Texas & Pacific 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 224 (Locobase 16172)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 18, p. 26. Works numbers were 12821, 12825-12826, 12832, 12851.

This sextet of Ten-wheelers duplicated the specifications prepared in the same year for the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific's set of 30 4-6-0s. The only significant difference was the adoption of 62" drivers, which suited the type for mixed-traffic work.

229 (Works number 12387)was delivered as a Vauclain compound with 13" HP and 22" LP cylinders. It was rebuilt as a simple-expansion engine in 1895 after a rear end collision.

All six would get new boilers and fireboxes; see Locobase 8502.


Class D--11 (Locobase 13936)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 41, p. 218. Works numbers were 38037-38046 in June 1912.

The last of the T & P's favorite wheel arrangement, the D-11 class reflected the older design philosophy that used saturated boilers and slide valves. The specs show a substantial correction in the estimated grate area as an 8 June 1912 note crossed out the orginal figure of 56.8 sq ft and substituted the 34.1 sq ft shown in the data.

Locobase 8508 shows the result when the T & P superheated the class beginning in 1916.


Class D-10 (Locobase 5696)

Data from June 1908 table in American Engineer and Railroad Journal.

These dual-service Tenwheelers were the second most numerous single class on the T & P. They were relatively large for the arrangement at the time and obviously proved very useful.


Class D-10-s (Locobase 8507)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The T & P took delivery of these definitive Ten-wheelers in their saturated-boiler form in 1907 (Locobase 5696).

Unlike many of the other 4-6-0 classes on the road, however, the D-10s were big enough to be worth upgrading with superheat and were already equipped with Walschaert gear and 14" piston valves. Beginning in 1915, most of the class went through the upgrade. During the process, the entire power system was enlarged. The grate grew slightly by being widened 4", the cylinders were enlarged by 2" in diameter, and the total heating surface area also increased (a rarity in such makeovers). Such enlargements and additions added almost 6 tons to the locomotive's operating weight. Valve gear was either Southern (361-380) or Walschaert (381-400).

One edition of the locomotive diagram states that the heating surface of the superheater was stated to be 772 sq ft as of 5-22-29. Locobase suspects this was "equivalent heating surface" derived by multiplying each actual square foot of superheater area by 1.5 to indicate its greater contribution to making quality steam.

Still later some engines received feedwater heaters and even larger tenders with 10,000-US gal water and 4,005 US gal oil capacities. Seven were fitted with thermic syphons in the mid 1930s which added 55 sq ft to the firebox heating surface, but only 2 sq ft to the evaporative heating surface area.


Class D-11-s (Locobase 8508)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Locobase 13936 shows the D-11 class as it was delivered from Eddystone. Beginning in December 1915 with 413, the T&P converted the class to oil-firing and superheated them as well. Some were fitted with Universal valve chests, a piston-valve conversion kit installed in the original casting, while others received 11" piston valve cylinders. The last of the class was superheated by May 1917 while the last oil burner was installed in 413 in February 1920.

In their more powerful incarnations, the class served through World War II. 412 was first to the scrapyard, being retired in April 1947 and scrapped three months later. The last to go to the ferro-knacker was 419, which was scrapped in November 1949.


Class D-2 (Locobase 8497)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The diagram from 1922 showed a classic early-80s profile with the dome located over the firebox, the firebox between the drivers and driving axles, the first two driving axles closely spaced, and a tall slender stack.


Class D-3 (Locobase 8498)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

163 had 52" drivers and a tractive effort of 19,400 lb. This was a typical mid-80s freight hauler.


Class D-4 (Locobase 8499)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Very similar to the 1886 Brooks Ten-wheelers shown in Locobase 8498, these had longer boiler tubes, a slightly smaller grate, and, like the D-3, two different driver diameters. Some locomotives had the 57" drivers shown, others a set of 51" wheels.


Class D-5 (Locobase 8500)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 15, p. 109, and volume 19, p. l3. Works numbers were

1889

July 10081-10082, 10084-10088, 10091; August 10199, 10202, 10206, 10208-10212, 10215-10220; September 10222, 10225, 10230

1890

November 11346-11347, 11349-11351, 11354, 11359-11361, 11381

1892

July 12821, 12825-12826, 12832, 12851 in July 1892.

