New Haven / New York & New England / Philadelphia, Reading & New England 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class G-1 (Locobase 12010)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 17, p. 173. Works numbers were 12380-12381 in December 1891.

The Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific contracted for this pair of Vauclain compound Consolidations. Indeed, the specification of the letters "C NO & TP" on the tender. They were to be numbered 604-605.

But the southern railroad contracted buyer's remorse and turned them back in. Baldwin relettered and renumbered the duo and produced them for the New York & New England. The cylinders were smaller than many of the Vauclain compounds then be built and the compounding ratio more in line with later practice in other countries. As with the other Baldwins, the cylinders were fed through 10 1/2" (267 mm) piston valves.

At some later date, the New Haven rebuilt the G-1s as 19" x 26" simple-expansion locomotives. Adopting a longer stroke in these circumstances was relatively unusual. In this case, the driving wheelbase also increased to 16 feet even (a 13"/330 mm stretch).

As simples, the 970 and 971 operated until December 1925 and October 1926, respectively.


Class G-3 (Locobase 14304)

Data from Alco builders card Negative H-137.

These low-drivered Ten-wheelers served local freight needs on New Haven branch lines.


Class G-4-a (Locobase 11443)

Data from "Locomotive Building," The Railroad Gazette, Volume X [40]L, No 18 (10 February 1905), p 45. See also "Pacific Locomotive for the New York, New Haven & Hartford", Railroad Gazette, Volume XLIII [43], No 19 (8 November 1907), pp. 554-556, Degolyer, Volume 27, p. 136, 193. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 May 2018 email noting the proper valve gear, noting the 819's original numbers, and reporting several differences in the last five engines.) Works numbers were

1904

October 24755, 24758; November 24788, 24793-24794, 24802-24804, 24807-24809, 24814, 24820, 24824-24826, 24830-24832, 24837-24838; December 24854.

1905

January 24986-24991, 25009-25010, 25013-25014; February 25047-25048, 25068-25069, 25081-25082, 25112, 25132-25133, 25167, 25196; March 25212, 25243, 25291-25292. 25212, 25243, 25291-25292; May 30831, 30909, 30910-30912.

A large class of Ten-wheelers that served New Haven mainline passenger trains until supplanted by the Pacifics. Baldwin's specs originally showed the lead engine as 858 with an adhesion weight "not to exceed" 110,000 lb (49,895 kg) and the next 19 were first assigned 838-856. 858 gave up its number to the first of two Vauclain compounds described in Locobase 12719 and took road number 819 instead.

Apparently, whatever right-of-way limitations influencing the restrictions were lifted, and the next 19 also had their numbers changed before delivery to 800-818 and a 4 November 1904 entry revealed that weight on drivers "may" increase to 116,800 lb (as shown in the specs) and 33,200 lb (15,059 kg) on the truck.

By the time the last five locomotives went into production, their driver diameters had been increased to 73", most likely through the use of 3 1/2" (89 mm) tires.The earlier locomotives, delivered with 72" drivers, most likely were upgraded very soon after they entered service.

Nineteen of the class were superheated in the mid-1920s; see Locobase 3317.


Class G-4-a/G-4-b - rebuilt (Locobase 3317)

Data from NH 1962 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Like the earlier eight-wheelers, about a third of the large class of 1904 Ten-wheelers (Locobase 11443) were rebuilt beginning in 1926 with 22" (559 mm) cylinders, steel cabs, 12" (305 mm) piston valves actuated by Baker, Southern, or Walschaert valve gear, new frames, and superheaters. The diagram notes that some fireboxes had 15 sq ft (1.39 sq ft) of arch tubes, others one syphon that contributed 29 sq ft (2.69 sq m); direct heating surface area increased to 183 sq ft (17 sq ft) with arch tubes, 197 sq ft (18.3 sq m) with the syphon.

Road numbers of the updated locomotives were 804, 807-809, 814-815, 818, 820, 825, 827, 829, 832, 836-837, 842-843, and 845-847.

Most ended their days in commuter service, to which they had been moved when the larger Pacifics entered service in the 'teens. Many of the converted locomotives served the New Haven into and through World War Two before being retired in 1946-1948

Two wound up on Australia's Commonwealth Railway as Class CA 78 & 79. 78 had Southern valve gear, 79 used Baker gear. 78's Australian career lasted 27 months, when she was written off. 79 lasted until May 1950, when she was written off. Both were scrapped in 1956. []

(Note: the official name for the New Haven was the New York, New Haven, and Hartford and the acronym that appeared on its tenders was NYNH&H.)


Class G-4-b (Locobase 12719)

Data from Degolyer, Volume 27, p. 137. Works numbers were 24758 in October 1904 and 24824 in November.

In addition to the large cohort of large passenger Ten-wheelers with simple-expansion cylinders (Locobase 11443), Baldwin supplied two Vauclain compounds. These had large 15" (381 mm) piston valves to feed the duplex-cylinder casting on each side. Baldwin's spec included a 4 November 1904 note allowing an increase in adhesion weight to 123,100 lb (55,837 kg) and truck weight up to 37,500 lb (17,010 kg) for a total of 160,800 lb (73,938 kg).

