Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie / Wisconsin & Northern / Wisconsin Central 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class B/E (Locobase 8776)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Unusual Soo-Line engines of the time in that they had such tall drivers. Less unusually, they arrived as Vauclain compounds with two 20" HP cylinders and two 32" LP cylinders. Not too long after they arrived, the railroad simpled the system as shown in the specs.


Class E-1 (Locobase 8777)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers 20339-20340, 20374 in April 1902 and 21651, 21701, 22195, 22247 in May.

As Drury (1993) notes, these passenger Ten-wheelers were among the only 4-6-0s used by the Soo in that service.


Class E-2 (Locobase 8778)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 54371in December 1913 and 55427 in November 1915.

Rolling on freight-sized drivers, this pair of Ten-wheelers started on the W&N, but came to the Soo when the latter bought the former in 1921. Locobase doesn't know for sure, but believes that these engines were superheated when they got to the Soo if not when they were originally delivered to the W&N.


Class E-20 (Locobase 8779)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 1658-1664 in April 1890 and 1667-1669 in May.

Brooks typically pressed its locomotive boilers to a higher setting than most of its contemporaries. Here was a set of 11 Ten-wheelers that retained the small cylinder volume and deep, narrow fireboxes of the time, but flaunted a 175-psi boiler.


Class E-21 (Locobase 8780)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were May 1891 and 1905-1909 in June 1891.

Brooks delivered these Ten-wheelers to the WC just one year after the E-20s (Locobase 8779), but they were bigger. They had larger boilers and grates, substantially larger fireboxes, and they weighed a good deal more.


Class E-22 (Locobase 3297)

Data from Simple and Compound Locomotives, Brooks Locomotive Works (Dunkirk, NY: 1899), pp. 134-135; and "Simple Ten-Wheel Locomotives with Piston Valves-Wisconsin Central Lines," American Engineer, Car Builder and Railroad Journal, Volume 72, No 6 (June 1898), pp. 190-193 Works numbers were 2923-2928 in March 1898, 3154-3160 in February 1899, and 3433-3436 in February 1900.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004.

Piston-valved passenger engine with Improved Belpaire boiler and firebox containing 24 sq ft (2.23 sq m) of arch tubes. Piston valves measured 9" (229 mm) in diameter.

Railroad Gazette of 3 June 1898 notes that the ten-locomotive order was broken into six freight, shown in this entry, and four passenger, shown in Locobase 2977. The boilers and grates were the same, but these freight engines had cylinders 1" (25.4 mm) larger in diameter and, of course, smaller drivers. They were later taken into the Soo Line as 2619-2624.

This batch was followed up with two more batches, which came onto the WC as 231-237, and #238-241. On the Soo, they were classed E-22s as well and numbered 2629-2639


Class E-23 (Locobase 2977)

Data from Simple and Compound Locomotives, Brooks Locomotive Works (Dunkirk, NY: 1899), pp. 134-135 and "Simple Ten-Wheel Locomotives with Piston Valves-Wisconsin Central Lines," American Engineer, Car Builder and Railroad Journal, Volume 72, No 6 (June 1898), pp. 190-193. Works numbers were 2925-2928 in March 1898.

Brooks delivered ten locomotives, six as freight locomotives and described in Locobase 3297 and the four passenger engines shown here.

All ten used 9" (229 mm) piston valves to supply their cylinders and had Improved Player-Belpaire boilers with fireboxes containing 24 sq ft (2.23 sq m) of arch tubes. But these were clearly passenger power. Their cylinders were slightly smaller in diameter, probably to increase the boiler/cylinder volume ratio and taking advantage of the smaller trailing loads of a rake of passenger coaches.

Springing was equalized by a 42" (1,067 mm) spring linking the last two driving axles and a 46" (1,168 mm) equalizing spring spanning the two axle boxes of the leading driving axle. "We are informed," reported the AE editor,"that the engines ride remarkably well." The springs' long hangers would "tend to reduce the amount of wear on the ends of the springs to a minimum." He underscored this detail's significance:"This is important and is not always well provided for."

Later taken into the Soo Line as 2625-2628. Each ended its career at different times. 2628 went first in July 1930 with 2625 being "dismissed" in November 1932. 2627 lasted until November 1936. Somehow, 2626 remained active until the early 1950s, when it was sold to scrap dealer Purdy Company in June 1952.


