Adirondack & St Lawrence / Beech Creek, Clearfield & Western / Big Four / Boston & Albany / Canada Southern / Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw / Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis / Indiana, Illinois & Iowa / Lake Shore & Michigan Southern / Michigan Central / New York Central / New York City / New York, West Shore & Buffalo / Pittsburgh & Lake Erie / Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Youghiogeny / St Lawrence & Adirondack / St. Lawrence & Adirondack / Toledo & Ohio Central 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 10 / F-81 (Locobase 11703)

Data from the CK & S railfan site at http://www.cks-railfans.com/, last accessed 18 October 2010; date estimated . See also Florence Sergeant Lang, A History of the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw Railroad (1970) written for the Barry County Historical Society and reproduced as a PDF on the CK&S site and the reminiscences of ViVerne Pierce, engineer on the CK & S, as archived on The Ionia County Sebewa Recollector site at [], last accessed 1 January 1912.

See Locobase 11196 for the Michigan Central locomotive whose design was the source for this class. The CK & S (aka Cuss, Kick & Swear) was a 56-mile shortline that opened in 1889 and featured lines to Hastings, Woodbury, and Pavilion on 56-60 lb/yard (28-30-kg/metre) rail and a 6-stall roundhouse in Kalamazoo.

(Pierce suggests that the nickname for the railroad may have come from those times when the engineer didn't precisely balance the locomotive and tender on the Woodbury turntable and the "armstrong" crew had to grunt and strain to pivot the table.)

The CK & S operated independently until 1915, when, because of its coal holdings, the ICC ruled that the owners would have to sell the railroad. The Michigan Central bought the line and continued to operate for decades, although passenger service ended in 1934.


Class 15 (Locobase 16334)

Data from "Indicator Cards from Schenectady Compound Locomotive," National Car and Locomotive Builder, Volume 23, No 5 (May 1892), p. 74. Works numbers were 3754-3755 in May 1892.

The NC&LB report contained only partial data for these freight Ten-wheelers, but included several indicator cards to show the cross-compounds performance when pulling 55 loaded cars on the New York & Hudson River Railroad. One key detail: "The engine steamed freely with exhaust nozzle 5 inches in diameter.".


Class 404 (Locobase 12455)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 23, p. 156. Works numbers were 18285-18286 in October 1900.

Together with their simple-expansion sisters described in Locobase 4122, this pair of Vauclain compounds were unusual among North American Ten-wheelers in having such tall drivers - 78" (1,981 mm) at time of introduction, 79" (2,007 mm) with thicker tires. Their boilers were quite large for the cylinder volume, the firebox of middling size, and the grate relatively small. Steam admission came through 13" (331 mm) piston valves.

The Baldwin specs include the Big Four's list of a"list of supplies to be carried by locomotives. Enginemen will see personally that their engines are properly equipped, and will be held responsible.therefor [sic]." It's a long list of oil cans, torpedoes, lamps chisels, wrenches, etc."

The Vauclain compounds were soon rebuilt with two 20 1/2" (521 mm) simple-expansion cylinders; see Locobase 4122.


Class 54 (Locobase 9194)

Data from WP [Western Pacific] 5-1950 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Of the five Ten-wheelers built by Pittsburgh (works #975-979), only four were actually delivered as drag-freight engines on this western Pennsylvania line. Rumary can't say what happened to the last of the class. The first three had very short working lives, being retired within a decade of their service entry.

57 avoided that fate, however, and was sold to the Boca & Loyalton in eastern California's Sierra Valley (hard by Truckee, among other famous locales). Serving the B & L for over a decade during which it was converted to oil burning, the #7 was then taken into the Western Pacific as their 125.


Class 60/F-95a (Locobase 15856)

Data from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966), p 101. Works numbers were 2118-2125 in July 1892, 2367-2371 in July 1893, 2438-2442 in July 1894.

These low-drivered freight Ten-wheelers served the T&OC for a little over 20 years each before being withdrawn in 1915-1920.


Class 947 - First Vanderbilt boiler (Locobase 16274)

Data from Corneilus Vanderbilt, "Locomotive Boilers," presented at the 8 January 1901 meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and reprinted in Baldwin Record of Recent Construction, No. 23, pp. 59-88.

Single West Albany engine with low drivers that tested Vanderbilt's boiler. It had a Morrison suspended corrugated firebox manufactured by Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, Brooklyn. The largest corrugated furnace yet rolled, the cylinder featured 4" (102 mm) folds outside of an internal diameter of 59" (1,499 mm) and a length of 11 ft 2 1/4 in (3,411 mm). See Locobase 4104 for the fullest acount of the design.

Not long after, the New York Central rebuilt the 947 with a conventional boiler; see Locobase 5265.


Class C/F (Locobase 5264)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). See also John Leffler, "ASHERTON, TX," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hja14), accessed May 13, 2014. Uploaded on August 7, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association; and Hugh Hemphill, "Asherton & Gulf Railroad" at the Texas Transportation Museum's website at http://www.txtransportationmuseum.org/history-rr-asherton-gulf.php . New York Locomotive Works at Rome works numbers were 311-315 in December 1887. Schenectady works numbers were 2439-2446 in November 1887, 2447-2450 in December, and 2451-2458 in January.

Late '80s Ten-wheeler with the dome just ahead of the cab, ornate sand dome forward and capped stack.

In 1902, the NYC sold the 2163 and 2183 to the Raquette Lake as their #1 and 2; it went to the scrapper in 1914. Locomotive rebuilder/reseller Southern Iron & Equipment bought the 2162 in October 1907 and sold it in March 1909 to the Appalachicola Northern as their 121.

2173 was sold to the Asherton & Gulf as their #1 in 1909. The A&G opened in 1910 as a 32-mile (51.5 km) short line in Texas. The town was named for Asher Richardson, who John Leffler tells us had plans for "an ambitious 48,000-acre development project." The core wa the Asherton Land and Irrigation Company and Asher built a telephone company and a railroad. The road and the town prospered throughout the 'teens and twenties, becoming one of the largest Bermuda onion shipping points.

Still, says Hugh Hemphill, the railroad itself was always a marginal operation. It was bought by the New Orleans, Texas and Mexico subsidiary of the Missouri Pacific in 1926. The Great Depression hit as hard in Asherton as it did most places and its fortunes dimmed, never quite recovering fully.


Class C2/F-67, F-67b (Locobase 6765)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagram book (supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange). Works numbers were 2371-2385 in 1893.

Official name for the railroad was the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, & St. Louis.

This large class of Ten-wheelers were unusual for an Eastern road in having Belpaire fireboxes. In some cases, the firebox heating surface was supplemented by arch tubes, increasing the total to 167 sq ft. Also note the short driving wheelbase.

See Locobase 5712 for a one-off compound experiment based on this class.


Class C4/F-61, F-61a-crown-bar bler (Locobase 9727)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

When Brooks delivered the original set of 20 locomotives in 1889-1890 (works #1584-1593, 1645-1654), they had a typical crown-bar boiler with the thick course and steam dome positioned over the firebox. It was a very narrow, quite deep firebox with a commensurately stingy grate area. After 20 years, some of the class was upgraded to radial-stay fireboxes; see Locobase 9728.


Class E-2/F-48b (Locobase 11134)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 106-107. See also Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966). Works numbers were 4355-4364 in September 1895.

Pretty small freight Ten-wheeler for the period. 126 was renumbered 136 in 1901 and later took 5212. The other nine locomotives were renumbered serially from 5086-5094. 5090, 5093 were sold to R Grace Construction Company. Although the 5094 is reported by May & Edson to have gone to the Georgia, Florida & Alabama in 1913, none of Locobase's other sources show a Schenectady Ten-wheeler on the GF&A.


Class E-4/F-47, F-48, F-49 (Locobase 9738)

Data from NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagram book (supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange

Locobase 2972 describes the compound version of this small Ten-wheeler, which was displayed at the 1893 Columbian Exposition. Despite its dimunitive size, the 600 was rebuilt by the LS & MS in June 1907 and remained in service until 1929.

Other engines in the retrospectively classed F-48 and F-49 classes were similarly rebuilt by the LS & MS to a common design. Those specifications are shown in this entry.


Class E-4/F-48d (Locobase 2985)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899). Works numbers were 2842-2861 in November 1897.

This late-19th-Century Ten-wheeler exemplar had an oversized cab, steam dome over the second driver set, and a firebox with 18.6 sq ft (1.73 sq m) of arch pipes.

Non-sequential series of original numbers; most were renumbered by the New York Central as 5100-5118 (not in builder's number order, sigh). A few had more colorful futures when they were sold to other railroads:

106/2846) wound up as Chestnut Ridge [Penn] Railway's #2.

211/2853) was renumbered 256, then NYC 5116. Ultimately it wound up at the Elberton & Eastern as their #102

244/5113 was sold to the Aberdeen & Asheboro in 1910 as their 36.

