Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis / Tennessee Midland 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class G-0-18 (Locobase 6860)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

For some reason (likely because it came from a predecessor road), this single locomotive had its own class. It was bigger than the other NC & St L Ten-wheelers and carried its wider grate over the rear axles instead of between them.


Class G-0-21 (Locobase 6861)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This was a repeat of the one-off 1891 Ten-wheeler from Rogers (Locobase 6860), but with more cylinder volume, higher boiler pressure, and a slightly larger grate. Other than having a somewhat generous direct heating surface, this was a middle-of-the-pack 4-6-0 of the late 1890s.


Class G-2-18 (Locobase 6856)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Numerous Rogers Ten-wheelers for the Dixie Line that shared their deep, narrow firebox with the D-4 4-4-0s that came from the same builder at the same time. The G-2s' low drivers suggest freight applications while the unequal spacing of their drivers and the dome positioned over the firebox places them firmly in their era.


Class G-3-18 (Locobase 6857)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Contemporaneous with the Rogers G-2s (Locobase 6857), these Ten-wheelers had larger grates and boilers and a longer driving wheelbase.


Class G-4-20 (Locobase 6858)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 962-965 in April 1888.

Pittsburgh's Ten-wheeler contribution to the Dixie Line had a smaller boiler than that of the more numerous Rogers G-2 of the same year (Locobase 6856), but a larger grate and more firebox heating surface. Indeed, compared to other 4-6-0s of the same period (1884-1889), the G-4s had among the most generous amounts of firebox heating surface.


Class G-5-19 (Locobase 6859)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also Richard E Prince, Nashville, Chattanooga, and St Louis Railway (1967, reprinted 2001 by Indiana University Press), p. 87. Rogers works numbers 3809, 4434, 4444-4445, 4450.

The Dixie Line's listing shows the first four as built in 1902 and the last in 1907 and constructed by Baldwin. Prince's table offers the information shown in the specifications, which Locobase accepts as being much more in line with the class's data. The locomotives are described as "rebuilt", which may explain the NC & St L notations.


Class G-6B-28 (Locobase 6705)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Like the G7s, these G6s were delivered by Baldwin in 1901 as simple expansion (works numbers were 19692-19696 in November 1901.)

Like the G8s, however, they had the larger diameter pistons and proved amenable to superheating. These weren't big Ten-wheelers, but they found work for more than 40 years before retiring in the late 1940s.


Class G-7-2 (Locobase 6704)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also "Rogers Locomotive for the N C & St L", Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Volume (April 1904), p. 150. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 2 May 2018 email noting the original cylinder diameter., boiler pressure ) Works numbers were 6093-6096 in December 1903.

These were simple-expansion locomotives from the start (unlike the Baldwins (Locobase 119) that operated on the line at around the same time. The specifications show the original adhesion and engine weights, which later increased to 124,000 lb (56,245 kg) and 161,000 lb (73,028 kg), respectively. Later installation of 18.77 sq ft (1.74 sq m) of arch tubes raised firebox heating surface area to 187.77 sq ft (17.45 sq m). Boiler pressure setting was lowered slightly to 190 psi (13.1 bar).

Relatively modest in power, this class served the NC & StL for about 30 years.


Class G-8A-32 (Locobase 119)

Data from NC& StL 1 - 1921 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .)

This class designation reflects the conversion of these seven Ten-Wheelers from the four-cylinder compounds they were when delivered to a simple-expansion locomotive. The result was an engine considerably more powerful than the earlier G6-24 (five Baldwins in 1902), and G7-25 (four Rogers in 1904).

Locobase has found that at least four of the engines were superheated while retaining their 16"(406 mm) HP and 27" (686 mm) LP balanced-compound arrangement (Locobase 16153). But whether compound or simple, the superheater modification apparently included a new boiler because the firetubes had smaller diameters than the original set as well as being fewer in number to make room for the superheater flues. The change seems to have allowed for a higher total of evaporative heating surface than was typical of such changes.

The G6 and G8 classes left service in 1947-1949; the G7s were retired in 1936.


Class G6 (Locobase 15922)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 24, p.79. Works numbers were 19692-19696 in November 1901.

Like the G7s, these G6s were delivered by Baldwin in 1901 as simple expansion engines (as opposed to the four-cylinder compounds found in some other classes.)

Being of handy size for local passenger hauling, they lent themselves to modifications including the installation of superheaters. See Locobase 6705.


Class G7A-28 (Locobase 16353)

Data from NC& StL 9 - 1925 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 2 May 2018 email noting the absence of the G7 class's superheated variant. )

Locobase 16353 shows the original saturated-boiler G7 class of mixed-traffic Ten-wheelers. When they were superheated, they took the superheater installation applied to the G6A (Locobase ) and fitted to a smaller boiler and grate. Thirteen-inch (330 mm) piston valves actuated by Walschaert gear supplied the hotter steam to larger cylinders, while boiler pressure was dialed back to 175 psi. 18 sq ft (1.67 sq m) arch tubes contributed to the relatively high firebox heating surface area.