Very similar to the 1886 Brooks Ten-wheelers shown in Locobase 8498, these had longer boiler tubes, a slightly smaller grate, and, like the D-3, two different driver diameters. The 1889-1890 locomotives were delivered with 51" drivers. The 1892 batch had the 57" drivers shown. All of the earlier engines later rolled on 57" wheels.

Most of the class served all their days on the T&P. The 203 was sold to the Eastland, Wichita Falls & Gulf and the 223 went to the Pecos Valley. Cement manufacturer Gifford Hill & Co in San Antonio bought 204, 209, 217, 220. 217 later went on to the Evangeline Railway and the 220 wound up with SouthWest Construction.


Class D-6 (Locobase 8502)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Some time after the original delivery of the six Ten-wheelers from Baldwin in 1892, the T&P installed new fireboxes and boilers in the class. The boiler had sixteen fewer tubes, but the firebox grew and was converted to oil burning. Although the diagram doesn't indicate as much, the increased firebox area probably came from arch tubes. Another change was in the larger tender, which held more water and oil instead of coal.

224 retired first in November 1914, possibly because of a defective boiler because when 227 retired in June 1916, its boiler went to the 224. While the 227 fell under the ferro-knacker's torch a month later, the 224 apparently reentered service. Nine years later, Evangeline Gravel Company in Alexandria, La bought the 224.

228 was retired in September 1916 and scrapped in March 1918. 226 and 229 were both retired in February 1923 and scrapped in the same year. 225 was withdrawn in December 1923 and sold to Ruston Foundry (also in Alexandria, La) in February 1924.


Class D-7 (Locobase 8503)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Just at the end of the century, the T & P ordered Ten-wheelers of the same design from Baldwin, Rogers, and Alco's Paterson, NJ Cooke works. Baldwin supplied 4 in 1898, Rogers 2 in 1898 and 3 in 1900, and 11 in 1901.

These were more definitely intended for passenger working.

More than half were scrapped in the 1920s 241, 266, 272, 273 in January 1924, and 240, 242, 243, 268, 270 in January 1926) after relatively short service lives. The rest were withdrawn in the early 30s 271 in December 1931 and 244 in November 1931, 2 in January 1933, the remainder later in the decade).


Class D-8 (Locobase 8504)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

As Rogers delivered the passenger D-7s (Locobase 8503), the builder also produced these smaller mixed-traffic engines. Although most were scrapped after 25-35 years of service, a few were retained into the late 1930s. 248 was sold to the W E O Railroad in 1948.


Class D-9 (Locobase 8505)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 18 March 2016 email for information on the varying valve gear and the Alco-Rogers locomotive batch and for a later email correcting the original design's Locobase number. Thanks also to Steve Low for his 9 December 2017 email providing details on the US Army's use of seven D-9s of the class in World War Two.)

The biggest single class of Ten-wheelers on the T&P came from the two Paterson firms -- Rogers and Cooke -- that were absorbed into the American Locomotive Company in the early 1900s. Rogers began the deliveries with 7 in 1900. Works numbers were 5590-5591, 5593 in July 1900; 5594-5595, 5597-5598 in August. Cooke followed with 42 in 1901-1902, then each delivered engines in 1903. Works numbers were 2678-2681 in July 1901; 2682-2694 in August.

A year later and following Cooke's absorption, the next batch had works numbers 25951-25965 in July 1902; 26133-26141 in November, and 28480-28494 in May 1903. Shortly after Rogers merged with Alco, the builder finished the class with works numbers 41488-41497 in December 1906.

The T&P updated some of this class with valve chests holding piston valves. The original Stephenson link motion was replaced by outside radial valve gear; see Locobase 8506.

As these were mixed-traffic locomotives, they were more flexibly used once passenger trains were coupled to later, faster designs. Most had been scrapped by World War Two and four--302, 308, 327, 354--were cancelled 17 August 1937and sold to the Paris & Mt Pleasant.

Steve Low's email cited innformation from page 25 of R Tourret, United States Army Transportation Locomotives (Abingdon, UK: Tourret Publishing, 1977). His summary of Tourret's account says the following:

"The USATC used seven ex Texas & Pacific T&P Class D-9 locomotives for its Camp Claiborne La training establishment, which was established in 1941.

Builders numbers were as follows:

USATC #1 & #2 were Cooke 2688/90 of 1901.

USATC #3-#5 were Alco-Cooke 25960 and 26132/40 of 1902

USATC #6 was Alco-Cooke 28489 of 1902

USATC #7 was Alco-Rogers 41496 of 1906.