257/5117 went to the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw in 1913 as their #4.

(The E & E was a 22-mile road chartered in 1912. When the Georgia Railroad bought the E & E in 1916, they lengthened it by 13 miles to link with GaR at Washington, Ga. It must never had made much money because it was abandoned in 1933 and torn up in 1935. Info from Georgia's Railroad History & Heritage. Copyright 2001, Steve Storey, found at http://www.railga.com/elbeastn20.html on 6 Aug 2004)

244 2857) was sold in 1910 to the Aberdeen & Asheboro (NC) in 1910 as their #36. The A & A was taken over by the Raleigh, Charlotte & Southern, which eventually became the Norfolk Southern. At that point, the locomotive wore #93.

257 2860) went to the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw in 1913 as #4.The CK & S operated under the control of the Michigan Central as of 1906. In 1909, a Michigan Railroad Commission survey described the CK & S as extending from "Kalamazoo to Woodbury, where it connects with the Pere Marquette R. R. and from Kalamazoo to Pavillion, where it connects with the Grand Trunk Railway. The rail is 56 and 60 pound steel. Road is fairly well tied. Track is ballasted with a high grade of gravel ballast. About 11,000 cedar and 200 oak ties placed in track during the season." (published on Michigan's Internet Railroad History Museum at [])


Class E/F-46b/F-46d (Locobase 1225)

Data from an Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899), which trumpets 564 as a record-breaker. See also "Seventy Eight Miles an Hour", Locomotive Engineer's Monthly Journal, Volume 28 (August 1894), p. 755; and LMEJ (May 1896), pp. 427-428. Works numbers were 2018-2027 in December 1891.

Two fast runs by LS&MS Ten-wheelers demonstrated the growing interest in very fast express running in the United States in the 1890s. The first, an undated exploit described in the LMEJ for August 1894, commented on the run east of Cleveland at an average of a mile a minute and featured the railroad chairman Chauncey Depew's wonderment at the daring of the engineer: "There were about 170 tons in our special; and flying along at seventy miles an hour presents possibilities of a sudden exit from this and of a rapid entrance into the other world which accelerate the pulse of even a veteran railroad man."

More than a year later, on October 24, 1895, after four years of continuous service, engine 564, then turning 66" drivers, pulled the "Vanderbilt Special" from Erie, Pa, to Buffalo (86 miles) in 70.76 min, averaging almost 73 mph . Top speed on the run was clocked at 92.3 mph and it ran 8 miles at an average of 85.44 mph (117.5 km/h). In 86 miles, 564 evaporated 3,700 gal of water (a full tender's worth) and burned 3,250 lb of coal (9.48 lb of water evaporated per every lb of coal burned).

Bill Tunkey, 564's engineer, received a gold watch from the Brotherhood on 17 April 1895. Tunkey saluted his fireman, W B Stanford, and the 564 that he told "our officers that it wa a wise selection, and that this engine would surprise the world-which it did."

The catalogue photograph, taken at the Brooks works the day after the run, shows a conventional crown bar wagon-top boiler, spoked drivers, slide valves ...all the earmarks of a late 19th-century US passenger locomotive design. See Staufer (New York Central's Early Locomotives, 1967), pp.202-204 for a full account of Bill Tunkey's run.


Class F-103a, F-105, F-105a (Locobase 7070)

Data from P&LE-PMcK&Y 3 1-26 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Youghiogheny took delivery of these Ten-wheelers in several batches. The F-103as (builder's numbers 45692-45966) were built in May 1909. They had Walschaert valve gear. The F-105s were produced as a batch 51320-51322) in July 1912 while the F-105as (9220-9224) were made in July 1915. Both of these later deliveries were equipped with Baker valve gear.


Class F-104 (Locobase 7071)

Data from P&LE-PMcK&Y 3 1-26 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 49835-49839 in May 1911.

These engines were identical to the F-103 (Locobase 15803) and F-105 classes delivered to the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Youghiogheny (Locobase 7070), except that the F-104s use Walschaert valve gear.

Retirements began relatively early with the 9211 being withdrawn and scrapped in December 1927. 9211 and 9213 were scrapped in 1928. Four years later 9210 was scrapped in January 1932 and 9214 finished the class with its dismantling in November.


Class F-12a/b/d/e/g (Locobase 5546)

Data from New York Central 1930 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his valve gear ID.)

Although these locomotives were built as F-2 series saturated-steam engines in 1905-1908, most were superheated within 10 years. As was typical in such makeovers, the F-2s sacrificed dozens of small tubes (171 out of 400) to make room for the 32 superheater flues. All of the power dimensions remained the same.

Unusually, the class retained the valve gear installed when the engines were new. F-12a/b/d had Stephenson gear, F-12e/g used Walschaert's gear. Engine weight varied with the majority weighing after conversion at the 213,000 lb shown in the specs.

The 1930 NYC locomotive guide from which this data was taken showed 86 still in service at that date. Drury (1993) says their suitability for branch-line and suburban service meant they lasted practically to the end of steam.


Class F-2/F-2a/b/d/e/g (Locobase 121)

Drury (1993) comments that although these Ten-wheelers were built as light freight engines, they proved very useful in suburban and secondary passenger service. Possibly one reason was the generous valve dimensions -- 12" diameter with a 6" travel. Some data from ghostdepot.com/rg/images/rolling/locomotive/alco%20dwg%20ten%20wheel.jpg (August 2002). Additional data and correction from table in June 1906 AERJ. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his April 2013 inquiry that led to the inclusion of the list immediately below and for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .)

Original numbering Produced Valve gear

F-2 2085-2099 October-November 1905 Stephenson

F-2a 2065-2084 October-November 1906 Stephenson

F-2b 2100-2111 November 1906 Stephenson

F-2d 1968-1999 July-September 1907 Stephenson

F-2e 2112-2131 November 1907 Walschaert

F-2g 2132-2166 September-October 1908 Walschaert

F-2a through F-2d (76 locomotives) were delivered with Stephenson link motion and retained that valve gear after they were superheated. F-2e engines delivered in November 1907 and F-2g delivered September and October 1908 (55 locomotives) had Walschaert outside radial valve gear installed from the start.

20 more for the Boston & Albany (1900-1919, later 704-723 -- classes F-2c, F-2f) were virtually identical with slightly more weight on the drivers.

They were rebuilt as F-12s with superheaters (Locobase 5546) and many lasted until the early 1950s.


Class F-30 (Locobase 15826)

Data from NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 2870-2871 in 1893.

These moderately powered Ten-wheelers had relatively short careers before being retired in 1913.


Class F-31 (Locobase 15827)

Data from NYC&HR 9-1905 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 4927-4928 in January 1899.

Clearly not a good fit for the B&A, this class was scrapped in 1915.


Class F-3A (Locobase 120)

Data from "New York Central's Passenger Ten Wheeler", Railway and Locomotive Engineering, August 1899, pp. 362-363. Confirmation and supplementary data from NYC&HR 12 -1902 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .) All engines were produced in July 1899.

The correspondent notes that this was a William Buchanan design (he also designed the 999) and claimed that it was "the most important work done by him before he retireed from the service of the company."


Class F-41A (Locobase 16327)

Data from NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection.

About a decade after the ten-locomotive cross-compound class arrived on the Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa in 1900 (Locobase 15852), the Triple I's successor Lake Shore & Michigan Southern's shops rebuilt them as simple-expansion engines. A few tweaks in the boiler were the only significant differences other than the installation of the 19" x 28" cylinders.

Several were further modified with superheaters; see Locobase 16328. 5290 and 5295 were sold in 1920 to the Norfolk Southern as their D-5 class #135-136. After a further twelve years, the 135 was retired in July 1932. 136 carried on for another five years before its retirement in September 1937.


Class F-41B (Locobase 16328)

Data from NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection.

Locobase 16327 shows the F-41's first remake from a cross-compound (Locobase 15852) to simple expansion in 1910-1911. Not long after that, several of the class received a modest superheater installation typical of the first phase of conversions by railroads to include that key upgrade.

Two of the class (5290, 5295) were sold to the Norfolk Southern in 1920. The other eight were retired in 1932.


Class F-47 - compound (Locobase 2972)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899). Works number was 2268.

This low-drivered compound was the compound counterpart to a simple-expansion Ten-wheelers produced in April 1893. This particular engine looks at home in the very late 19th-century with its sharply coned wagon-top boiler topped by large steam dome, tapered stack, large cab windows. The firebox had 18 sq ft of arch pipes. The large LP cylinder was mounted on the right side. Rigid wheelbase was 8 ft (2.44 m) with the third axle well-separated and free to move laterally an inch or two.

See Locobase 9738 for the simple-expansion variant.