Class E-23-S (Locobase 8781)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

At some point after their introduction, the E-23s (Locobase 2977) of the Wisconsin Central received superheaters. The tradeoff of small tubes for larger flues achieved the usual ratio. Also, the Belpaire firebox remained intact, although the firebox heating surface shown is lower.


Class E-24-S (Locobase 8765)

Data from Soo Miscellaneous Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Delivered to the Wisconsin Central from Brooks as a batch (works #3437-3441)

in 1900 as low-drivered, saturated-steam freight locomotives, this class was later superheated after the Soo took over the WC in 1909.


Class E-25 (Locobase 4140)

Profiled in the Railroad Gazette 10 May 1901, this batch of ten freight locomotives were slightly larger than the 1898 freight ten-wheelers found elsewhere at Locobase 3297. Works numbers were 23687-3689 in November 1900, 3704-3706, 3708-3711 in December 1900.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004.

Like the earlier engines, these were piston-valved freight engines with Improved Belpaire boiler. The chief difference was a much larger grate that sat over the low drivers rather than between them. They also had even smaller drivers. Later taken into the Soo Line as 2645-2654 and superheated; see Locobase

Works numbers 3437-3441 (February 1900) - road #242-246 -- had the same basic dimensions, but were lighter. The Soo put them in a separate class E-24 (Locobase 8765).


Class E-25-S (Locobase 8782)

Data from Soo 9 - 1943 Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Surely it must have been a rare event in North American superheating to trim the grate's width by 11 inches during the remodeling. The saturated-steam E-25 (Locobase 4140) had a grate measuring 73 1/4", but the remodeled hotrod had its grate cut to 62 1/4" wide. The answer lies in the substitution of an extended wagon top boiler for the original Belpaire design.

Otherwise, the makeover involved the typical substitution of a few flues for dozens of small tubes.


Class P/F-1 (Locobase 16333)

Data from SOO 3 - 1908 Classification of Locomotives supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 4735-4739 in April 1898.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassB/EE-1E-2E-20E-21
Locobase ID8776 8777 8778 8779 8780
RailroadMinneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie (Soo)Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie (Soo)Wisconsin & Northern (Soo)Wisconsin Central (Soo)Wisconsin Central (Soo)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class5721110
Road Numbers600-604505-511 / 605-6114-5 / 612-613201-210/2600-2608211-220 / 2611-2620
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built5721110
BuilderSchenectadyBurnham, Williams & CoAlco-SchenectadyBrooksBrooks
Year18981902191318901891
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15 / 4.5714.83 / 4.5214 / 4.2716 / 4.8814 / 4.27
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26.08 / 7.9525.83 / 7.8724.58 / 7.4926.01 / 7.9324.17 / 7.37
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.62 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)53.62 / 16.3456.92 / 17.3552.81 / 16.1047.96 / 14.6248.81 / 14.88
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)40,070 / 18,175
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)96,000 / 43,545120,210 / 54,526119,000 / 53,97888,800 / 40,279103,000 / 46,720
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)136,000 / 61,689156,830 / 71,137166,000 / 75,296122,800 / 55,701130,000 / 58,967
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)99,550 / 45,155112,800 / 51,165121,200 / 54,97572,900 / 33,06774,000 / 33,566
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)235,550 / 106,844269,630 / 122,302287,200 / 130,271195,700 / 88,768204,000 / 92,533
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4500 / 17.056000 / 22.736000 / 22.733700 / 14.023700 / 14.02
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)9 / 8.2010 / 9.1010 / 9.10 7.50 / 6.808 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)53 / 26.5067 / 33.5066 / 3349 / 24.5057 / 28.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)73 / 185469 / 175363 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80175 / 12.10180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 26" / 483x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66018" x 24" / 457x61019" x 24" / 483x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)21,858 / 9914.6325,623 / 11622.4128,063 / 12729.1818,360 / 8327.9721,041 / 9544.05
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.39 4.69 4.24 4.84 4.90
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)127 / 11.80174 / 16.17181 / 16.82130 / 12.08214.30 / 19.92
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)27.54 / 2.5634.17 / 3.1829.10 / 2.7018.68 / 1.7423.37 / 2.17
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1736 / 161.342613 / 242.841736 / 161.341600 / 148.701840 / 171
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)325 / 30.20
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1736 / 161.342613 / 242.842061 / 191.541600 / 148.701840 / 171
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume203.47276.39183.63226.35233.63
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation55086834582032694207
Same as above plus superheater percentage55086834675132694207
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,40034,80041,99222,75038,574
Power L16762847412,36458496987
Power MT465.86466.23687.17435.64448.65