These were T&P 285/7, 301/10/4/33/57 respectively.

The septet was "overhauled and painted olive green in the T&P Marshall shops before handover. USATC #1 arrived at Camp Claiborne in December 1941and #2-#7 in January 1942. They were delivered with 'US Corps of Engineers' painted on the sand domes but later they became USATC property. They were sold or scrapped in 1947."

316 followed in August 1949 and would be put on display in Abilene in 1955 after its retrement.

r

Many more went in the war's early years, but a few lasted until the late 1940s.


Class D-9 1/2 (Locobase 8506)

Data from T&P 1 - 1922 and T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Chris Hohl's 18 March 2016 email query prompted a clarification in this entry.) Two of the class were built from scratch in 1906 by the T & P at their own shops.

The others were all conversions. The designation "9 1/2" referred to D-9 locomotives (Locobase 8505) fitted with 11" (279 mm) piston valves in modified valve chests actuated by outside radial valve gear. The T&P shops used two different "economy" steam chests, the "Universal" and the "Simplified". Page 916 of the 1916 Locomotive Cyclopedia gives details on the Universal installation, but Locobase is still searching for information on the "Simplified." Engines equipped with the Universal from 16 Oct 1916 to 31 May 1919 were, in order of their conversion, 332, 277, 360, 326, 334, 312, and 282. In that same period (30 Oct 1916 to 31 May 1919), four--359, 274, 358, 276--received the Simplified.

They also received 4" (102 mm) taller drivers for more speed. The key addition was a superheater at the cost of less than 60 sq ft (5.74 sq m) in total heating surface area.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class224D--11D-10D-10-sD-11-s
Locobase ID16,172 13,936 5696 8507 8508
RailroadTexas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class510403610
Road Numbers224-228411-420361-400361-400411-420
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built51040
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinAlco-CookeTexas & PacificT&P
Year18921912190719151915
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertvariousvariousWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)11.50 / 3.5114.83 / 4.5214.83 / 4.5214.83 / 4.5214.83 / 4.52
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.25 / 6.7825.83 / 7.8726.33 / 8.0325.50 / 7.7725.83 / 7.87
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.37 / 14.7459.92 / 18.2655.77 / 1761.98 / 18.8959.85 / 18.24
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)90,000 / 40,823150,000 / 68,039165,000 / 74,843163,000 / 73,936152,370 / 69,114
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)115,000 / 52,163192,000 / 87,090197,000 / 89,358211,660 / 96,007196,800 / 89,267
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)87,200 / 39,553130,000 / 58,967132,867 / 60,268181,884 / 82,501145,200 / 65,862
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)202,200 / 91,716322,000 / 146,057329,867 / 149,626393,544 / 178,508342,000 / 155,129
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3600 / 13.646500 / 24.626500 / 24.629400 / 35.616500 / 24.62
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)9 / 8.2012 / 10.903115 / 11.803022 / 11.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)50 / 2583 / 41.5092 / 4691 / 45.5085 / 42.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157567 / 170263 / 160063 / 160067 / 1702
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)165 / 11.40200 / 13.80210 / 14.50185 / 12.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 24" / 508x61021" x 28" / 533x71122" x 28" / 559x71124" x 28" / 610x71121" x 28" / 533x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)21,716 / 9850.2231,331 / 14211.5238,397 / 17416.6140,256 / 18259.8431,331 / 14211.52
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.14 4.79 4.30 4.05 4.86
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)128.80 / 11.97211 / 19.60200 / 18.59200 / 18.59216 / 20.07
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)23.50 / 2.1834.10 / 3.1746.30 / 4.3048.20 / 4.4835 / 3.25
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1893 / 175.862671 / 248.142931 / 272.402490 / 231.412257 / 209.76
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)525 / 48.79456 / 42.38
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1893 / 175.862671 / 248.142931 / 272.403015 / 280.202713 / 252.14
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume216.92237.96237.92169.84201.08
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation38786820972389177000
Same as above plus superheater percentage38786820972310,4338190
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,25242,20042,00043,29050,544
Power L149577414703610,88514,805
Power MT364.28326.90282.03441.67642.63