It was a serviceable conversion and added at least a decade to its operational life. But the design was smaller than either the G6A or G8A conversions. The NC&StL sold all four en bloc to recycler Hyman Michaels Company on 24 July 1936.


Class G8 (Locobase 10811)

Data from "Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis Ten-Wheeler," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXX, # 2 (February 1906), pp. 54. See also DeGolyer, Volume 28, p. 60, Volume 29, pp. 80 and 310; and "Balanced Compound, NC & St L," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Volume 19, No 4 (April 1906), p. 149-150. Works numbers were 27000, 27085, 27178 in December 1905; 28561 in July 1906; 33035-33037 in November 1908.

Locobase is a little surprised that the NC&StL was still buying balanced compounds as late as 1908. Passenger engines suited for the railroad's hilly profile, this class had moderate power. An illustration in the RLE report shows the four cylinders arranged side-by-side "with their centers in the same horizontal plane. l Each of the two 15" (381 mm) piston valves mounted above the cylinders served a set of HP and LP cylinders. Short connecting rods drove the front axle. Because, therefore, the front axle had cranks, the valve eccentrics were mounted on the second axle.

RLE choice to visualize the total evaporative heating surface area as equivalent to a square 52 feet (15.85 m) to a side.

These were converted to simple-expansion locomotives or superheated or both; see Locobase 119.


Class G8A-29 (Locobase 16153)

Data from NC&StL 9 - 1925 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Considering the usually quick conversion of compounds to simple-expansion engines on North American railroads, the NC&StL's superheater installation in four of its 1908 four-cylinder compounds (Locobase 10811) stands out in its unusual history.

By 1930, all of the engines had been converted to simple-expansion locomotives; see Locobase 119.


Class K1 (Locobase 13499)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 33, pp. 9+. Works numbers were 33972-33973 in October 1909 and 33984-33985 November.

This quartet provides an interesting view of early 20th-Century trends in express passenger locomotives. The 290s were delivered as Ten-wheelers with Baldwin smokebox superheaters. But according to Drury (`1993), the engines were poor steamers.

The NC & St L returned them to Baldwin, which abandoned both the wheel arrangement and the Baldwin superheater in favor of the a much larger boiler and grate of a true Pacific.

For the result of the 1912 conversion, see Locobase 13500.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-0-18G-0-21G-2-18G-3-18G-4-20
Locobase ID6860 6861 6856 6857 6858
RailroadNashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Tennessee Midland (NC&StL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class113734
Road Numbers215216131-167201-203204-207
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built113734
BuilderRogersRogersRogersRhode IslandPittsburgh
Year18911898188818921888
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13 / 3.9613 / 3.9612.42 / 3.7914.42 / 4.4013.25 / 4.04
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.75 / 7.2423.75 / 7.2423.25 / 7.0924.87 / 7.5824.08 / 7.34
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55 0.55 0.53 0.58 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)50.12 / 15.2850.12 / 15.2844.87 / 13.6846.71 / 14.2446.17 / 14.07
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)99,300 / 45,042105,950 / 48,05874,500 / 33,79378,200 / 35,47174,100 / 33,611
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)128,000 / 58,060135,275 / 61,360100,300 / 45,495105,000 / 47,627101,000 / 45,813
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)101,600 / 46,085101,600 / 46,08570,000 / 31,75272,500 / 32,88567,000 / 30,391
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)229,600 / 104,145236,875 / 107,445170,300 / 77,247177,500 / 80,512168,000 / 76,204
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4100 / 15.534100 / 15.532450 / 9.283300 / 12.503000 / 11.36
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)13 / 11.8013 / 11.8010.50 / 9.507 / 6.409 / 8.20
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)55 / 27.5059 / 29.5041 / 20.5043 / 21.5041 / 20.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)66 / 167666 / 167656 / 142254 / 137250 / 1270
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11170 / 11.70150 / 10.30150 / 10.30150 / 10.30
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61019" x 26" / 483x66018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)17,853 / 8097.9920,550 / 9321.3317,704 / 8030.4118,360 / 8327.9719,829 / 8994.29
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.56 5.16 4.21 4.26 3.74
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)168.96 / 15.70175.73 / 16.33107.95 / 10.03143.83 / 13.37144.33 / 13.41
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)28.30 / 2.6327.79 / 2.5815.03 / 1.4019.50 / 1.8117 / 1.58
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1896 / 176.211900 / 176.581365 / 126.861463 / 135.971312 / 121.93
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1896 / 176.211900 / 176.581365 / 126.861463 / 135.971312 / 121.93
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume240.74222.69193.11206.97185.61
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation45284724225529252550
Same as above plus superheater percentage45284724225529252550
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area27,03429,87416,19321,57521,650
Power L161256090377341683596
Power MT407.95380.16334.95352.51320.96