Class F-48g (Locobase 9739)

Data from NYC 8 - 1917 Locomotive Diagram book (supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange

Locobase 2972 describes the compound version of this small Ten-wheeler, which was displayed at the 1893 Columbian Exposition. Despite its dimunitive size, the 600 was rebuilt by the LS & MS in June 1907 and remained in service until 1929.


Class F-5 (Locobase 5266)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Page 173 credits the F-5s with a length of tube between tubesheets of 12 ft 9 inches. Compared to the F and several other Tenwheelers operated by the railroad in the same period, that's too long. Given the virtually identical heating surface areas of the F and F-5, the 10' 9" I entered seems much more likely.


Class F-61/F-61A radial-stay boiler (Locobase 9728)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The small grate matched up to a relatively large crown-bar boiler in the F-61/F-61As of 1889-1890 (Locobase 9727) limited the class's steaming capability. Yet clearly the class's overall modest dimensions meant a resort to a radial-stay did little to change the ratio between grate area heating surface. Although the firebox grew longer, it was no wider and the addition of 25 tubes in the boiler meant that each sq ft of grate area had to heat over 100 sq ft of tubes and firebox.


Class F-62 - 63"" radial-stay (Locobase 9732)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

These are identical to the F-62 radial-stay upgrades except for the smaller drivers.


Class F-62 - crown-bar boiler (Locobase 9729)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This typical crown-bar boiler locomotive (1689, 1702-1704, 1706) had a bigger grate than the 1889 F-61s (Locobase 9727) produced by the same builder and rolled on taller drivers, but was otherwise quite similar. Like the F-61s, the Big Four shops replaced the boiler about 20 years after their introduction; see 9731.


Class F-62a - 63"" crown-bar (Locobase 9730)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This quintet (works #1688, 1690-1692, 1705) was identical to the 5 engines (Locobase 9729) fitted with 69" drivers and produced by the same builder. Like the F-62s, the Big Four shops replaced the boiler about 20 years after their introduction; see 9732.


Class F-62a - radial-stay boiler (Locobase 9731)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

As with the F-61s, the F-62s received radial-stay boilers in 1911, which had substantially more heating surface, somewhat more firebox heating surface, but slightly less grate ara.


Class F-63 (Locobase 9733)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This pair of passenger Ten-wheelers (works #1952-1953) is one of the puzzling series of Brooks engines with extremely small grates in relation to the relatively large boilers. Unlike others produced by Brooks in the same period, the F-63s were not upgraded by the Big Four in the early 19-teens.


Class F-64 - crown-bar (Locobase 9734)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Like the other Brooks engines of the era, this dozen-pack of mixed-traffic Ten-wheelers (works #1940-1951) had small grates and medium-sized boilers. Like most of the rest as well, this class had a couple ofl members upgraded with radial-stay boilers some 20 years later. See Locobase 9735.


Class F-64 - radial-stay (Locobase 9735)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Unlike the other radial-stay upgrades applied to Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis ten-wheelers in the 19-teens, the new boilers in the F-64s did not increase the number of boiler tubes and did increase the grate area. The result was a slightly more favorable ratio between grate and heating surface, although it was still quite high.


Class F-65 (Locobase 1227)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899). Works numbers were 2405-2406 in November 1893.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Renumbered 177-178, later taken into the New York Central's numbering system as 6159-6160, later renumbered 6316-6317.

Built for the "Big Four", as the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, & St Louis was more popularly known. Photograph shows a crown-bar, wagon-top boiler, thin, capped stack, outside slide valves driven through rockers from inside Stephenson gear, spoked drivers with the main rod connected to the middle pair, 8-wheeled tender.

They were later considerably refurbished; see Locobase 9736.


Class F-65 (Locobase 9736)

Data from the CCC&StL 3 - 1914 Locomotive Diagrams, supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This pair was delivered with crown-bar boilers and 18 1/2" cylinders in 1893 by Brooks; see Locobase 1227.

In 1911 and 1913, these engines received new boilers that were considerably bigger, although the grate appears to have been untouched. The barrel now held 314 2" tubes that yielded 2,259 sq ft (209.85 sq m) of heating surface and raised total EHS to 2,414 sq ft (224.25 sq m)-- 22% more than the original design. As the cylinders were unchanged, this increased the ratio heating surface to cylinder volume to 323.

The grate area is given as 28.5 sq ft (2.65 sq m). The larger boiler added to adhesion weight (up to 115,000 lb) and overall weight in working order (138,000 lb).

The revamped locomotives continued in service until 1923.


Class F-66 / F-68 (Locobase 9737)

Data from CCC&StL 3 -1914 Locomotive Diagram book (supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Brooks works #2387-2396.

In 1911, these engines received new boilers that were considerably bigger, although the grate appears to have been untouched. The barrel now held 314 2" tubes that yielded 2,259 sq ft (209.85 sq m) of heating surface and raised total EHS to 2,414 sq ft (224.25 sq m)-- 22% more than the original design. As the cylinders were unchanged, this increased the ratio heating surface to cylinder volume to 323.

The grate area is given as 28.5 sq ft (2.65 sq m). The larger boiler added to adhesion weight (up to 115,000 lb) and overall weight in working order (138,000 lb).

The revamped locomotives continued in service until 1923.

The New York Central sold 6318 in 1919 to the Alabama, Tennessee & Northern.


Class F-67 - compound (Locobase 5712)

Data and description from July 1894 (Vol LXVIII, No 7) American Engineer & Railroad Journal (AERJ). Works numbers were 2298-2327, 2352-2361, 2371-2385, 2391-2395 in 1892-1893.

The point of the article is to celebrate the success Chief Draftsman CJ Mellin's intercepting valve. Although the AERJ refers to the design as a compound Consolidation, the photo and diagram clearly show a Ten-Wheeler. Mellin's intercepting valve allowed the engineer to operate the cross-compound as a simple-expansion engine when desired. According to the article, several months of operations showed the engine as giving "very good satisfaction".

Official name for the railroad was the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, & St. Louis.

This locomotive was the last in a series of Richmond-built Ten-wheelers. B Rumary's summary of Richmond production, supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004, showed 2371-2381 and 2391-2395. The others were simple-expansion locomotives with 19"x 24" cylinders; see Locobase 6765.


Class F-69/F-69a (Locobase 4122)

Data from Railroad Gazette, Vol XXXIII, No 21 ((24 May 1901), pp. 344-345. See also DeGolyer, Volume 23, p. 157. Works numbers were 18317-18318 in October 1900, 18377-18378 in November.

Profiled in the 24 May 1901 Railroad Gazette, this small batch of simple-expansion ten-wheelers was accompanied by two Vauclain compounds; for the latter see Locobase 12455.

All six engines were unusual among North American Ten-wheelers in having such tall drivers - 78" at time of introduction, 79" with thicker tires. Their boilers were quite large for the cylinder volume, the firebox of middling size, and the grate relatively small. Steam admission in the simple engines came through 10" (254 mm) piston valves.

The simples pulled Trains 11 & 19 (westbound) and Trains 16 & 18 (eastbound) between Cleveland and Indianapolis. The 600-ton, 14-car trains were carded over the 283 miles at 7:10 (40 mph avg, including stops). RG noted that when "a pure coal is furnished, no trouble is experienced in making continuous runs of 283 miles between these points. When the coal is of inferior quality, engines are changed at Bellefontaine [about halfway]." Average monthly usage came to 7,000-8,000 miles.

The Vauclain compounds used two 15 1/2" (394 mm) HP and two 26" (660 mm) LP cylinders when they entered service, but were soon rebuilt with two 20 1/2" simple-expansion cylinders. Clearly, the use of the 4-6-0 arrangement for express passenger work had seen its day and engines with high drivers were not useful for any other kind of service. All of this class was scrapped in 1915-1916.


Class F-7 (Locobase 5268)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

As part of the growth in overall size and capacity of all NY&HRR wheel arrangements in the 1890s, these Tenwheelers show a genuine enlargement of most major dimensions.


Class F-8 (Locobase 5269)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Steam pressure varied according to the particular locomotive in the class. The pressure shown (175 psi) is based on the other Tenwheeler classes built in the same year for the NY&HRR.


Class F-84 (Locobase 9672)

Data from Angus Sinclair, "Michigan Central Ten-Wheeler", Railway & Locomotive Engineering (January 1901), p. 23.

Sinclair comments that the class "...was designed to pull the heavy fast passenger service, for which that railroad is noted."


Class F-8A (Locobase 5270)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

This is the 57"-driver equivalent of the F-8. These were a bit heavier, but pulled lighter tenders.


Class F-9 (Locobase 5271)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

One of the earliest NY&HRR Tenwheelers with all the modest proportions to show for it.