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD-2D-3D-4D-5D-6
Locobase ID8497 8498 8499 8500 8502
RailroadTexas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class27813446
Road Numbers71-92, 104-108161-168170-182189-223, 230-238224-229
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built27813446
BuilderPittsburghBrooksNew YorkBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoT&P
Year1880188618871889
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12.83 / 3.9113.75 / 4.1913.75 / 4.1914 / 4.2711.50 / 3.51
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.83 / 7.5724.75 / 7.5424.75 / 7.5424.72 / 7.5322.50 / 6.86
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.56 0.56 0.57 0.51
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49.56 / 15.1149.58 / 15.1149.40 / 15.0649.40 / 15.0649.35 / 15.04
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)66,500 / 30,16472,000 / 32,65973,000 / 33,11290,500 / 41,05091,500 / 41,504
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)91,000 / 41,27794,000 / 42,63897,000 / 43,999121,000 / 54,885131,500 / 59,647
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)63,500 / 28,80379,000 / 35,83479,000 / 35,83497,372 / 44,16785,780 / 38,909
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)154,500 / 70,080173,000 / 78,472176,000 / 79,833218,372 / 99,052217,280 / 98,556
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4000 / 15.154500 / 17.054500 / 17.055000 / 18.944500 / 17.05
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)1500 / 5.702000 / 7.602000 / 7.602571 / 9.702500 / 9.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)37 / 18.5040 / 2041 / 20.5050 / 2551 / 25.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 144857 / 144857 / 144857 / 144863 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)145 / 10150 / 10.30150 / 10.30175 / 12.10165 / 11.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 24" / 432x61018" x 24" / 457x61018" x 24" / 457x61019" x 24" / 483x61019" x 24" / 483x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,998 / 6802.9917,394 / 7889.8017,394 / 7889.8022,610 / 10255.7419,288 / 8748.90
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.43 4.14 4.20 4.00 4.74
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)110 / 10.22110 / 10.22120 / 11.15145 / 13.48165 / 15.33
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)16 / 1.4917 / 1.5816.50 / 1.5317 / 1.5821.50 / 2
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1190 / 110.591250 / 116.171385 / 128.721745 / 162.171835 / 170.54
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1190 / 110.591250 / 116.171385 / 128.721745 / 162.171835 / 170.54
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume188.74176.84195.94221.56232.99
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation23202550247529753548
Same as above plus superheater percentage23202550247529753548
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area15,95016,50018,00025,37527,225
Power L138023629400252145851
Power MT378.13333.36362.58381.05422.93

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD-7D-8D-9D-9 1/2
Locobase ID8503 8504 8505 8506
RailroadTexas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class15126611
Road Numbers239-244,-264-274245-256257-263, 275-316, 324-338275-277, 312, 326, 332, 334, 358-360
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built1512662
BuildervariousRogersvariousT&P
Year1898189819001916
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13 / 3.9612 / 3.6612.75 / 3.8912.75 / 3.89
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24 / 7.3222.83 / 6.9623.42 / 7.1423.42 / 7.14
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.53 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.71 / 15.7649.71 / 15.1552 / 15.8553.50 / 16.31
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)118,000 / 53,52495,000 / 43,091122,000 / 55,338127,500 / 57,833
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)153,000 / 69,400125,000 / 56,699158,000 / 71,668160,500 / 72,802
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)99,964 / 45,343147,800 / 67,041122,000 / 55,338122,163 / 55,412
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)252,964 / 114,743272,800 / 123,740280,000 / 127,006282,663 / 128,214
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.736000 / 22.736500 / 24.626500 / 24.62
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)2800 / 10.602800 / 10.602800 / 10.602790 / 10.60
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)66 / 3353 / 26.5068 / 3471 / 35.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)67 / 170263 / 160063 / 160067 / 1702
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)190 / 13.10190 / 13.10200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)19" x 26" / 483x66019" x 24" / 483x61020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)22,624 / 10262.0922,210 / 10074.3028,063 / 12729.1826,388 / 11969.41
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.22 4.28 4.35 4.83
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)172 / 15.99175 / 16.26192 / 17.84192 / 17.84
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)31 / 2.8823 / 2.1435 / 3.2536 / 3.35
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2159 / 200.651771 / 164.592147 / 199.541711 / 159.01
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)370 / 34.39
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2159 / 200.651771 / 164.592147 / 199.542081 / 193.40
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume253.04224.87227.10180.98
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation5890437070007200
Same as above plus superheater percentage5890437070008496
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area32,68033,25038,40045,312
Power L175076703690214,176
Power MT420.76466.66374.17735.36

Photos

Reference