Both were rebuilt by 1916 with 22" x 26" simple-expansion cylinders. See Locobase 3317 for the result; the 2 ex-compounds were reclassified G-4-b.


Class P-4 (Locobase 6642)

Data from 1915 CNE 3 - Classification of Locomotives supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 17, p. 183. Works numbers were 12390-12391 in December 1891 and 12412-12413 in January 1892.

One of the treats of compiling Locobase is being introduced to railroads whose existence was hitherto unsuspected. The CNE lay across northern Connecticut from the Poughkeepsie Bridge to Cambell Hall. The wikpedia entry on the Connecticut Western Railroad ([], visited 30 June 2005) has the details on the various incarnations and combinations this line went through. It was merged with the New Haven in 1926.

These four Ten-wheelers were bought by the line when it was the Philadelphia, Reading & New England, a short-lived interim. The designation appears to be quite basic -- P for passenger, 4 for 4th different design. The CNE Classification book gave an engine wheelbase of 18 ft 9 1/2" (5.73 m), which.seems awfully short. Locobase takes Baldwin's more typical figure. As delivered, the tender's tank held 3,300 US gallons (12,491 litres) of water.

After more than two decades in service, the 26 was retired in 1915, 27 followed in 1916. Ten years later, the 25 (renumbered 47 in 1922) ended service in 1925, and 28 (renumbered 48 in 1922) closed the class in 1926.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-1G-3G-4-aG-4-a/G-4-b - rebuiltG-4-b
Locobase ID12,010 14,304 11,443 3317 12,719
RailroadNew York & New England (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class22050192
Road Numbers186-187/1086-1087/870-871/970-971160-179 / 950-969800-849804+858-859
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built220502
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoAlco-Rhode IslandBurnham, Williams & CoNHBurnham, Williams & Co
Year18911904190419261904
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonvariousBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.92 / 4.5514.50 / 4.4213.50 / 4.1113.50 / 4.1113.50 / 4.11
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26.79 / 8.1725 / 7.6225.08 / 8.3625.08 / 7.6427.42 / 8.36
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.56 0.58 0.54 0.54 0.49
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49.31 / 15.0355.08 / 16.79
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)45,248 / 20,524
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)90,000 / 40,82393,000 / 42,184116,800 / 52,980135,860 / 61,625110,000 / 49,895
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)122,000 / 55,338126,000 / 57,153150,000 / 68,039174,860 / 79,315154,000 / 69,853
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)91,500 / 41,504111,000 / 50,349111,000 / 50,349111,000 / 50,349
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)217,500 / 98,657261,000 / 118,388285,860 / 129,664265,000 / 120,202
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3600 / 13.644000 / 15.156000 / 22.735000 / 18.946000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)8 / 7.309 / 8.20
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)50 / 2552 / 2665 / 32.5075 / 37.5061 / 30.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68 / 172757 / 144873 / 182973 / 185472 / 1829
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40160 / 11200 / 13.80190 / 13.10200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)13.5" x 24" / 343x61019" x 26" / 483x66021" x 26" / 533x66022" x 26" / 559x66015" x 26" / 381x660
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 24" / 559x61025" x 26" / 635x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,299 / 6485.9322,395 / 10158.2126,702 / 12111.8427,840 / 12628.0320,313 / 9213.83
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 6.29 4.15 4.37 4.88 5.42
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)164 / 15.24127.53 / 11.85168.50 / 15.65197 / 18.30168.50 / 15.66
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)19.70 / 1.8334.69 / 3.2234.69 / 3.2229 / 2.6934.69 / 3.22
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1864 / 173.231769 / 164.342666 / 247.681929 / 179.212666 / 247.77
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)400 / 37.16
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1864 / 173.231769 / 164.342666 / 247.682329 / 216.372666 / 247.77
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume468.80207.33255.78168.63501.34
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation35465550693855106938
Same as above plus superheater percentage35465550693864476938
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area29,52020,40533,70043,79333,700
Power L151854287819113,1645700
Power MT381.03304.88463.82640.84342.72

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassP-4
Locobase ID6642
RailroadPhiladelphia, Reading & New England (NYNH&H)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-6-0
Number in Class4
Road Numbers13-14,11-12/27-28, 25-26/
GaugeStd
Number Built4
BuilderBurnham, Williams & Co
Year1891
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12.50 / 3.56
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.25 / 5.73
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.75 / 14.86
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)34,000 / 15,422
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)94,270 / 42,760
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)121,500 / 55,112
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)77,300 / 35,063
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)198,800 / 90,175
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.15
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)8 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)52 / 26
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 1575
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)140 / 9.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)21" x 24" / 533x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)20,314 / 9214.29
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.64
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)151.10 / 14.04
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)26.90 / 2.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1966 / 182.71
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1966 / 182.71
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume204.34
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation3766
Same as above plus superheater percentage3766
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,154
Power L14092
Power MT287.09

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