Class F/F-45 (Locobase 9756)

Data from Angus Sinclair, "Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate Area and Cylinder Volume," Locomotive Engineering, Volume X, No. 4 (April 1897), pp. 316-318 and from "Lake Shore Ten-Wheel Passenger Engine", Locomotive Engineering (Vol X, No 1), pp.54-55. Works numbers were 4509-4517 in 1896 and delivered with the following road numbers: 10, 20, 90, 107, 116, 128, 146, 148-149, 147, 212.

Sinclair notes that these locomotives were designed by Superintendent of Motive George W Stevens to pack as much power into a total engine weight of 59 tons. The class pulled fast passenger trains between Buffalo and Chicago.

To the reader's lack of surprise, Sinclair reported: "The engine has a very handsome appearance, and is reported to be giving highly satisfactory service."


Class H / F-50 (Locobase 2976)

Data from 1899 Brooks catalogue.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works #3141-3153 in November 1897.

Low-drivered freight with radially stayed wagon-top boiler, firebox with 24 sq ft of arch pipes..

All later on New York Central roster as 5051-59, 5046-49 (respectively).


Class I-1/F-52 (Locobase 116)

Data from Bruce (1952), with slight adjustments based on NYC 8 -1917 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .)

Although representing a considerable increase in size and power over Brooks' earlier LS&MS Ten-wheelers (see 1225), these engines ran only briefly on the N Y C's main-line into Chicago. Limitations imposed by the wheel arrangements soon led to the adoption of superheated 4-4-2s and 2-6-2s with bigger fireboxes.

Hollingsworth (1982) gives slightly different heating surface (2,917 sq ft) and grate area (33.6 sq ft), which is the same as the previous batch of 11 described in Locobase 2971. Locobase goes with Bruce because he had been director of steam locomotive engineering for Alco, the parent of the Brooks Works.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works #3604-3608 in August 1900.

The 611s delivered the year after the Atlantics had slightly larger grates, but a trailing axle soon was necessary to carry a grate large enough generate the steam heavier trains would require. Railroad Gazette of 29 March 1901 compared this batch with the new Prairies and found that these didn't come off that badly, except for a smallish grate.


Class I-6/ F-41 (Locobase 15852)

Data from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966), p. 95. Works numbers were 2035-2044 in 1900.

These Ten-wheelers fell in the middle of the pack of Pittsburgh compounds in terms of size and power. They were rebuilt as 19" x 28" simple-expansion engines later in their careers and redesignated F-41a.


Class I//F-51 (Locobase 2971)

Data from 1899 Brooks catalogue.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works #3331-3341 in October 1899.

This class was touted by Brooks as "The Heaviest Express Passenger Locomotive Ever Built," a distinction that lasted, predictably, about 6 months. Their fireboxes had 32 sq ft of arch pipes. Staufer (1967), p. 204, says they had 81" drivers and that some were slide valves (later classed as F-51) and others with piston valves (F-52), which see. He commented "These monstrous ten-wheelers are the best remembered locomotives on the Lake Shore."

They were indeed big, handsome engines, but even then were short of grate area.


Class Kushaqua/F-4 (Locobase 2975)

Data from Catalogue Descriptive of Simple and Compound Locomotives built by Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, NY (Buffalo, NY: Matthew-Northrup Company, 1899). Works numbers were 2677-2678 in July 1896.

Fitted with "Improved Belpaire" boiler and a firebox with 24 sq ft (2.25 sq m) of arch pipes. In additon to Kushaqua, the class included Cascapedia. Both were renumbered by the New York Central as 2029 and 2028, respectively.


Class Mattawa/G-1, G/F-44b, F-44a (Locobase 15853)

Data from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966), p. 96. Works numbers were 2668-2670.

The StL&A bought this Ten-wheeler trio for their own use and gave them names (Mattawa, Mirimichi, Madwaska). In May 1899, they sold them to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, two years after they had bought 4-4-0s from Brooks. Were they too big or too heavy for the Adirondack road?

The class was renumbered twice (to 544-546 in 1899 and 5019, 5017-5018 in 1905) , but didn't enjoy especially long careers on the LS&MS, either. The 544 had its own class IDs, first as G-1,then as F-44b.

5019 was simply scrapped in February 1910 and 5018 followed a month later. For some reason, 5017 didn't share the same fate. Instead, the LS&MS sold it to the Pennsylvania Southern Railroad as their #7. The PS emerged from a reorganization of the Pittsburgh Summerville & Clarion in 1910 and was reorganized again as the Pittsburgh Clarion & Franklin in 1912. All of 18.14 miles in 1913, it merged with two others to create the Lake Erie, Franklin & Clarion. See Locobase 14230 for a history of the LEF&C.

The 7 apparently served LEF&C until September 1924.


Class Q / F-3A (Locobase 4112)

Preceding the F-3s by a year, these differed from that class in having smaller drivers. They also came from frequent supplier Schenectady. Staufer (1967) says they were the last design from Superintendent of Motive Power and Rolling Stock William Buchanan.

Data from [], a 1902 locomotive guide prepared by the New York Central.


Class Q-1/F-3 (Locobase 4113)

Data from [], a 1902 locomotive guide prepared by the New York Central. See also DeGolyer, Volume 22, p. 270. Works numbers were 17626-17628, 17647-17649, 17667-17670, 17698. 17702, 17714-17716 in April 1900.

Turn-of-the-century passenger power from a rare supplier to the New York Central. It's also typical of the NYC System that they scrapped Baldwin power early; these were all retired between 1914 and 1917.


Class R-1/F-81a (Locobase 16222)

Data from "Schenectady Compound Locomotive," Engineering, Volume 49, No. 23 (4 April 1890), p. 413-414; and "Another Remarkable Run", Railway Age and Northwestern Railroader, Volume 21 (6 June 1896), pp. 299-300. Works numbers were 2863-2866 in July 1889.

Some later sources report that this class of five locomotives were delivered as compound locomotives. Locobase believes that is incorrect, based on the report from Engineering referenced above and from noting that the MC numbered most of its compound Ten-wheelers in the 200s.

Locobase 1225 notes the breathless reporting that accompanied two fast runs by Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ten-wheelers in 1894 and 1895. Apparently stung by the widespread publicity afforded Brooks Locomotive Works of Dunkirk, NY and the high praise for their 1889 design, Schenectady staged a run of its own. On 7 May 1896, two of the R-1s teemed up to pull the "Vanderbilt Special" 220.4 miles (355.km) fromWindsor to Fort Erie, the one being exchanged for the other at St Thomas, which lay 111.2 miles (179 km) down the line at Windsor. At that point, the first engine had averaged 67.32 mph (108.4 kph) when four minutes of speed restrictions were deducted. The second engine, though slowed for a total of 11 minutes, averaged 72.68 mph (117 kph) over the 118.2 miles (190 km) from St Thomas to Fort Erie.

The account dutifully recorded "some short bursts of tremendous speed", claiming an 80 mph (128.8 kph) average for 7 miles (11.3 km) at one point and 82.5 mph (132.8 kph) for 6.6 miles (10.6 km) at another.

See Locobase 10803 for the von Borries compound based on this design.


Class R-12/F-81j (Locobase 11121)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 74-75. Works number was 3258 in November 1890.

It's likely that this is the other one of the two that Pitkin designed for tests on Michigan Central roads. (See Locobase 10803 for the smaller of the two.) The catalogue said that this engine was for hauling limited trains on the Canada Southern Division.

In June 1902, the 450 was rebuilt as a simple-expansion locomotive with 19" x 24" cylinders and 75" drivers. It operated for seventeen more years before being retired in May 1919.


Class R/F-81 (Locobase 11196)

Data from "Ten Wheel Express Locomotive, Michigan Central Railroad," Railroad Gazette, Volume 20, No 8 (24 February 1888), p. 116. "The First Ten-Wheel Passenger Locomotive," The Railway Age, Volume 28 (1 December 1899), p. 897. Works number was 2500 in January 1888.

Later sources claimed that this engine was delivered as a cross-compound with one 20" HP and one 29" LP cylinder. The February 1888 RG article, published a month after the locomotive was produced, shows a conventional simple-expansion layout. It is possible that the 277 was later converted to test the von Borries arrangement and the Pitkin intercepting valve.

The article reports the assertion that this Schenectady product was the first Ten-wheeler to have drivers as tall as 68", which the MC considered gave 277 a good claim to being the first passenger Ten-wheeler locomotive. RG's editor took on the claim and suggested a partial refutation in the delivery in 1887 of eight passenger Ten-wheelers to the Colorado Midland by the same builder; Locobase offers a detailed account in Locobase 11125. He observed that those engines had 57" drivers and thus didn't "wholly impair" the MC's claim.

But Locobase 9895 shows a Rhode Island Locomotive Works design of which six were delivered to the Wabash Railroad in 1880. Its smaller boiler and grate may have lacked the staying power at speed, but the class definitely rolled on 69" wheels.

527 later used a larger tender weighing 45,000 lb (20,412 kg) empty carried 5,100 US gallons of water (19,304 litres) and 10 tons (9.1 tonnes) of coal.

