works number was 33034 in November 1908.

Copper deposits in the Lake Superior field of Keweenaw county were described by Stevens and Weed in 1905 as "...being the lowest grade of any important or producing copper district of the world." To work such ore profitably required rail facilities and that was the needed spur to build the KC. Taking over the ownership of the defunct Lac La Belle & Calumet, which had laid 8 miles of track in Keweenaw county, Keweenaw Copper planned to build a 35-mile main line between Calumet and Lac La Belle.

The authors predicted that "The Keweenaw Copper Company, through its railroad, the Keweenaw Central, should prove the most important factor in reviving the once important, but long decayed mining interests of Keweenaw county."

The KC can't be said to have been robust, particularly in its non-ore operations; it operated at a deficit in most years. The Upper Peninsula was sparsely populated and passenger trains operated at a loss and didn't run at all from November to May. In 1916, the road owned only 2 locomotives and 95 cars, of which only 55 were available for service. Two years later, the KC RR was liquidated, equipment sold off, and the rails on the Mandan-Lac La Belle branch were pulled up and sold.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID13,497
RailroadKeweenaw Central
Number in Class1
Road Numbers20
Number Built1
BuilderBurnham, Williams & Co
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13.33 / 4.06
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.50 / 7.47
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)50.83 / 15.49
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)104,000 / 47,174
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)135,000 / 61,235
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)100,000 / 45,359
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)235,000 / 106,594
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4500 / 17.05
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)58 / 29
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 26" / 483x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)25,194 / 11427.82
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.13
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)142 / 13.19
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)29.20 / 2.71
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2139 / 198.72
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2139 / 198.72
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume250.70
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation5256
Same as above plus superheater percentage5256
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,560
Power L15710
Power MT363.13

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Wes Barris