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE-22E-23E-23-SE-24-SE-25
Locobase ID3297 2977 8781 8765 4140
RailroadWisconsin Central (Soo)Wisconsin Central (Soo)Wisconsin Central (Soo)Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie (Soo)Wisconsin Central (Soo)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1744510
Road Numbers221-226, 231-241/2619-2624227-230/2625-2628227-230 / 2625-26282640-2644247-256 / 2645-2654
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built17410
BuilderBrooksBrooksSooSooBrooks
Year1898189819191900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.50 / 4.4214.50 / 4.4214.50 / 4.4214.50 / 4.4214.50 / 4.42
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.75 / 7.5424.75 / 7.5424.75 / 7.5424.75 / 7.5424.83 / 7.57
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)52.09 / 15.8852.09 / 15.8852.20 / 15.9151.92 / 15.8352.95 / 16.14
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)44,900 / 20,366
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)115,000 / 52,163116,000 / 52,617120,800 / 54,794117,100 / 53,116122,000 / 55,338
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)149,000 / 67,585150,000 / 68,039157,700 / 71,532152,900 / 69,354158,000 / 71,668
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)94,000 / 42,63894,000 / 42,638113,320 / 51,40183,400 / 37,830102,000 / 46,266
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)243,000 / 110,223244,000 / 110,677271,020 / 122,933236,300 / 107,184260,000 / 117,934
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4500 / 17.054500 / 17.054850 / 18.374500 / 17.055000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.1011.50 / 10.5010 / 9.10 9.50 / 8.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)64 / 3264 / 3267 / 33.5065 / 32.5068 / 34
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160069 / 175369 / 175357 / 144857 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66019" x 26" / 483x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)28,063 / 12729.1823,125 / 10489.3425,623 / 11622.4131,018 / 14069.5431,018 / 14069.54
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.10 5.02 4.71 3.78 3.93
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)189 / 17.57189 / 17.57176 / 16.36176 / 16.36186.60 / 17.34
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)32.40 / 3.0132.40 / 3.0132.60 / 3.0332.40 / 3.0154.40 / 5.06
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2300 / 213.752300 / 213.751707 / 158.641707 / 158.642567 / 238.57
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)345 / 32.06345 / 32.06
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2300 / 213.752300 / 213.752052 / 190.702052 / 190.702567 / 238.57
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume243.29269.57180.56180.56271.53
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation648064806520648010,880
Same as above plus superheater percentage648064807628758210,880
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area37,80037,80041,18441,18437,320
Power L17208874813,84811,4407034
Power MT414.55498.78758.18646.14381.33

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassE-25-SP/F-1
Locobase ID8782 16,333
RailroadWisconsin Central (Soo)Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie (Soo)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-0
Number in Class105
Road Numbers247-256 / 2645-2654403-405, 407-411
GaugeStdStd
Number Built5
BuilderSooSchenectady
Year1898
Valve GearStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.50 / 4.42 / 4.27
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.83 / 7.57 / 6.50
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)52.95 / 16.14 / 15.19
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)127,080 / 57,64396,000 / 50,907
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)165,260 / 74,961136,000 / 57,729
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)111,200 / 50,44099,550 / 34,110
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)276,460 / 125,401235,550 / 91,839
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.94 / 16.67
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 9.50 / 8.60 / 7.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)71 / 35.5053 / 26.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 144873 / 1295
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x610 (1)
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)32" x 26" / 762x610 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)31,018 / 14069.5417,416 / 7899.77
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.10 5.51
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)165 / 15.33 / 13.75
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)45.30 / 4.2127.63 / 2.82
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1790 / 166.361736 / 158.74
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)370 / 34.39
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2160 / 200.751736 / 158.74
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume189.34367.26
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation90605526
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,6005526
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area38,610
Power L111,948
Power MT621.83

All material Copyright © SteamLocomotive.com
Wes Barris