The 527 was later rebuilt with 19" x 24" cylinders and 69" drivers as shown here.


Class R/F-81a (Locobase 10803)

Data from Arthur T Woods, Compound Locomotives (New York: R M Van Arsdale, 1891), pp. 154-157 and Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 64-65. See also "Compound Locomotive, Michigan Central Railroad," Engineering News, Volume 23, No 4 (25 January 1890), p. 74. Works number was 2867 in July 1889.

This is described by Schenectady and the contemporary press as the first successful compound locomotive to be built in the United States (see Locobase 11021 for the larger variant delivered in the same year).

Describing as a Von Borries/Wordsell two cylinder cross-compound, the article focuses on Schenectady's Albert J Pitkin, whose intercepting-valve design permitted simple-expansion starting (both cylinders receiving live steam) and an automatic conversion to LP operation once pressure in the receiver had built to 90 psi. Pitkin later changed the valve design to allow simple operation by command of the engineer.

Engineering Record reprinted a report on the 9 January 1890 trials run by engine 284 that appeared in the 10 January Detroit Free Press.

The new compound locomotive known as No. 284, hauled thc day-express train west on the Michigan Central Railroad to day as far as Michigan City (228 miles). This run of passenger trains is always made by two locomotives, the first going from Detroit to Jackson, (76 miles) and the second from Jackson to Michigan City (152 miles.) No. 284 might just as well have hauled the train to Chicago. over the third division, being quite capable of doing the work and having in the tender at sufficiency of coal. originally taken on at Detroit. to have completed the full run of 285 miles between Detroit and Chicago.

The train on leaving Detroit consisted of nine cars, being one car more than its usual number. The weight of the train, including engine and tender, is figured at 705.000 lb.s., or t '39 tons. The tender was loaded with less than nine tons of coal, of which amount something over seven tons was used on this run. Ordinarily. the standard engines use about seven tons of coal between Jackson and Michigan City .... The railroad people are consequently pleased with the results achieved in the way of economizing fuel, as demonstrated on this run."

The new engine madc steam vary freely. The pressure. steadily maintained on the steam gauge, was 170 lbs.,never below that. but sometimes above it, The train. leaving Detroit ntil A, M.. arrived at Michigan Citi' attiifi P. 54., being 7 hrs. 30 mins. making the run of 225 miles. The rate. including stops, is 30 miles an hour. Ninety minutes were taken up in detcntions at stations. which includes all the incidental work of handling haggage. meeting trains. and the regular work at stations. The last run of the engine, 30%, miles, between Nile! and Michigan City. wasmadein 57 mine. The schedule time for this part of the run is 62 mins. '

Tests by Angus Sinclair and William Rosing in 1891 showed that the compound used about 18% less coal to do the same amount of work.


Class R10/F-81h (Locobase 11120)

Data from Schenectady Locomotive Works, Illustrated Catalogue of Simple and Compound Locomotives (Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1897), pp. 70-71.


Class S, Klondike/F-82 (Locobase 3480)

Description from January 1900 issue of Railway Age reproduced in January 2000 by Railway Age. Further information comes from locomotive diagram on [], last visited 25 February 2007.

The photo shows a coned boiler with thimble dome on the second course. The Canadian Southern site tells us this class was nicknamed "Klondike". (See Locobase 8242 for Santa Fe's Klondike 4-6-0 and three Locobase entries--1491, 6308, and 9929--describing the different phases of the Great Northern of England's famed C2 Atlantics designed by Henry Ivatt and nicknamed "Klondyke".)


Class S-2/F-82b (Locobase 15855)

Data from Edward L May and William D Edson, "Locomotives of the New York Central Lines" (1966), p 100. Works numbers were 5654-5659 in 1900 and 29411-29416 in 1904.


Class V/F-1A (Locobase 5265)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1905 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002).

Single West Albany engine with low drivers rebuilt from the original Vanderbilt boiler Ten-wheeler described in Locobase 16274. The result was a substantially bigger and heavier with more and longer tubes. But for some reason, the shops installed an undersized firebox. Perhaps the frame built for the long-firebox, short-boiler original couldn't take a longer firebox than the 104 1/16" furnace the New York Central adopted.

The puny firebox may have been the main reason this loner was retired in 1916.


Class Woodland/F-6 (Locobase 5267)

The data comes from a reproduction of the New York Central's 1902 Locomotive guide found on [] (visited December 2002). Works numbers were 1947-1948 in January 1885.

Small Tenwheeler of the mid-80s that ran on this coal road west of Williamsport. The grate was quite large in what was a shallow firebox. The railroad was leased to the New York Central & Hudson River in 1890 and absorbed outright in 1899.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class10 / F-81154045460/F-95a
Locobase ID11,703 16,334 12,455 9194 15,856
RailroadChicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw (NYC)Adirondack & St Lawrence (NYC)Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (NYC)Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)Toledo & Ohio Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class322418
Road Numbers10, 12-1315-17/993-995/2025-2027404-40554-5860-77/367-384/9677-9694
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built3225
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadyBurnham, Williams & CoPittsburghBrooks
Year18991892190018881892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonBaker or WalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12.17 / 3.71 / 4.2714.25 / 4.3410.17 / 3.1015.50 / 4.72
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.50 / 6.86 / 6.5825.50 / 7.7720.50 / 6.2525.37 / 7.73
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.56 0.50 0.61
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48 / 14.63 / 14.3855.87 / 17.0346.50 / 14.17
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)97,000 / 43,999119,000 / 59,647132,000 / 59,87472,500 / 32,885
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)124,000 / 56,246139,000 / 67,585165,000 / 74,843100,500 / 45,586120,000 / 54,431
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)114,700 / 52,027 / 38,263120,000 / 54,43160,000 / 27,216
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)238,700 / 108,273 / 105,848285,000 / 129,274160,500 / 72,802
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5100 / 19.32 / 12.126000 / 22.733000 / 11.365000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.90 / 8.2010 / 9.101926 / 7.3011 / 10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)54 / 2766 / 3373 / 36.5040 / 20
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68 / 172757 / 129578 / 198151 / 129556 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11180 / 12.40200 / 13.80160 / 11170 / 11.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61020" x 26" / 559x660 (1)15.5" x 28" / 394x71118" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)30" x 26" / 813x660 (1)26" x 28" / 660x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)17,328 / 7859.8619,326 / 8766.1421,634 / 9813.0320,736 / 9405.7020,065 / 9101.34
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.60 6.16 6.10 3.50
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)137.10 / 12.74 / 15.63193 / 17.94127 / 11.80187.20 / 17.39
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)28.50 / 2.6530.10 / 2.8934.27 / 3.1822.50 / 2.0917.42 / 1.62
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1730 / 160.78 / 190.082850 / 264.871171 / 108.831402 / 130.25
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1730 / 160.78 / 190.082850 / 264.871171 / 108.831402 / 130.25
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume219.66466.07165.66198.34
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation45605418685436002961
Same as above plus superheater percentage45605418685436002961
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,93638,60020,32031,824
Power L15561576534755248
Power MT379.17288.86317.01

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class947 - First Vanderbilt boilerC/FC2/F-67, F-67bC4/F-61, F-61a-crown-bar blerE-2/F-48b
Locobase ID16,274 5264 6765 9727 11,134
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class125542010
Road Numbers947655-679/2160-2184428-479/6171-6219217-235/6115-6133126, 136, 139-142, 145, 216, 225,254,285
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built125542010
BuildershopsseveralRichmondBrooksSchenectady
Year18991887189218891895
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.50 / 4.4213.92 / 4.2411.83 / 3.6116 / 4.8813.25 / 4.04
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25.83 / 7.8724.08 / 7.3423.04 / 7.0226 / 7.9223.12 / 7.05
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.56 0.58 0.51 0.62 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)52.25 / 15.9345.21 / 13.7849.31 / 15.0347.81 / 14.5745.25 / 13.79
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)113,300 / 51,39280,500 / 36,514111,500 / 50,57698,500 / 44,67982,600 / 37,467
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)160,000 / 72,575105,100 / 47,673136,500 / 61,915133,500 / 60,555108,200 / 49,079
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)93,600 / 42,45664,000 / 29,03094,500 / 42,86596,000 / 43,545
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)253,600 / 115,031169,100 / 76,703231,000 / 104,780229,500 / 104,100
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4500 / 17.052800 / 10.615000 / 18.945000 / 18.943100 / 11.74
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.106 / 5.507 / 6.408 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)63 / 31.5045 / 22.5062 / 3155 / 27.5046 / 23
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)61 / 154957 / 144856 / 142263 / 160056 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40150 / 10.30165 / 11.40175 / 12.10160 / 11
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19.5" x 26" / 495x66018" x 24" / 457x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61017" x 24" / 432x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)24,797 / 11247.7417,394 / 7889.8021,699 / 9842.5120,457 / 9279.1516,845 / 7640.77
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.57 4.63 5.14 4.81 4.90
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)191.70 / 17.81138.40 / 12.86167 / 15.51166 / 15.43121.88 / 11.33
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)35.20 / 3.2717.80 / 1.6531.30 / 2.9118.20 / 1.6922.40 / 2.08
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2356 / 218.881722 / 160.041886 / 175.211950 / 181.231411 / 131.13
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2356 / 218.881722 / 160.041886 / 175.211950 / 181.231411 / 131.13
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume262.15243.61239.47247.59223.79
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation63362670516531853584
Same as above plus superheater percentage63362670516531853584
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area34,50620,76027,55529,05019,501
Power L167494867532164864785
Power MT393.97399.87315.63435.51383.14