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-5-19G-6B-28G-7-2G-8A-32G6
Locobase ID6859 6705 6704 119 15,922
RailroadNashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class55475
Road Numbers261-265/210-214250-254270-273280-286250-254
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built545
BuilderRogersNC&StLRogersNC&StLBurnham, Williams & Co
Year18871918190319191902
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertStephensonStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.25 / 4.3413.50 / 4.1113 / 3.9613.50 / 4.1113.50 / 4.11
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.25 / 7.3924.50 / 7.4723.87 / 7.2826 / 7.9224.50 / 7.47
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.59 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.61 / 14.8252.54 / 16.0152.21 / 15.9158.12 / 17.7152.54 / 16.01
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)87,300 / 39,599121,500 / 55,112115,000 / 52,163150,400 / 68,220110,000 / 49,895
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)118,500 / 53,751161,600 / 73,301146,000 / 66,225189,900 / 86,137140,000 / 63,503
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)96,000 / 43,545108,700 / 49,306102,000 / 46,266133,320 / 60,473100,000 / 45,359
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)214,500 / 97,296270,300 / 122,607248,000 / 112,491323,220 / 146,610240,000 / 108,862
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.155000 / 18.945000 / 18.946500 / 24.625000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)13 / 11.80 9.80 / 8.908 / 7.3011.50 / 10.50 9.80 / 8.90
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)49 / 24.5068 / 3464 / 3284 / 4261 / 30.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157566 / 167666 / 167666 / 167666 / 1676
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10175 / 12.10200 / 13.80200 / 13.80180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 24" / 457x61022" x 26" / 559x66019" x 26" / 483x66022" x 26" / 559x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,656 / 8462.2328,362 / 12864.8024,176 / 10966.0632,413 / 14702.3124,109 / 10935.67
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.68 4.28 4.76 4.64 4.56
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)131.71 / 12.24187 / 17.37169 / 15.70201 / 18.67196.95 / 18.30
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)17.90 / 1.6634.58 / 3.2129 / 2.6934.86 / 3.2434.85 / 3.24
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1556 / 144.611723 / 160.072035 / 189.062342 / 217.582230 / 207.17
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)320 / 29.73456 / 42.36
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1556 / 144.612043 / 189.802035 / 189.062798 / 259.942230 / 207.17
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume220.13150.62238.51204.73235.88
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation31336052580069726273
Same as above plus superheater percentage31337020580080886273
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area23,04937,96133,80046,63235,451
Power L156659319742614,3306733
Power MT429.18507.28427.08630.16404.83

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG7A-28G8G8A-29K1
Locobase ID16,353 10,811 16,153 13,499
RailroadNashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class4744
Road Numbers270-273280-286280-283290-293
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built744
BuilderNC&StLBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwin
Year1918190519051909
Valve GearWalschaertStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13 / 3.9612 / 3.6612 / 3.6615 / 4.57
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.87 / 7.2826 / 7.9226 / 7.9226.75 / 8.15
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.46 0.46 0.56
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)52.21 / 15.9155.75 / 16.9955.75 / 16.9956.08 / 17.09
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)119,960 / 54,413133,920 / 60,745141,900 / 64,365127,000 / 57,606
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)164,560 / 74,643181,380 / 82,273193,400 / 87,725169,000 / 76,657
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)107,200 / 48,62598,620 / 44,733120,500 / 54,658115,000 / 52,163
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)271,760 / 123,268280,000 / 127,006313,900 / 142,383284,000 / 128,820
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.945500 / 20.836000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 8.25 / 7.5011.50 / 10.5011.50 / 10.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)67 / 33.5074 / 3779 / 39.5071 / 35.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)66 / 167666 / 167666 / 167669 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10210 / 14.50190 / 13.10160 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 26" / 559x66016" x 26" / 406x66016" x 26" / 406x66024" x 28" / 610x711
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 26" / 686x66027" x 26" / 686x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)28,362 / 12864.8026,646 / 12086.4424,108 / 10935.2231,789 / 14419.26
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.23 5.03 5.89 4.00
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)206 / 19.14199 / 18.49199 / 18.49182 / 16.91
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)29 / 2.6934.86 / 3.2434.86 / 3.2436.60 / 3.40
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1614 / 149.942750 / 255.582340 / 217.392525 / 234.58
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)320 / 29.73255 / 23.69
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1934 / 179.672750 / 255.582340 / 217.392780 / 258.27
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume141.09454.51386.75172.23
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation5075732166235856
Same as above plus superheater percentage5938732166236383
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area42,17941,79037,81031,741
Power L19296502140457191
Power MT512.52247.97188.53374.49

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