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE-4/F-47, F-48, F-49E-4/F-48dE/F-46b/F-46dF-103a, F-105, F-105aF-104
Locobase ID9738 2985 1225 7070 7071
RailroadLake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Youghiogeny (NYC)Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class652010155
Road Numbers/5120-5845100-5118561-570/5036-50459205-09, 9215-92249210-9214
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2010155
BuilderBrooksBrooksBrooksAlco-PittsburghAlco-Pittsburgh
Year19071897189119091911
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonBaker or WalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13.25 / 4.0413.25 / 4.0415 / 4.5715.83 / 4.8215.83 / 4.82
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.92 / 7.2923.62 / 7.2025.25 / 7.7027 / 8.2327 / 8.23
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55 0.56 0.59 0.59 0.59
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)46.29 / 14.1145.83 / 13.9747.67 / 14.5357.62 / 17.5657.62 / 17.56
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)85,000 / 38,55579,500 / 36,06196,000 / 43,545160,000 / 72,575160,000 / 72,575
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)110,000 / 49,895108,000 / 48,988118,000 / 53,524210,000 / 95,255210,000 / 95,255
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)85,000 / 38,55573,000 / 33,112128,000 / 58,060145,000 / 65,771145,000 / 65,771
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)195,000 / 88,450181,000 / 82,100246,000 / 111,584355,000 / 161,026355,000 / 161,026
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3700 / 14.023100 / 11.743700 / 14.028400 / 31.828400 / 31.82
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)9 / 8.207 / 6.407 / 6.409 / 8.209 / 8.20
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)47 / 23.5044 / 2253 / 26.5089 / 44.5089 / 44.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160056 / 142268 / 172772 / 182972 / 1829
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11160 / 11180 / 12.40200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 24" / 432x61017" x 24" / 432x61017" x 24" / 432x61022" x 26" / 559x66022" x 26" / 559x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,973 / 6791.6516,845 / 7640.7715,606 / 7078.7729,712 / 13477.1529,712 / 13477.15
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.68 4.72 6.15 5.39 5.39
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)142 / 13.20142 / 13.20142 / 13.20178 / 16.54178 / 16.54
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)22 / 2.0422.60 / 2.1028 / 2.6050 / 4.6550 / 4.65
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1400 / 130.111434 / 133.271603 / 148.982547 / 236.712547 / 236.71
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)647 / 60.13647 / 60.13
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1400 / 130.111434 / 133.271603 / 148.983194 / 296.843194 / 296.84
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume222.05227.44254.24222.66222.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation35203616504010,00010,000
Same as above plus superheater percentage35203616504012,00012,000
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area22,72022,72025,56042,72042,720
Power L156225078748419,42819,428
Power MT437.45422.46515.61803.09803.09

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-12a/b/d/e/gF-2/F-2a/b/d/e/gF-30F-31F-3A
Locobase ID5546 121 15,826 15,827 120
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)Boston & Albany (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1401312210
Road Numbers1965-1999, 2065-21651965-1999, 2065-216511-12/285-286/163-164/2158-59/2032-33/700-701220-221/2030-2031/702-7032000-2009
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1312210
BuilderNYCAlcoRhode IslandSchenectadySchenectady
Year19121905189318991899
Valve GearSteph/WalschSteph/WalschStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.83 / 4.8215.80 / 4.8214.75 / 4.5015 / 4.5714.67 / 4.47
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26.87 / 8.1926.90 / 8.2025.44 / 7.7526.17 / 7.9826 / 7.92
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)59.17 / 18.0459.17 / 18.0446.12 / 14.0652.58 / 16.0352.75 / 16.08
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)161,700 / 73,346148,000 / 67,132112,000 / 50,802115,000 / 52,163127,500 / 57,833
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)213,000 / 96,615194,500 / 88,224138,000 / 62,596158,000 / 71,668165,500 / 75,070
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)148,300 / 67,268142,000 / 64,41073,000 / 33,11297,000 / 43,999103,000 / 46,720
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)361,300 / 163,883336,500 / 152,634211,000 / 95,708255,000 / 115,667268,500 / 121,790
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7000 / 26.527000 / 26.523600 / 13.644500 / 17.054500 / 17.05
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)12 / 10.9012 / 10.908 / 7.309 / 8.208 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)90 / 4582 / 4162 / 3164 / 3271 / 35.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175369 / 175370 / 177870 / 177870 / 1778
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80180 / 12.40200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 26" / 559x66022" x 26" / 559x66020" x 24" / 521x61020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 28" / 508x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)31,004 / 14063.1931,004 / 14063.1920,983 / 9517.7425,257 / 11456.4027,200 / 12337.73
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.22 4.77 5.34 4.55 4.69
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)203 / 18.87202.70 / 18.84174 / 16.16163.40 / 15.18206.40 / 19.18
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)54.93 / 5.1154.93 / 5.1127.70 / 2.5729.90 / 2.7830.30 / 2.82
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2649 / 246.193327 / 309.201950 / 181.162508 / 2332906 / 270.07
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)540 / 50.19
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3189 / 296.383327 / 309.201950 / 181.162508 / 2332906 / 270.07
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume231.57290.84223.45265.29285.43
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10,98610,986498659806060
Same as above plus superheater percentage12,85410,986498659806060
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area47,50240,54031,32032,68041,280
Power L117,1398727678682079025
Power MT701.02389.99400.73472.00468.16

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-41AF-41BF-47 - compoundF-48gF-5
Locobase ID16,327 16,328 2972 9739 5266
RailroadNew York City (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)New York, West Shore & Buffalo (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class106156
Road Numbers5290-52995290-52996015095-50992191-2196
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built156
BuilderLS&MSNYCBrooksBrooksRogers
Year19101915189319071887
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12.92 / 3.9412.92 / 3.9413.25 / 4.0413.25 / 4.0413.92 / 4.24
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25.42 / 7.7525.42 / 7.7523.12 / 7.0523.92 / 7.2924.09 / 7.34
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.51 0.51 0.57 0.55 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)50.4350.43 / 15.3745.54 / 13.8846.29 / 14.1147.47 / 14.47
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)116,600 / 50,802116,100 / 52,66280,000 / 36,28785,000 / 38,55583,300 / 37,784
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)151,800 / 67,132156,400 / 70,942105,000 / 47,627110,000 / 49,895108,600 / 49,260
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)94,000 / 42,63894,000 / 42,63878,000 / 35,38085,000 / 38,55576,400 / 34,654
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)245,800 / 109,770250,400 / 113,580183,000 / 83,007195,000 / 88,450185,000 / 83,914
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.943700 / 14.023700 / 14.023000 / 11.36
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.107 / 6.409 / 8.206 / 5.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)65 / 32.5065 / 32.5044 / 2247 / 23.5046 / 23
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 157563 / 160056 / 142263 / 160057 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)190 / 13.10190 / 13.10180 / 12.40160 / 11140 / 9.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 28" / 508x71119" x 28" / 483x71118" x 24" / 457x610 (1)17" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x610
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm) / 78728.5" x 24" / 724x610 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)25,912 / 11753.5025,912 / 11753.5015,187 / 6888.7214,973 / 6791.6516,234 / 7363.63
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.50 4.48 5.27 5.68 5.13
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)150 / 14.86150 / 13.94130 / 12.08142 / 13.20135 / 12.55
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)26.60 / 2.4726.60 / 2.4723 / 2.1422 / 2.0418 / 1.67
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2017 / 188.311560 / 144.931298 / 120.631400 / 130.111720 / 159.85
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)282 / 26.20
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2017 / 188.311842 / 171.131298 / 120.631400 / 130.111720 / 159.85
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume219.52169.78367.26222.05243.33
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation50545054414035202520
Same as above plus superheater percentage50545812414035202520
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area28,50032,77523,40022,72018,900
Power L1600810,526369456224506
Power MT340.79599.63305.39437.45357.77

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-61/F-61A radial-stay boilerF-62 - 63"" radial-stayF-62 - crown-bar boilerF-62a - 63"" crown-barF-62a - radial-stay boiler
Locobase ID9728 9732 9729 9730 9731
RailroadBig Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class62463
Road Numbers216-235 / 6115-6134178, 180-82 / 6138-6141179, 183-85, / 6134-6138178, 180-82, 86/6139-43179, 183-185 / 6134-6137
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built46
BuilderBig FourBig FourBrooksBrooksBig Four
Year19111909189018901909
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16 / 4.8815.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.72
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26 / 7.9225.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.82
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.62 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)47.81 / 14.5748.75 / 14.8648.75 / 14.8648.75 / 14.8648.75 / 14.86
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)113,000 / 51,256115,000 / 52,163104,000 / 47,174104,000 / 47,174115,000 / 52,163
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)148,000 / 67,132141,000 / 63,957130,000 / 58,967130,000 / 58,967141,000 / 63,957
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)96,000 / 43,54596,000 / 43,54592,000 / 41,73196,000 / 43,54592,000 / 41,731
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)244,000 / 110,677237,000 / 107,502222,000 / 100,698226,000 / 102,512233,000 / 105,688
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)8 / 7.308 / 7.308 / 7.308 / 7.308 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)63 / 31.5064 / 3258 / 2958 / 2964 / 32
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160063 / 160069 / 175363 / 160069 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10180 / 12.40175 / 12.10175 / 12.10180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)20,457 / 9279.1521,041 / 9544.0518,678 / 8472.2120,457 / 9279.1519,211 / 8713.97
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.52 5.47 5.57 5.08 5.99
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)166 / 15.43155 / 14.41141 / 13.10141 / 13.10155 / 14.41
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)21 / 1.9528.40 / 2.6429.20 / 2.7129.20 / 2.7128.40 / 2.64
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2167 / 201.392414 / 224.351810 / 168.221810 / 168.222405 / 223.51
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2167 / 201.392414 / 224.351810 / 168.221810 / 168.222405 / 223.51
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume275.15306.51229.82229.82305.37
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation36755112511051105112
Same as above plus superheater percentage36755112511051105112
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area29,05027,90024,67524,67527,900
Power L169927653642758688358
Power MT409.24440.14408.72373.17480.68

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-63F-64 - crown-barF-64 - radial-stayF-65F-65
Locobase ID9733 9734 9735 1227 9736
RailroadBig Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class212222
Road Numbers203-204 / 6144-6145416-427 / 6146-61576150, 6155205-6/6159-61606159-6160
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2122
BuilderBrooksBrooksBig FourBrooksBrooks
Year18911891191118931911
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.72
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.8225.67 / 7.82
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.05 / 14.6548.05 / 14.6548.05 / 14.6549 / 14.9448.75 / 14.86
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)103,000 / 46,72099,500 / 45,132102,000 / 46,266109,500 / 49,668115,000 / 52,163
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)132,000 / 59,874128,500 / 58,287131,000 / 59,421135,500 / 61,462138,000 / 62,596
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)94,500 / 42,86588,000 / 39,91688,000 / 39,91690,000 / 40,82390,000 / 40,823
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)226,500 / 102,739216,500 / 98,203219,000 / 99,337225,500 / 102,285228,000 / 103,419
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.944000 / 15.155000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.407 / 6.407 / 6.408 / 7.307 / 6.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)57 / 28.5055 / 27.5057 / 28.5061 / 30.5064 / 32
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)67 / 170263 / 160063 / 160068 / 172769 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x61018.5" x 24" / 470x61019" x 24" / 483x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,785 / 8974.3421,041 / 9544.0521,041 / 9544.0518,482 / 8383.3019,211 / 8713.97
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.21 4.73 4.85 5.92 5.99
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)147 / 13.66162 / 15.06162 / 15.06155 / 14.41155 / 14.41
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18.20 / 1.6918.20 / 1.6921 / 1.9529.10 / 2.7028.50 / 2.65
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2035 / 189.132036 / 189.222078 / 193.121974 / 183.462414 / 224.35
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2035 / 189.132036 / 189.222078 / 193.121974 / 183.462414 / 224.35
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume258.39258.51263.85264.37306.51
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation32763276378052385130
Same as above plus superheater percentage32763276378052385130
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area26,46029,16029,16027,90027,900
Power L170696830693075118382
Power MT453.92454.00449.35453.67482.06

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-66 / F-68F-67 - compoundF-69/F-69aF-7F-8
Locobase ID9737 5712 4122 5268 5269
RailroadBig Four (NYC)Big Four (NYC)Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1058633
Road Numbers500-509/6161-70, 6318-21472/6175-6229400-405/6234-62392025-20272186-2188
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1058433
BuilderBrooksRichmondBurnham, Williams & CoSchenectadySchenectady
Year18931892190118921892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.50 / 4.7211.83 / 3.6114.25 / 4.3412.50 / 3.81
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25.25 / 7.7023.04 / 7.0225.50 / 7.7723.50 / 7.16
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.61 0.51 0.56 0.53
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)47.75 / 14.5552.58 / 16.0354.94 / 16.75
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)103,500 / 46,947112,000 / 50,802134,000 / 60,781107,500 / 48,76199,200 / 44,996
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)137,500 / 62,369141,000 / 63,957174,200 / 79,016138,400 / 62,777125,000 / 56,699
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)101,000 / 45,81394,500120,000 / 54,43185,900 / 38,96491,000 / 41,277
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)238,500 / 108,182235,500294,200 / 133,447224,300 / 101,741216,000 / 97,976
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.735000 / 15.156000 / 22.734000 / 15.154000 / 15.15
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)7 / 6.40710 / 9.1010 / 9.1010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)58 / 2962 / 3174 / 3760 / 3055 / 27.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 144856 / 142279 / 200757 / 144864 / 1626
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10180 / 12.40200 / 13.80175 / 12.10175 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x610 (1)20" x 28" / 508x71120" x 26" / 508x66019" x 24" / 483x610
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)30" x 24" / 762x610 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)22,610 / 10255.7416,895 / 7663.4524,101 / 10932.0427,140 / 12310.5120,137 / 9134.00
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.58 6.63 5.56 3.96 4.93
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)155 / 14.41172 / 15.99200 / 18.59131 / 12.17141 / 13.10
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18.40 / 1.7131.20 / 2.9034.27 / 3.1827.13 / 2.5228.76 / 2.67
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1890 / 175.651928 / 179.182858 / 265.611885 / 175.191763 / 163.85
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1890 / 175.651928 / 179.182858 / 265.611885 / 175.191763 / 163.85
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume239.98489.60280.72199.39223.85
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation32205616685447485033
Same as above plus superheater percentage32205616685447485033
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area27,12530,96040,00022,92524,675
Power L156264771997944675849
Power MT359.51281.74492.54274.83389.96

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF-84F-8AF-9F/F-45H / F-50
Locobase ID9672 5270 5271 9756 2976
RailroadMichigan Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class6211013
Road Numbers547-5522189-2190219910/5020-5029331, 335-344, 346-48, 351/5045-5059
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built621013
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadySchenectadySchenectadyBrooks
Year19001892188018961899
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15 / 4.5715 / 4.5715 / 4.57
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26.17 / 7.9824.75 / 7.5425.50 / 7.77
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.57 0.61 0.59
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)52.77 / 16.08
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)136,000 / 61,689100,800 / 45,72257,800 / 26,21888,000 / 39,916120,000 / 54,431
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)174,600 / 79,197130,300 / 59,10378,300 / 35,516118,000 / 53,524154,000 / 69,853
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)82,000 / 37,19566,000 / 29,937103,000 / 46,720
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)212,300 / 96,298144,300 / 65,453257,000 / 116,573
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.152800 / 10.6140005000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.106 / 5.5010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)76 / 3856 / 2832 / 1649 / 24.5067 / 33.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)75 / 190557 / 144856 / 142268 / 172762 / 1575
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80175 / 12.10135 / 9.30190 / 13.10180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 28" / 508x71119" x 24" / 483x61018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x61019.5" x 30" / 495x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)25,387 / 11515.3622,610 / 10255.7415,934 / 7227.5518,468 / 8376.9528,151 / 12769.09
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.36 4.46 3.63 4.76 4.26
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)200.70 / 18.65141 / 13.10100.20 / 9.31135.30 / 12.57202 / 18.77
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)34.28 / 3.1928.72 / 2.6714.49 / 1.3527.65 / 2.5732.40 / 3.01
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3125 / 290.431763 / 163.851186 / 110.221867 / 173.512173 / 201.95
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3125 / 290.431763 / 163.851186 / 110.221867 / 173.512173 / 201.95
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume306.94223.85167.78264.13209.55
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation68565026195652545832
Same as above plus superheater percentage68565026195652545832
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area40,14024,67513,52725,70736,360
Power L110,1385210300777485709
Power MT493.02341.85344.08582.32314.65

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassI-1/F-52I-6/ F-41I//F-51Kushaqua/F-4Mattawa/G-1, G/F-44b, F-44a
Locobase ID116 15,852 2971 2975 15,853
RailroadLake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)Indiana, Illinois & Iowa (NYC)Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC)St. Lawrence & Adirondack (NYC)St Lawrence & Adirondack (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class5101123
Road Numbers611-615/5011-501526-35/600-610/ 5000-50102-3/2029, 2028602-604/544-546/5019, 5017-5018
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built5101123
BuilderBrooksPittsburghBrooksBrooksBrooks
Year19001900189918961896
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0312.92 / 3.9416.50 / 5.0314.50 / 4.4212 / 3.66
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)27.30 / 8.3225.42 / 7.7527.30 / 8.3224.67 / 7.5224.33 / 7.42
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.60 0.51 0.60 0.59 0.49
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)55.17 / 16.8255.17 / 16.8252.59 / 16.0358.54 / 17.84
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)45,000 / 20,41245,000 / 20,412
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)135,000 / 61,235112,000 / 50,802133,000 / 60,328126,000 / 57,153110,000 / 49,895
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)172,500 / 78,245148,000 / 67,132171,600 / 77,837154,000 / 69,853140,000 / 63,503
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)138,500 / 62,82394,000 / 42,638128,000 / 58,06090,000 / 40,82337,700 / 17,100
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)311,000 / 141,068242,000 / 109,770299,600 / 135,897244,000 / 110,676177,700 / 80,603
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7000 / 26.525000 / 18.945000 / 18.944500 / 17.054000 / 15.15
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)13 / 11.8010 / 9.10 9.50 / 8.60 8.50 / 7.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)75 / 37.5062 / 3174 / 3770 / 3561 / 30.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)80 / 203263 / 157580 / 203257 / 144869 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80190 / 13.10210 / 14.50195 / 13.40195 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 28" / 508x71120" x 28" / 508x711 (1)20" x 28" / 508x71120" x 26" / 508x66018" x 26" / 457x660
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)31" x 28" / 787x711 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)23,800 / 10795.5120,273 / 9195.6924,990 / 11335.2930,242 / 13717.5620,236 / 9178.91
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.67 5.52 5.32 4.17 5.44
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)202.50 / 18.82160 / 14.86223 / 20.72192 / 17.84170 / 15.79
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)36.60 / 3.4026.60 / 2.4733.60 / 3.1232 / 2.9724 / 2.23
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2879 / 267.572027 / 188.312917 / 271.102016 / 187.361726 / 160.35
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2879 / 267.572027 / 188.312917 / 271.102016 / 187.361726 / 160.35
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume282.78398.19286.51213.25225.40
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation73205054705662404680
Same as above plus superheater percentage73205054705662404680
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area40,50030,40046,83037,44033,150
Power L110,193461111,08958327544
Power MT499.37272.29551.44306.13453.59

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassQ / F-3AQ-1/F-3R-1/F-81aR-12/F-81jR/F-81
Locobase ID4112 4113 16,222 11,121 11,196
RailroadNew York Central (NYC)New York Central (NYC)Canada Southern (NYC)Michigan Central (NYC)Michigan Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1015511
Road Numbers2000-20092010-2024/2036-2050431-435/8120-8124338/450/8138277/527/8201
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1015511
BuilderSchenectadyBurnham, Williams & CoSchenectadySchenectadySchenectady
Year18991900188918901888
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.67 / 4.4714.92 / 4.5512.17 / 3.7113.17 / 4.0112.17 / 3.71
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26 / 7.9226 / 7.9222.50 / 6.8623.83 / 7.2622.50 / 6.86
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.56 0.57 0.54 0.55 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)62.90 / 19.1753.04 / 16.1748 / 14.6348.37 / 14.7448 / 14.63
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)128,900 / 58,468134,200 / 60,87296,300 / 43,68199,000 / 44,90694,000 / 42,638
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)168,900 / 76,612175,000 / 79,379123,900 / 56,200135,000 / 61,235118,000 / 53,524
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)114,000 / 51,710114,000 / 51,710
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)282,900 / 128,322289,000 / 131,089
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.943800 / 14.393800 / 14.393800 / 14.39
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.108 / 7.308 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)72 / 3675 / 37.5054 / 2755 / 27.5052 / 26
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)70 / 177875 / 190568 / 172774 / 188068 / 1727
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80160 / 11180 / 12.40165 / 11.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 28" / 508x71120" x 28" / 508x71119" x 24" / 483x61020" x 24" / 508x610 (1)19" x 24" / 483x610
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)29" x 24" / 737x610 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)27,200 / 12337.7325,387 / 11515.3617,328 / 7859.8613,451 / 6101.2817,870 / 8105.71
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.74 5.29 5.56 7.36 5.26
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)206.40 / 19.18184.30 / 17.12137.10 / 12.74141.20 / 13.12129.30 / 12.01
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30.50 / 2.8330.30 / 2.8128.50 / 2.6528.20 / 2.6228.50 / 2.65
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2908 / 270.262915 / 270.811677 / 155.801981 / 184.111734 / 161.09
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2908 / 270.262915 / 270.811677 / 155.801981 / 184.111734 / 161.09
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume285.63286.32212.93454.01220.17
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation61006060456050764703
Same as above plus superheater percentage61006060456050764703
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area41,28036,86021,93625,41621,335
Power L190309421543965025652
Power MT463.33464.30373.55434.38397.68

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassR/F-81aR10/F-81hS, Klondike/F-82S-2/F-82bV/F-1A
Locobase ID10,803 11,120 3480 15,855 5265
RailroadMichigan Central (NYC)Michigan Central (NYC)Michigan Central (NYC)Big Four (NYC)New York Central (NYC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class514111
Road Numbers284/500/ 8200512/8244436, 449, 454/ 880, 881457-460, 321-322, 547-552947/2185
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built51411
BuilderSchenectadySchenectadyshopsSchenectadyshops
Year18891896189919001905
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12.17 / 3.7114 / 4.2714 / 4.2715 / 4.5714.50 / 4.42
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.50 / 6.8624.17 / 7.3724.58 / 7.4925.92 / 7.9025.83 / 7.87
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.56
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48 / 14.6350.08 / 15.2652.84 / 16.1152.25 / 15.93
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)97,000 / 43,99999,000 / 44,906112,900 / 51,211140,000 / 63,503
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)126,800 / 57,516132,000 / 59,874146,700 / 66,542164,000 / 74,389170,000 / 77,111
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)110,000 / 49,895110,000 / 49,89593,600 / 42,456
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)236,800 / 107,411256,700 / 116,437263,600 / 119,567
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5100 / 19.323900 / 14.775100 / 19.325000 / 18.944500 / 17.05
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.1011 / 1010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)54 / 2755 / 27.5063 / 31.5078 / 39
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68 / 172768 / 172764 / 162664 / 162661 / 1549
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40180 / 12.40180 / 12.40200 / 13.80190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 24" / 508x610 (1)19" x 24" / 483x61019.5" x 26" / 495x66019.5" x 26" / 495x66020" x 28" / 508x711
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)29" x 24" / 737x610 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,638 / 6639.6919,494 / 8842.3423,635 / 10720.6726,261 / 11911.8029,652 / 13449.94
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 6.63 5.08 4.78 4.72
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)137.10 / 12.74139.40 / 12.96172 / 15.99187.20 / 17.39183 / 17
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)28.50 / 2.6527.30 / 2.5426.90 / 2.5031.10 / 2.8929.20 / 2.71
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1677 / 155.862050 / 190.522504 / 232.712572 / 238.943025 / 281.03
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1677 / 155.862050 / 190.522504 / 232.712572 / 238.943025 / 281.03
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume384.34260.29278.62286.19297.12
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation51304914484262205548
Same as above plus superheater percentage51304914484262205548
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area24,67825,09230,96037,44034,770
Power L152537115718783277475
Power MT358.17475.33421.03353.13

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassWoodland/F-6
Locobase ID5267
RailroadBeech Creek, Clearfield & Western (NYC)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-6-0
Number in Class2
Road Numbers24-25/2100
GaugeStd
Number Built2
BuilderSchenectady
Year1885
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)10.17 / 3.10
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)20 / 6.10
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.51
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)46.83 / 14.27
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)82,000 / 37,195
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)102,000 / 46,266
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)71,500 / 32,432
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)173,500 / 78,698
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3500 / 13.26
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 7.50 / 6.80
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)46 / 23
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)125 / 8.60
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 24" / 483x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)16,438 / 7456.16
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.99
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)135 / 12.55
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)32.25 / 3
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1412 / 131.23
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1412 / 131.23
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume179.28
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation4031
Same as above plus superheater percentage4031
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,875
Power L13092
Power MT249.39

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